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psychology anatomi

Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
M Simonis, R Manocha, J J Ong
OBJECTIVE: To explore general practitioner's (GP) knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) in Australia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Australia. SAMPLE: GPs who attended a women's health seminar and GPs who subscribed to a non-governmental, national health professional organisation database that provides education to primary care professionals. METHOD: A national online survey of GPs was conducted for the 10-week period, starting 1 week prior and 2 months after a Women's Health seminar was held in Perth on 8 August 2015...
2016: BMJ Open
Anders H Frid, Gillian Kreugel, Giorgio Grassi, Serge Halimi, Debbie Hicks, Laurence J Hirsch, Mike J Smith, Regine Wellhoener, Bruce W Bode, Irl B Hirsch, Sanjay Kalra, Linong Ji, Kenneth W Strauss
Many primary care professionals manage injection or infusion therapies in patients with diabetes. Few published guidelines have been available to help such professionals and their patients manage these therapies. Herein, we present new, practical, and comprehensive recommendations for diabetes injections and infusions. These recommendations were informed by a large international survey of current practice and were written and vetted by 183 diabetes experts from 54 countries at the Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy: Expert Recommendations (FITTER) workshop held in Rome, Italy, in 2015...
September 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Thomas Wynn, Frederick L Coolidge
How did the human mind evolve? How and when did we come to think in the ways we do? The last thirty years have seen an explosion in research related to the brain and cognition. This research has encompassed a range of biological and social sciences, from epigenetics and cognitive neuroscience to social and developmental psychology. Following naturally on this efflorescence has been a heightened interest in the evolution of the brain and cognition. Evolutionary scholars, including paleoanthropologists, have deployed the standard array of evolutionary methods...
July 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Dominic T Schomberg, Gurwattan S Miranpuri, Abhishek Chopra, Kush Patel, Jennifer J Meudt, Armando Tellez, Daniel K Resnick, Dhanansayan Shanmuganayagam
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a physically and psychologically devastating clinical condition. The typical treatment regimens of decompressive surgery and rehabilitation therapy still leave many patients with permanent disability. The development of new therapies and devices can be accelerated if relevant translational animal models are more effectively used in pre-clinical stages. Swine is a highly relevant model for SCI research, especially with respect to spine and spinal cord anatomy, spine vasculature, immune responses to injury, and functional assessments...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
J P Chavoin, B Chaput, I Garrido, B Moreno, M Dahan, J L Grolleau
INTRODUCTION: Modern techniques of computer-aided design and tridimensional prototyping for manufacturing silicone elastomer custom implants are growing. They have widely modified the surgical indications in our unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By presenting their experience of 611 cases managed between 1993 and 2016, the authors describe the method of conception from CT-scans, the virtual image of the body and the manufacture of the custom-made implant perfectly adapted to the anatomy of each one...
July 1, 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
Morten Sejer Hansen, Mohammad Sohail Asghar, Jørn Wetterslev, Christian Bressen Pipper, Johan Johan Mårtensson, Lino Becerra, Anders Christensen, Janus Damm Nybing, Inger Havsteen, Mikael Boesen, Jørgen Berg Dahl
BACKGROUND: Experience and development of pain may be influenced by a number of physiological, psychological, and psychosocial factors. In a previous study we found differences in neuronal activation to noxious stimulation, and microstructural neuroanatomical differences, when comparing healthy volunteers with differences in size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia following a standardized burn injury. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the degree of association between the volume of pain-relevant structures in the brain and the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Alejandro de la Vega, Luke J Chang, Marie T Banich, Tor D Wager, Tal Yarkoni
UNLABELLED: The functional organization of human medial frontal cortex (MFC) is a subject of intense study. Using fMRI, the MFC has been associated with diverse psychological processes, including motor function, cognitive control, affect, and social cognition. However, there have been few large-scale efforts to comprehensively map specific psychological functions to subregions of medial frontal anatomy. Here we applied a meta-analytic data-driven approach to nearly 10,000 fMRI studies to identify putatively separable regions of MFC and determine which psychological states preferentially recruit their activation...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Abha Rani Kujur, Vijay Joseph, Praveen Chandra
Clitoromegaly is an embarrassing condition causing psychological stress, requiring intervention. The goals of clitoroplasty are to achieve normal genital anatomy and to preserve tactile sensation with a satisfactory sexual response. We present a rare case of idiopathic clitoromegaly managed by reduction clitoroplasty, preserving the dorsal neurovascular bundle and extensive network of nerves around the corpora to the glans and the creation of labia minora.
January 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Lingzhong Fan, Hai Li, Junjie Zhuo, Yu Zhang, Jiaojian Wang, Liangfu Chen, Zhengyi Yang, Congying Chu, Sangma Xie, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang
The human brain atlases that allow correlating brain anatomy with psychological and cognitive functions are in transition from ex vivo histology-based printed atlases to digital brain maps providing multimodal in vivo information. Many current human brain atlases cover only specific structures, lack fine-grained parcellations, and fail to provide functionally important connectivity information. Using noninvasive multimodal neuroimaging techniques, we designed a connectivity-based parcellation framework that identifies the subdivisions of the entire human brain, revealing the in vivo connectivity architecture...
August 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Mara Buenting, Tjark Mueller, Tobias Raupach, Georg Luers, Uwe Wehrenberg, Axel Gehl, Sven Anders
Despite increasing integration of radiologic imaging teaching in anatomy dissection courses, studies on learning outcome of these interventions are rare or have certain shortcomings in study design. In this study, students were randomly allocated to a intervention group (n=53) receiving five weekly CT-courses of 30minutes duration during a 6-week gross anatomy course. Students in the control group (n=329) received no additional teaching. Total teaching time did not differ among groups. All students were asked to participate in a pre- and post-course self-assessment (comparative self-assessment; CSA) of learning objectives related to anatomical spatial relationships and a post-course formative assessment on radiologic anatomy...
May 19, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Vikas Aggarwal, Kusum Datta, Sukhjit Kaur
Facial defects resulting from neoplasms, congenital abnormalities or trauma can affect the patient esthetically, psychologically, and even financially. Surgical reconstruction of large facial defects is sometimes not possible and frequently demands prosthetic rehabilitation. For success of such prosthesis, adequate replication of natural anatomy, color matching and blending with tissue interface are important criteria. Variety of materials and retention methods are advocated to achieve a functionally and esthetically acceptable restoration...
January 2016: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
S Abramowicz, S Oden, G Dietrich, L Marpeau, B Resch
OBJECTIVES: Every year 3 millions of young women had undergone female genital mutilation. The psychological, identical and sexual consequences, as well as the treatment were described only recently. After a sociodemographic and cultural reminder, we analyze the anatomical, psychological, identital, and functional results of the reconstructive surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective monocentric study. Thirty women were included in our series. All the patients operated according to the technique of Pierre Foldes were contacted again, to estimate their motivations for this surgery and study the results on femininity, anatomy, psychology and functionality of this intervention...
April 23, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
D Sussman, E W Pang, R Jetly, B T Dunkley, M J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to psychological trauma, impacts up to 20 % of soldiers returning from combat-related deployment. Advanced neuroimaging holds diagnostic and prognostic potential for furthering our understanding of its etiology. Previous imaging studies on combat-related PTSD have focused on selected structures, such as the hippocampi and cortex, but none conducted a comprehensive examination of both the cerebrum and cerebellum...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Jamil Zaki, Tor D Wager, Tania Singer, Christian Keysers, Valeria Gazzola
Pain features centrally in numerous illnesses and generates enormous public health costs. Despite its ubiquity, the psychological and neurophysiological nature of pain remains controversial. Here, we survey one controversy in particular: the relation between nociceptive pain, which is somatic in origin, and empathic pain, which arises from observing others in pain. First, we review evidence for neural overlap between nociceptive and empathic pain and what this overlap implies about underlying mental representations...
April 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Stanley E Althof, Chris G McMahon
Ejaculatory disorders lie along a conceptual continuum with premature ejaculation anchoring one end, normal ejaculation in the center, and difficulties with delayed or anejaculation at the opposite end. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation, and postorgasmic illness syndrome can occur at any point on the continuum. This manuscript defines the ejaculatory dysfunctions, reviews the anatomy and physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, and summarizes the pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatment approaches to ejaculatory dysfunctions...
July 2016: Urology
M A Lebow, A Chen
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a center of integration for limbic information and valence monitoring. The BNST, sometimes referred to as the extended amygdala, is located in the basal forebrain and is a sexually dimorphic structure made up of between 12 and 18 sub-nuclei. These sub-nuclei are rich with distinct neuronal subpopulations of receptors, neurotransmitters, transporters and proteins. The BNST is important in a range of behaviors such as: the stress response, extended duration fear states and social behavior, all crucial determinants of dysfunction in human psychiatric diseases...
April 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
S Chebili
The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry...
April 2016: L'Encéphale
H C J Kerstens
A surgical-orthodontic treatment has a direct influence on a patient's skeletal, dental, functional and psychological factors. A variety of surgical and anatomical factors determine the result of this complex treatment. Risk factors are a retrognathy with a steep mandibular angle, and the anatomy of the mandibular condyles and the fossa. The customary surgical techniques have an enhancing influence on the function of the temporomandibular joint. The role of the position of the articular disc remains unclear...
December 2015: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Myriam Loyo, Tom D Wang
Revision rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging operations the facial plastic surgeon performs given the complex 3-dimensional anatomy of the nose and the psychological impact it has on patients. The intricate interplay of cartilages, bone, and soft tissue in the nose gives it its aesthetic and function. Facial harmony and attractiveness depends greatly on the nose given its central position in the face. In the following article, the authors review common motivations and anatomic findings for patients seeking revision rhinoplasty based on the senior author's 30-year experience with rhinoplasty and a review of the literature...
January 2016: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
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