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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921012/expression-of-the-gene-for-autotransporter-autb-of-neisseria-meningitidis-affects-biofilm-formation-and-epithelial-transmigration
#1
Jesús Arenas, Fernanda L Paganelli, Patricia Rodríguez-Castaño, Sara Cano-Crespo, Arie van der Ende, Jos P M van Putten, Jan Tommassen
Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative bacterium that resides as a commensal in the upper respiratory tract of humans, but occasionally, it invades the host and causes sepsis and/or meningitis. The bacterium can produce eight autotransporters, seven of which have been studied to some detail. The remaining one, AutB, has not been characterized yet. Here, we show that the autB gene is broadly distributed among pathogenic Neisseria spp. The gene is intact in most meningococcal strains. However, its expression is prone to phase variation due to slipped-strand mispairing at AAGC repeats located within the DNA encoding the signal sequence and is switched off in the vast majority of these strains...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919501/soluble-serum-vcam-1-whole-blood-mrna-expression-and-treatment-response-in-natalizumab-treated-multiple-sclerosis
#2
E R Petersen, H B Søndergaard, A B Oturai, Peh Jensen, P S Sorensen, F Sellebjerg, L Börnsen
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab reduces disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Natalizumab binds to the very late antigen-4 and inhibits vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-mediated transmigration of immune cells across the blood-brain-barrier. This is associated with decreased serum concentrations of soluble (s)VCAM-1 and an altered composition of immune cell-subsets in the blood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine if sVCAM-1 serum concentrations and whole blood mRNA expression levels of immune activation biomarkers is associated with disease activity in natalizumab-treated MS-patients...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917891/modular-architecture-and-unique-teichoic-acid-recognition-features-of-choline-binding-protein-l-cbpl-contributing-to-pneumococcal-pathogenesis
#3
Javier Gutiérrez-Fernández, Malek Saleh, Martín Alcorlo, Alejandro Gómez-Mejía, David Pantoja-Uceda, Miguel A Treviño, Franziska Voß, Mohammed R Abdullah, Sergio Galán-Bartual, Jolien Seinen, Pedro A Sánchez-Murcia, Federico Gago, Marta Bruix, Sven Hammerschmidt, Juan A Hermoso
The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is decorated with a special class of surface-proteins known as choline-binding proteins (CBPs) attached to phosphorylcholine (PCho) moieties from cell-wall teichoic acids. By a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR, molecular dynamics techniques and in vivo virulence and phagocytosis studies, we provide structural information of choline-binding protein L (CbpL) and demonstrate its impact on pneumococcal pathogenesis and immune evasion. CbpL is a very elongated three-module protein composed of (i) an Excalibur Ca(2+)-binding domain -reported in this work for the very first time-, (ii) an unprecedented anchorage module showing alternate disposition of canonical and non-canonical choline-binding sites that allows vine-like binding of fully-PCho-substituted teichoic acids (with two choline moieties per unit), and (iii) a Ltp_Lipoprotein domain...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906162/activation-of-myeloid-and-endothelial-cells-by-cd40l-gene-therapy-supports-t-cell-expansion-and-migration-into-the-tumor-microenvironment
#4
E Eriksson, R Moreno, I Milenova, L Liljenfeldt, L C Dieterich, L Christiansson, H Karlsson, G Ullenhag, S Mangsbo, A Dimberg, R Alemany, A Loskog
CD40 is an interesting target in cancer immunotherapy due to its ability to stimulate Th1 immunity via maturation of dendritic cells and to drive M2 to M1 macrophage differentiation. Pancreatic cancer has a high M2 content that has shown responsive to anti-CD40 agonist therapy and CD40 may thus be a suitable target for immune activation in these patients. In this study, a novel oncolytic adenovirus armed with a trimerized membrane-bound extracellular CD40L (TMZ-CD40L) was evaluated as a treatment of pancreatic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890234/current-status-of-dedicator-of-cytokinesis-associated-immunodeficiency-dock8-and-dock2
#5
REVIEW
Dimana Dimitrova, Alexandra F Freeman
DOCK8 deficiency is an autosomal recessive combined immunodeficiency disease associated with elevated IgE, atopy, recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections, and malignancy. The DOCK8 protein is critical for cytoskeletal organization, and deficiency impairs dendritic cell transmigration, T-cell survival, and NK cell cytotoxicity. Early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is gaining prominence as a definitive treatment given the potential for severe complications and mortality in this disease...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880891/a-novel-3d-in%C3%A2-vitro-metastasis-model-elucidates-differential-invasive-strategies-during-and-after-breaching-basement-membrane
#6
Asja Guzman, Víctor Sánchez Alemany, Yen Nguyen, Catherine Ruiqi Zhang, Laura J Kaufman
Invasive breast cancer and other tumors of epithelial origin must breach a layer of basement membrane (BM) that surrounds the primary tumor before invading into the adjacent extracellular matrix. To analyze invasive strategies of breast cancer cells during BM breaching and subsequent invasion into a collagen I-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), we developed a physiologically relevant 3D in vitro model that recreates the architecture of a solid tumor with an intact, degradable, cell-assembled BM layer embedded in a collagen I environment...
November 15, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871478/transendothelial-migration-of-human-umbilical-mesenchymal-stem-cells-across-uterine-endothelial-monolayers-junctional-dynamics-and-putative-mechanisms
#7
Neven A Ebrahim, Lopa Leach
INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy, fetal stem cells can transfer to the maternal circulation and participate in tissue repair. How they transmigrate across maternal endothelial barriers and whether they can subsequently influence maternal endothelial integrity is not known. METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) were isolated from Wharton's jelly and their interactions with human uterine microvascular endothelial cell (HUtMEC) monolayers, junctional occupancy and expression/phosphorylation of vascular endothelial (VE)- cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) secretion was studied over 48h by real time, confocal microscopy, immunoblotting and ELISA...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867156/transcriptional-analysis-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-resistance-in-kawasaki-disease-using-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-disease-model
#8
Kazuyuki Ikeda, Yasutaka Mizoro, Tomonaga Ameku, Yui Nomiya, Shin-Ichi Mae, Satoshi Matsui, Yuki Kuchitsu, Chinatsu Suzuki, Akiko Hamaoka-Okamoto, Tomoyo Yahata, Masakatsu Sone, Keisuke Okita, Akira Watanabe, Kenji Osafune, Kenji Hamaoka
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10-20% of Kawasaki disease (KD) patients are resistant to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. Further, these patients are at a particularly high risk of having coronary artery abnormalities. The mechanisms of IVIG resistance in KD have been analyzed using patient leukocytes, but not patient vascular endothelial cells (ECs). The present study clarifies the mechanisms of IVIG resistance in KD using an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) disease model...
November 19, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864142/glycogen-storage-disease-type-ib-neutrophils-exhibit-impaired-cell-adhesion-and-migration
#9
Goo-Young Kim, Young Mok Lee, Joon Hyun Kwon, Hyun Sik Jun, Janice Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis, neutropenia, and neutrophil dysfunction, is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT). Neutrophils play an essential role in the defense against invading pathogens. The recruitment of neutrophils towards the inflammation sites in response to inflammatory stimuli is a tightly regulated process involving rolling, adhesion, and transmigration. In this study, we investigated the role of G6PT in neutrophil adhesion and migration using in vivo and in vitro models...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863512/rheumatoid-synovial-fibroblasts-differentiate-into-distinct-subsets-in-the-presence-of-cytokines-and-cartilage
#10
Adam P Croft, Amy J Naylor, Jennifer L Marshall, Debbie L Hardie, Birgit Zimmermann, Jason Turner, Guillaume Desanti, Holly Adams, Adrian I Yemm, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Jean-Michel Dayer, Elena Neumann, Andrew Filer, Christopher D Buckley
BACKGROUND: We investigated two distinct synovial fibroblast populations that were located preferentially in the lining or sub-lining layers and defined by their expression of either podoplanin (PDPN) or CD248, and explored their ability to undergo self-assembly and transmigration in vivo. METHODS: Synovial fibroblasts (SF) were cultured in vitro and phenotypic changes following stimulation with interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were examined...
November 18, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859622/effects-of-hptp%C3%AE-inhibitor-on-microcirculation-of-rat-cremaster-muscle-flap-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Fatih Zor, Cem Meric, Maria Siemionow
INTRODUCTION: Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) enhances endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases activation and may have beneficial effects on vessel growth and improve blood flow to ischemic tissue. The purpose of this study is to determine influence of hPTPß inhibitors on ischemia-reperfusion injury in muscle flap. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following cremaster muscle dissection, 60 rats divided into 10 experimental groups (placebo and treatment groups following 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h of ischemia)...
November 17, 2016: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831589/the-anti-inflammatory-vasostatin-2-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice-and-inhibits-monocyte-macrophage-recruitment
#12
Weixin Xiong, Xiaoqun Wang, Daopeng Dai, Bao Zhang, Lin Lu, Rong Tao
We showed previously that reduced level of vasostatin-2 (VS-2) correlates to the presence and severity of coronary artery disease. In this study, we aimed to figure out the role of chromogranin A (CGA) derived VS-2 in the development of atherosclerosis and monocyte/macrophage recruitment. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited attenuated lesion size by 65 % and 41 % in En face and aortic root Oil red O staining, MOMA-2 positive area by 64 %, respectively, in VS-2 treatment group compared with PBS group...
November 10, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825101/dynamic-contributions-of-p-and-e-selectins-to-%C3%AE-2-integrin-induced-neutrophil-transmigration
#13
Yixin Gong, Yan Zhang, Shiliang Feng, Xiaofeng Liu, Shouqin Lü, Mian Long
Leukocyte transendothelial migration is a key step in their recruitment to sites of inflammation. However, synergic regulation of endothelium-expressed selectins on leukocyte transmigration remains unclear. In this study, an in vitro model was developed to investigate the dynamic contributions of P- and E-selectin to polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell transmigration under static conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with LPS for 4 or 12 h to induce different expression of selectins and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1...
October 6, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815503/iqgap1-interaction-with-rho-family-proteins-revisited-kinetic-and-equilibrium-evidence-for-multiple-distinct-binding-sites
#14
Kazem Nouri, Eyad K Fansa, Ehsan Amin, Radovan Dvorsky, Lothar Gremer, Dieter Willbold, Lutz Schmitt, David J Timson, Mohammad R Ahmadian
IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) plays a central role in the physical assembly of relevant signaling networks that are responsible for various cellular processes, including cell adhesion, polarity and transmigration. The RHO family proteins CDC42 and RAC1, have been shown to mainly interact with the GAP-related domain (GRD) of IQGAP1. However, the role of its RASGAP C-terminal (RGCT) and C-terminal (CT) domains in the interactions with RHO proteins has remained obscure. Here, we demonstrate that IQGAP1 interactions with RHO proteins underly a multiple-step binding mechanism: (i) a high-affinity, GTP-dependent binding of RGCT to the switch regions of CDC42 or RAC1, and (ii) a very low-affinity binding of GRD and CT adjacent to the switch regions...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809851/cyclophilin-a-enhances-macrophage-differentiation-and-lipid-uptake-in-high-glucose-conditions-a-cellular-mechanism-for-accelerated-macro-vascular-disease-in-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Surya Ramachandran, Anandan Vinitha, Cheranellore Chandrasekharan Kartha
BACKGROUND: Vascular disease in diabetes is initiated by monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, transmigration and formation of foam cells. Increasing clinical evidence supports a role for the secretory protein, cyclophilin A in diabetic vascular disease. The means by which cyclophilin A contributes to vascular lesion development in diabetes is however largely unknown. METHODS: In this study we investigated using THP1 cells and human monocytes whether cyclophilin A under hyperglycemic conditions, functions in the inflammatory cascade as a chemoattractant and increases lipid uptake by formation of foam cells invitro...
November 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809226/biophysical-properties-and-motility-of-human-mature-dendritic-cells-deteriorated-by-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-through-cytoskeleton-remodeling
#16
Zu-Quan Hu, Hui Xue, Jin-Hua Long, Yun Wang, Yi Jia, Wei Qiu, Jing Zhou, Zong-Yao Wen, Wei-Juan Yao, Zhu Zeng
Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells, play a central role in the initiation, regulation, and maintenance of the immune responses. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the important cytokines in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and can inhibit the differentiation and functional maturation of DCs. To elucidate the potential mechanisms of DC dysfunction induced by VEGF, the effects of VEGF on the biophysical characteristics and motility of human mature DCs (mDCs) were investigated...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805872/orthodontic-traction-of-a-transmigrated-mandibular-canine-using-mini-implant-a-case-report-and-review
#17
Sonia Patricia Plaza
The patient in this case is an 11-year-old girl, whose mandibular left canine was transmigrated. The traction to the arch was assisted by using a temporary skeletal anchorage device. After 5 months of poor response to traction, the biomechanics were re-adjusted, obtaining effective traction in to the arch in 12 months. After this period, the treatment was completed with fixed orthodontic appliances.
December 2016: Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800302/the-therapeutic-effect-of-plag-against-oral-mucositis-in-hamster-and-mouse-model
#18
Ha-Reum Lee, Nina Yoo, Joo Heon Kim, Ki-Young Sohn, Heung-Jae Kim, Myung-Hwan Kim, Mi Young Han, Sun Young Yoon, Jae Wha Kim
Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can limit the effectiveness of cancer therapy and increase the risk of infections. However, no specific therapy for protection against mucositis is currently available. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of PLAG (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol, acetylated diglyceride) in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis animal models. Hamsters were administered 5-FU (80 mg/kg) intraperitoneally on days 0, 6, and 9. The animals' cheek pouches were then scratched equally with the tip of an 18-gage needle on days 1, 2, and 7...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792919/ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-pioglitazone-regulates-dendritic-cells-immunogenicity-mediated-by-dc-sign-via-the-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#19
Weiguo Zhu, Hui Yan, Shan Li, Wencheng Nie, Fangyan Fan, Jianhua Zhu
Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is a dendritic cell-specific lectin which participates in dendritic cell (DC) trafficking, antigen uptake and DC-T cell interactions at the initiation of immune responses. This study investigated whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) activation in human DCs regulates the immunogenicity of DCs mediated by DC-SIGN and exploited the possible molecular mechanisms, especially focused on the signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)...
October 25, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778308/leukocyte-recruitment-in-preterm-and-term-infants
#20
Katinka Karenberg, Hannes Hudalla, David Frommhold
Impaired cellular innate immune defense accounts for susceptibility to sepsis and its high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Leukocyte recruitment is an integral part of the cellular immune response and follows a well-defined cascade of events from rolling of leukocytes along the endothelium to firm adhesion and finally transmigration which is concerted by a variety of adhesion molecules. Recent analytical advances such as fetal intravital microscopy have granted new insights into ontogenetic regulation and maturation of fetal immune cell recruitment...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
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