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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241586/influence-of-membrane-cholesterol-on-monocyte-chemotaxis
#1
Amit K Saha, Marzieh Mousavi, Shatha F Dallo, Shankar J Evani, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Cholesterol content influences several important physiological functions due to its effect on membrane receptors. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that cellular cholesterol alters chemotactic response of monocytes to Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) due to their effect on the receptor, CCR2. We used Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) to alter the baseline cholesterol in human monocytic cell line THP-1, and evaluated their chemotactic response to MCP-1. Compared to untreated cells, cholesterol enrichment increased the number of monocytes transmigrated in response to MCP-1 while depletion had opposite effect...
December 9, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238350/differentiation-and-transmigration-of-cd4-t-cells-in-neuroinflammation-and-autoimmunity
#2
REVIEW
Sandip Ashok Sonar, Girdhari Lal
CD4+ T cells play a central role in orchestrating protective immunity and autoimmunity. The activation and differentiation of myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells into effector (Th1 and Th17) and regulatory (Tregs) subsets at the peripheral tissues, and their subsequent transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma are decisive events in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. How the Th1, Th17, and regulatory Tregs transmigrate across the BBB into the CNS and cause CNS inflammation is not clearly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235683/transference-before-transference
#3
Vincenzo Bonaminio
This paper is predominantly a clinical presentation that describes the transmigration of one patient's transference to another, with the analyst functioning as a sort of transponder. It involves an apparently accidental episode in which there was an unconscious intersection between two patients. The author's aim is to show how transference from one case may affect transference in another, a phenomenon the author calls transference before transference. The author believes that this idea may serve as a tool for understanding the unconscious work that takes place in the clinical situation...
October 2017: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228979/contrasting-effect-of-the-latency-reversing-agents-bryostatin-1-and-jq1-on-astrocyte-mediated-neuroinflammation-and-brain-neutrophil-invasion
#4
Alizé Proust, Corinne Barat, Mathieu Leboeuf, Jean Drouin, Michel J Tremblay
BACKGROUND: Despite effectiveness of the combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 persists in long-lived latently infected cells. Consequently, new therapeutic approaches aimed at eliminating this latent reservoir are currently being developed. A "shock and kill" strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRA) to reactivate HIV-1 has been proposed. However, the impact of LRA on the central nervous system (CNS) remains elusive. METHODS: We used human fetal astrocytes and investigated the effects of several LRA on their functional and secretory activities...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216332/voltage-dependent-calcium-channel-signaling-mediates-gabaa-receptor-induced-migratory-activation-of-dendritic-cells-infected-by-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
Sachie Kanatani, Jonas M Fuks, Einar B Olafsson, Linda Westermark, Benedict Chambers, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Per Uhlén, Antonio Barragan
The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii exploits cells of the immune system to disseminate. Upon T. gondii-infection, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/GABAA receptor signaling triggers a hypermigratory phenotype in dendritic cells (DCs) by unknown signal transduction pathways. Here, we demonstrate that calcium (Ca2+) signaling in DCs is indispensable for T. gondii-induced DC hypermotility and transmigration in vitro. We report that activation of GABAA receptors by GABA induces transient Ca2+ entry in DCs...
December 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214350/co-culture-of-human-fibroblasts-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-enhances-collagen-and-growth-factor-mrna
#6
Elisabeth Aberer, Milana Surtov-Pudar, Daniel Wilfinger, Alexander Deutsch, Gerd Leitinger, Helmut Schaider
Skin fibrosis has been reported in Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Europe, but has been questioned by several authors. The objective of the present study was to examine the interaction of skin fibroblasts with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto B31 (BB) and B. afzelii (BA) in vitro by electron microscopy. We also determined the expression of collagen type I, TGF-β, FGF-1, calreticulin (CALR), decorin (DCN), and PDGF-α at the mRNA level in Borrelia/fibroblast co-cultures. Intact Borrelia attach to and transmigrate fibroblasts, and undergo cystic transformation outside the fibroblasts...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210401/hybrid-magneto-plasmonic-liposomes-for-multimodal-image-guided-and-brain-targeted-hiv-treatment
#7
Asahi Tomitaka, Hamed Arami, Zaohua Huang, Andrea Raymond, Elizette Rodriguez, Yong Cai, Marcelo Febo, Yasushi Takemura, Madhavan Nair
Image-guided drug delivery is an emerging strategy in the field of nanomedicine. The addition of image guidance to a traditional drug delivery system is expected to achieve highly efficient treatment by tracking the drug carriers in the body and monitoring their effective accumulation in the targeted tissues. In this study, we developed multifunctional magneto-plasmonic liposomes (MPLs), a hybrid system combining liposomes and magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles for a triple-modality image-guided drug delivery...
December 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197141/the-human-blood-brain-barrier-internalizes-cryptococcus-neoformans-via-the-epha2-tyrosine-kinase-receptor
#8
Phylicia A Aaron, Mantana Jamklang, John P Uhrig, Angie Gelli
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening meningitis most commonly in populations with impaired immunity. Here we resolved the transcriptome of the human brain endothelium challenged with C. neoformans to establish whether C. neoformans invades the CNS by co-opting particular signaling pathways as a means to promote its own entry. Among the 5 major pathways targeted by C. neoformans, the EPH-EphrinA1 (EphA2) tyrosine kinase receptor-signaling pathway was examined further...
December 2, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194796/the-periodontal-pocket-pathogenesis-histopathology-and-consequences
#9
REVIEW
Dieter D Bosshardt
The conversion of junctional epithelium to pocket epithelium is regarded as a hallmark in the development of periodontitis. Knowledge of factors contributing to the initiation and progression of pocket formation is important and may result in the development of better preventive measures and improve healing outcomes after therapeutic interventions. The periodontal pocket is a pathologically deepened gingival sulcus. In healthy periodontal conditions, the defense mechanisms are generally sufficient to control the constant microbiological challenge through a normally functioning junctional epithelium and the concentrated powerful mass of inflammatory and immune cells and macromolecules transmigrating through this epithelium...
November 30, 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190834/ephrin-b2-reverse-signaling-regulates-progression-and-lymph-node-metastasis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Eri Sasabe, Ayumi Tomomura, Riki Tomita, Shinya Sento, Naoya Kitamura, Tetsuya Yamamoto
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignant tumor of the head and neck and frequently metastasizes to cervical lymph nodes. Aggressive local invasion and metastasis of OSCC are significant factors for poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated whether ephrin-B2 expressed in OSCC contributed to tumor progression and lymph node metastasis. Clinical specimens from patients with OSCC had robust ephrin-B2-positive tumor cells and ephrin-B2 protein level was associated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor survival outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186373/ccr2-expression-on-circulating-monocytes-is-associated-with-arterial-wall-inflammation-assessed-by-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-patients-at-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Simone L Verweij, Raphaël Duivenvoorden, Lotte C A Stiekema, Nick S Nurmohamed, Fleur M van der Valk, Miranda Versloot, Hein J Verberne, Erik S G Stroes, Matthias Nahrendorf, Siroon Bekkering, Sophie J Bernelot Moens
Aim: Circulating monocytes infiltrate the plaque and differentiate into macrophages, contributing to an inflammatory environment which is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events. Although the pivotal role of circulating monocytes in plaque inflammation has been firmly established, the search continues to identify specific monocyte subsets that may be especially atherogenic. Therefore, we evaluated the relation between monocyte phenotype, particularly surface receptor expression, and arterial wall inflammation in patients at increased cardiovascular risk...
November 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186350/macrophage-enzyme-and-reduced-inflammation-drive-brain-correction-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-iiib-by-stem-cell-gene-therapy
#12
Rebecca J Holley, Stuart M Ellison, Daniel Fil, Claire O'Leary, John McDermott, Nishanthi Senthivel, Alexander W W Langford-Smith, Fiona L Wilkinson, Zelpha D'Souza, Helen Parker, Aiyin Liao, Samuel Rowlston, Hélène F E Gleitz, Shih-Hsin Kan, Patricia I Dickson, Brian W Bigger
Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB is a paediatric lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the enzyme α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU), involved in the degradation of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate. Absence of NAGLU leads to accumulation of partially degraded heparan sulphate within lysosomes and the extracellular matrix, giving rise to severe CNS degeneration with progressive cognitive impairment and behavioural problems. There are no therapies. Haematopoietic stem cell transplant shows great efficacy in the related disease mucopolysaccharidosis I, where donor-derived monocytes can transmigrate into the brain following bone marrow engraftment, secrete the missing enzyme and cross-correct neighbouring cells...
November 27, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180515/migration-against-the-direction-of-flow-is-lfa-1-dependent-in-human-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#13
Alexander Buffone, Nicholas R Anderson, Daniel A Hammer
The recruitment of immune cells during inflammation is regulated by a multi-step cascade of cell rolling, activation, adhesion, and transmigration through the endothelial barrier. Similarly, Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells (HSPCs) use this pathway to migrate and home to the bone marrow. After selectin-mediated braking, HSPCs migrate along the vascular endothelium on adhesion ligands including ICAM-1, VCAM-1 or MAdCAM-1. Here we report that both the KG1a stem cell line and primary bone marrow CD34+ HSPCs can migrate against the direction of fluid flow on surfaces coated with cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), a behavior thus far only reported in T lymphocytes...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175090/effect-of-fibrinogen-fibrin-and-fibrin-degradation-products-on-transendothelial-migration-of-leukocytes
#14
Sergiy Yakovlev, Leonid Medved
In spite of numerous studies on the involvement of fibrinogen in transendothelial migration of leukocytes and thereby inflammation, there is still no clear understanding of which fibrin(ogen) species can stimulate leukocyte transmigration. Although we have previously proposed that interaction of fibrin with the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) promotes leukocyte transmigration, there is no direct experimental evidence for the involvement of fibrin in this process. To address these questions, we performed systematic studies of interaction of VLDLR with fibrinogen, fibrin, and their isolated recombinant BβN- and βN-domains, respectively, and the effect of various fibrin(ogen) species on transendothelial migration of leukocytes...
November 21, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167512/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-activity-and-a-downregulated-hedgehog-pathway-impair-blood-brain-barrier-function-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-cns-tuberculosis
#15
Sara Brilha, Catherine W M Ong, Babette Weksler, Nacho Romero, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Jon S Friedland
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) has a high mortality and morbidity associated with severe inflammation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from inflammation but the mechanisms causing BBB damage in CNS TB are uncharacterized. We demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes breakdown of type IV collagen and decreases tight junction protein (TJP) expression in a co-culture model of the BBB. This increases permeability, surface expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte transmigration...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155735/quantification-of-monocyte-transmigration-and-foam-cell-formation-from-individuals-with-chronic-inflammatory-conditions
#16
Thomas A Angelovich, Anna C Hearps, Anna Maisa, Theodoros Kelesidis, Anthony Jaworowski
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of CAD, is initiated by the transmigration of innate immune monocytes to inflammatory sites of deposited lipid called fatty streaks, which are present in arterial walls of medium to large arteries. The key pathogenic feature of lesions at this early stage of atherosclerosis is the maturation of monocytes which migrate into arteries to form foam cells or lipid-laden macrophages. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that risk of atherosclerosis is increased by chronic inflammatory conditions accompanying diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and HIV, as well as general ageing, and that this risk is predicted by monocyte activation...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131087/deferoxamine-induced-migration-and-odontoblast-differentiation-via-ros-dependent-autophagy-in-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#17
Xuan Wang, Tian Tian Wu, Long Jiang, Du Rong, Ya Qin Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: As a vital degradation and recycling system, autophagy plays an essential role in regulating the differentiation of stem cells. We previously showed that iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) could promote the repair ability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Here, we investigated the effect of DFO in autophagy and the role of autophagy in regulating the migration and odontoblast differentiation of DPSCs. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and western blotting were performed to evaluate the autophagic activity of DPSCs...
November 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119662/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-shifts-dendritic-cells-into-an-amoeboid-rapid-migration-mode-encompassing-podosome-dissolution-secretion-of-timp-1-and-reduced-proteolysis-of-extracellular-matrix
#18
Einar B Ólafsson, Manuel Varas-Godoy, Antonio Barragan
Dendritic cells (DCs) infected by Toxoplasma gondii rapidly acquire a hypermigratory phenotype that promotes systemic parasite dissemination by a 'Trojan horse' mechanism in mice. Recent paradigms of leukocyte migration have identified the amoeboid migration mode of DCs as particularly suited for rapid locomotion in extracellular matrix and tissues. Here, we have developed a microscopy-based high-throughput approach to assess motility and matrix degradation by Toxoplasma-challenged murine and human DCs. DCs challenged with T...
November 8, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113016/cryptococcal-dissemination-to-the-central-nervous-system-requires-the-vacuolar-calcium-transporter-pmc1
#19
Eamim D Squizani, Natália K Oliveira, Júlia C V Reuwsaat, Bárbara M Marques, William Lopes, Alexandra L Gerber, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, Sophie Lev, Julianne T Djordjevic, Augusto Schrank, Marilene H Vainstein, Charley C Staats, Lívia Kmetzsch
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast and the cause of cryptococcosis in immunocompromised individuals. The most severe form of the disease is meningoencephalitis, which is one of the leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. In order to access the central nervous system (CNS), C. neoformans relies on the activity of certain virulence factors such as urease, which allows transmigration through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we demonstrate that the calcium transporter Pmc1 enables C...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109724/actors-and-factors-in-the-resolution-of-intestinal-inflammation-lipid-mediators-as-a-new-approach-to-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Federica Ungaro, Federica Rubbino, Silvio Danese, Silvia D'Alessio
In the last few decades, the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in genetically predisposed subjects susceptible to specific environmental factors has been attributed to disturbance of both the immune and non-immune system and/or to the imbalanced interactions with microbes. However, increasing evidences support the idea that defects in pro-resolving pathways might strongly contribute to IBD onset. The resolution of inflammation is now recognized as a dynamic event coordinated by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (LMs), which dampen inflammation-sustaining events, such as angiogenesis, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, clearance of apoptotic cells, and microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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