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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143314/skills-among-young-and-elderly-laypersons-during-simulated-dispatcher-assisted-cpr-and-after-cpr-training
#1
M A Nebsbjerg, S E Rasmussen, K B Bomholt, L Q Krogh, K Krogh, J A Povlsen, I S Riddervold, T Grøfte, H Kirkegaard, B Løfgren
BACKGROUND: Dispatcher assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) increase the rate of bystander CPR. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of DA-CPR and attainable skills following CPR training between young and elderly laypersons. METHODS: Volunteer laypersons (young: 18-40 years; elderly: > 65 years) participated. Single rescuer CPR was performed in a simulated DA-CPR cardiac arrest scenario and after CPR training. Data were obtained from a manikin and from video recordings...
November 15, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141692/the-marketing-plan-and-outcome-indicators-for-recruiting-and-retaining-parents-in-the-homestyles-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Colleen Delaney, Jennifer Martin-Biggers, Mallory Koenings, Virginia Quick
BACKGROUND: Despite the critical importance of successful recruitment and retention to study integrity, reporting of recruitment and retention strategies along with factors associated with successful recruitment and retention of participants in health-related interventions remain rare, especially for health and obesity prevention programs. Thus, the purpose of this article is to retrospectively examine the recruitment and retention marketing plan used in the online HomeStyles randomized controlled trial (RCT) and discuss outcomes associated with completion of the intervention...
November 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141046/the-effect-of-observing-novice-and-expert-performance-on-acquisition-of-surgical-skills-on-a-robotic-platform
#3
David J Harris, Samuel J Vine, Mark R Wilson, John S McGrath, Marie-Eve LeBel, Gavin Buckingham
BACKGROUND: Observational learning plays an important role in surgical skills training, following the traditional model of learning from expertise. Recent findings have, however, highlighted the benefit of observing not only expert performance but also error-strewn performance. The aim of this study was to determine which model (novice vs. expert) would lead to the greatest benefits when learning robotically assisted surgical skills. METHODS: 120 medical students with no prior experience of robotically-assisted surgery completed a ring-carrying training task on three occasions; baseline, post-intervention and at one-week follow-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138033/randomized-trial-of-high-and-low-fidelity-simulation-to-teach-intrauterine-contraception-placement
#4
Siripanth Nippita, Miriam J Haviland, Sara F Voit, Judith Perez-Peralta, Michele R Hacker, Maureen E Paul
BACKGROUND: High fidelity simulation creates conditions that resemble real circumstances, and can help teach procedures such as intrauterine contraception placement. Its impact on skill retention has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate novice learners' skills, attitudes, and knowledge on placement of intrauterine contraception when trained using a high-fidelity commercially available simulator compared with a low-fidelity simulator. STUDY DESIGN: We recruited senior nurse practitioner students and interns in obstetrics and gynecology and family medicine inexperienced with intrauterine contraception placement...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137508/health-professional-education-and-universal-health-coverage-a-summary-of-challenges-and-selected-case-studies
#5
Arthika Sripathy, Joachim Marti, Hannah Patel, Javaid I Sheikh, Ara W Darzi
Low- and middle-income countries are experiencing serious shortages in meeting health workforce requirements for universal health coverage. We examine how national-level policies can address these deficiencies and support the development of an appropriately skilled health workforce in line with population needs. We discuss three innovative, government-led solutions that are designed to align health workforce training with the demands of universal health coverage. Specifically, we discuss two initiatives to train and retain doctors in rural areas of Thailand, the large-scale training of community health workers within multidisciplinary primary health care teams in Brazil, and the introduction of a postgraduate diploma program in primary care for nurses in India...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128736/optimal-practice-conditions-enhance-the-benefits-of-gradually-increasing-error-opportunities-on-retention-of-a-stepping-sequence-task
#6
Danielle Levac, Kate Driscoll, Jessica Galvez, Kathleen Mercado, Lindsey O'Neil
INTRODUCTION: Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning...
November 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127826/behavioral-and-neurophysiological-mechanisms-underlying-motor-skill-learning-in-patients-with-post-stroke-hemiparesis
#7
Shailesh Kantak, Robert McGrath, Nazaneen Zahedi, Dustin Luchmee
OBJECTIVE: Given the presence of execution deficits after stroke, it is difficult to determine if patients with stroke have deficits in motor skill learning with the paretic arm. Here, we controlled for execution deficits while testing practice effects of the paretic arm on motor skill learning, long-term retention, and corticospinal excitability. METHODS: Ten patients with unilateral stroke and ten age-matched controls practiced a kinematic arm skill for two days and returned for retention testing one-day and one-month post-practice...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123837/effectiveness-of-cadaver-based-educational-seminar-for-trauma-surgery-skills-retention-after-half-year-follow-up
#8
Hiroshi Homma, Jun Oda, Tetsuo Yukioka, Shogo Hayashi, Tomoya Suzuki, Kentaro Kawai, Katsuhiro Nagata, Hidefumi Sano, Hiroshi Takyu, Norio Sato, Hirokazu Taguchi, Kazuki Mashiko, Takeo Azuhata, Masayuki Ito, Tomomi Fukuhara, Yo Kurashima, Shinichi Kawata, Masahiro Itoh
Aim: In Japan, trauma surgery training remains insufficient, and on-the-job training has become increasingly difficult because of the decreasing number of severe trauma patients and the development of non-operative management. Therefore, we assessed whether a 1-day cadaver-based seminar is effective for trauma surgery training. Methods: Data were collected from 11 seminars carried out from January 2013 to March 2014, including a 10-point self-assessment of confidence levels (SACL) for 21 surgical skills and an evaluation of the contents before, just after, and a half-year after the seminar...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117772/initial-neonatal-resuscitation-skill-retention-after-the-implementation-of-the-novel-24-7-hybridlab%C3%A2-learning-system
#9
Ausrele Kudreviciene, Ruta Jolanta Nadisauskiene, Rasa Tameliene, Algimantas Tamelis, Irena Nedzelskiene, Paulius Dobozinskas, Dinas Vaitkaitis
Ensuring long-term retention of the acquired practical skills is one of the major aims of a medical school. This depends on the application of training techniques and their combinations. In order to standardize the teaching process, to acquire and maintain a broad array of technical, professional, and interpersonal skills and competencies, and to improve the retention of practical skills, we developed a new training technique - the HybridLab® learning method. It consists of an e-learning platform, hands-on simulation, carefully elaborated learning algorithms (DRAKON), peer-to-peer teaching, and assessment and feedback by peers, and later - by a remote instructor...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117091/the-application-of-observational-practice-and-educational-networking-in-simulation-based-and-distributed-medical-education-contexts
#10
Arthur Welsher, David Rojas, Zain Khan, Laura VanderBeek, Bill Kapralos, Lawrence E M Grierson
INTRODUCTION: Research has revealed that individuals can improve technical skill performance by viewing demonstrations modeled by either expert or novice performers. These findings support the development of video-based observational practice communities that augment simulation-based skill education and connect geographically distributed learners. This study explores the experimental replicability of the observational learning effect when demonstrations are sampled from a community of distributed learners and serves as a context for understanding learner experiences within this type of training protocol...
November 8, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105154/effects-of-30%C3%A2-years-of-disuse-on-exceptional-memory-performance
#11
Jong-Sung Yoon, K Anders Ericsson, Dario Donatelli
In the mid-1980s, Dario Donatelli (DD) participated in a laboratory study of the effects of around 800 h of practice on digit-span and increased his digit-span from 8 to 104 digits. This study assessed changes in the structure of his memory skill after around 30 years of essentially no practice on the digit-span task. On the first day of testing, his estimated span was only 10 digits, but over the following 3 days of testing it increased to 19 digits. Further analyses of his recall performance and verbal reports identified which mechanisms of the original memory skill he could retrieve or reacquire over the 3 days of practice...
November 3, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102854/a-qualitative-descriptive-exploration-of-the-educational-and-career-plans-of-early-career-neonatal-nurses-and-midwives-an-irish-perspective
#12
Linda Martina Coughlan, Declan Patton
The scarcity of appropriately qualified nurses and midwives is a major obstacle in achieving an effective health system. Neonatal nurses and midwives require a high level of skill and education to fulfil their role. It is also an area that sees high staff turnover rates. For this study a descriptive qualitative approach was used to ascertain early career neonatal nurses' and midwives' experiences of further education, their future career plans, and their perceived facilitators and barriers to further education and career progression...
October 23, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099312/learning-laparoscopic-skills-observation-or-practice
#13
Françoise Schmitt, Aurora Mariani, Emilie Eyssartier, Jean-Claude Granry, Guillaume Podevin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the respective roles of observation and direct practice in the retention of laparoscopic skills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen fifth-year medical students were included in a two-session laparoscopic learning course. During the first session, each participant was given four tasks to complete from the "Basic skills" and "Essential tasks" modules of the Simbionix LAP Mentor™, and another four tasks for observation only...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093171/electroencephalographic-connectivity-measures-predict-learning-of-a-motor-sequencing-task
#14
Jennifer Wu, Franziska Knapp, Steven C Cramer, Ramesh Srinivasan
Individuals vary significantly with respect to rate and degree of improvement with motor practice. While the regions that underlie motor learning have been well described, neurophysiological factors underlying differences in response to motor practice are less well understood. The present study examined both resting state and event-related EEG coherence measures of connectivity as predictors of response to motor practice on a motor sequencing task using the dominant hand. Thirty-two healthy, young, right-handed participants underwent resting EEG prior to motor practice...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092683/motor-performance-of-individuals-with-cerebral-palsy-in-a-virtual-game-using-a-mobile-phone
#15
Juliana Nobre de Paula, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro, Talita Dias da Silva, Camila Miliani Capelini, Lilian Del Cielo de Menezes, Thais Massetti, James Tonks, Suzanna Watson, Alessandro Hervaldo Nicolai Ré
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a permanent disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by damage to the immature and developing brain. Research has shown that Virtual Reality (VR) technology can be used in rehabilitation to support the acquisition of motor skills and the achievement of functional tasks. The aim of this study was to explore for improvements in the performance of individuals with CP with practice in the use of a virtual game on a mobile phone and to compare their performance with that of the control group...
November 1, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089881/a-systematic-investigation-of-the-effect-of-action-observation-training-and-motor-imagery-training-on-the-development-of-mental-representation-structure-and-skill-performance
#16
Taeho Kim, Cornelia Frank, Thomas Schack
Action observation training and motor imagery training have independently been studied and considered as an effective training strategy for improving motor skill learning. However, comparative studies of the two training strategies are relatively few. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of action observation training and motor imagery training on the development of mental representation structure and golf putting performance as well as the relation between the changes in mental representation structure and skill performance during the early learning stage...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089347/factors-influencing-the-decisions-of-senior-uk-doctors-to-retire-or-remain-in-medicine-national-surveys-of-the-uk-trained-medical-graduates-of-1974-and-1977
#17
Fay Smith, Shelly Lachish, Michael J Goldacre, Trevor W Lambert
OBJECTIVE: To report attitudes to retirement of late-career doctors. DESIGN: Questionnaires sent in 2014 to all UK medical graduates of 1974 and 1977. SETTING: United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 3695 medical graduates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Factors which influenced doctors' decisions to retire and factors which encouraged doctors to remain in work. RESULTS: The response rate was 85% (3695/4369)...
October 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082334/development-and-pilot-testing-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-coping-skills-group-intervention-for-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#18
Donna M Evon, Carol E Golin, Rachel Ruffin, Michael W Fried
Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection are needed to attenuate the impact of extrahepatic symptoms, comorbid conditions, and treatment side effects on HCV health outcomes. We adapted empirically-supported interventions for similar patient populations to develop a Cognitive Behavioral Coping Skills group intervention for HCV patients (CBCS-HCV) undergoing treatment. The objectives of this paper are to describe the research activities associated with CBCS-HCV development and pilot testing, including: (1) formative work leading to intervention development; (2) preliminary study protocol; and (3) pilot feasibility testing of the intervention and study design...
June 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076967/the-call-and-the-challenge-of-pediatric-resuscitation-and-simulation-research-in-low-resource-settings
#19
Amy R L Rule, Meredith Tabangin, David Cheruiyot, Priscilla Mueri, Beena D Kamath-Rayne
The greatest burden of younger than 5 years mortality is in low- and middle-income nations where education resources are often few. The World Health Organization recommends scale-up of simulation in these settings, but it has been poorly studied. Although there has been an increase of contextualized resuscitation simulation programs designed for these settings, sustaining clinical outcomes and provider skill retention have remained research gaps. Our team designed a study to evaluate skill retention after an initial Helping Babies Breathe training at a rural Kenya referral hospital between randomized learner groups receiving supervised mock codes with debriefing versus just-in-time training with a peer...
October 25, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065020/personalized-video-feedback-and-repeated-task-practice-improve-laparoscopic-knot-tying-skills-two-controlled-trials
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eduardo F Abbott, Whitney Thompson, T K Pandian, Benjamin Zendejas, David R Farley, David A Cook
PURPOSE: Compare the effect of personalized feedback (PF) vs. task demonstration (TD), both delivered via video, on laparoscopic knot-tying skills and perceived workload; and evaluate the effect of repeated practice. METHOD: General surgery interns and research fellows completed four repetitions of a simulated laparoscopic knot-tying task at one-month intervals. Midway between repetitions, participants received via e-mail either a TD video (demonstration by an expert) or a PF video (video of their own performance with voiceover from a blinded senior surgeon)...
November 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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