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Skills retention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231477/effects-of-tdcs-on-motor-learning-and-memory-formation-a-consensus-and-critical-position-paper
#1
REVIEW
Ethan R Buch, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Antal, Jan Born, Pablo A Celnik, Joseph Classen, Christian Gerloff, Mark Hallett, Friedhelm C Hummel, Michael A Nitsche, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Walter J Paulus, Janine Reis, Edwin M Robertson, John C Rothwell, Marco Sandrini, Heidi M Schambra, Eric M Wassermann, Ulf Ziemann, Leonardo G Cohen
Motor skills are required for activities of daily living. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied in association with motor skill learning has been investigated as a tool for enhancing training effects in health and disease. Here, we review the published literature investigating whether tDCS can facilitate the acquisition, retention or adaptation of motor skills. Work in multiple laboratories is underway to develop a mechanistic understanding of tDCS effects on different forms of learning and to optimize stimulation protocols...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224481/not-all-choices-are-created-equal-task-relevant-choices-enhance-motor-learning-compared-to-task-irrelevant-choices
#2
Michael J Carter, Diane M Ste-Marie
Lewthwaite et al. (2015) reported that the learning benefits of exercising choice (i.e., their self-controlled condition) are not restricted to task-relevant features (e.g., feedback). They found that choosing one's golf ball color (Exp. 1) or choosing which of two tasks to perform at a later time plus which of two artworks to hang (Exp. 2) resulted in better retention than did being denied these same choices (i.e., yoked condition). The researchers concluded that the learning benefits derived from choice, whether irrelevant or relevant to the to-be-learned task, are predominantly motivational because choice is intrinsically rewarding and satisfies basic psychological needs...
February 21, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224458/bridging-the-training-practice-gap-in-interprofessional-student-supervision
#3
Priya Martin, Saravana Kumar, LuJuana Abernathy
BACKGROUND: Workforce recruitment and retention issues are common in highly dispersed regions such as Queensland in Australia. Provision of student placements in these non-metropolitan areas is one way of promoting staff recruitment. However, healthcare professionals in these areas face a number of challenges in accessing training opportunities including student supervision training. Funding was made available to develop and run a series of targeted, evidence-based, interprofessional student supervision workshops in non-metropolitan Queensland...
February 21, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218554/the-scandcleft-randomised-trials-of-primary-surgery-for-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-11-what-next
#4
William Shaw, Gunvor Semb
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Longstanding uncertainty surrounds the selection of surgical protocols for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), and randomised trials have only occasionally been performed. The Scandcleft Project consists of three trials initiated in 1997. The results at age 5 have been published in the series of reports that precede this manuscript, which aims to distill some of the issues that future trialists may need to address. METHOD: The shared experience of this group of trials is reviewed with reference to the current literature on trial management and, more specifically, trials of surgical technique and timing...
February 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216929/outcomes-of-transurethral-resection-and-holmium-laser-enucleation-in-more-than-60-g-of-prostate-a-prospective-randomized-study
#5
Ankur Jhanwar, Rahul J Sinha, Ankur Bansal, Gaurav Prakash, Kawaljit Singh, Vishwajeet Singh
AIM: Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) is considered a gold standard surgical procedure. The management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has undergone tremendous change in recent years and shifted from open to minimal invasive procedure. With the advancement in technology and skills of surgeons, lasers have been used more liberally, particularly holmium laser. Holmium laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP) is seen as close rival of TURP. The objective if this study is to observe long- and short-term outcomes of transurethral resection and holmium laser enucleation in the prostate of more than 60 g...
January 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212196/prison-nursing-formation-of-a-stable-professional-identity
#6
Khurshid Choudhry, David Armstrong, Alexandru Dregan
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze how working within prison environments can influence the self-identity and professional identity of nurses. BACKGROUND: The prison environment can be a difficult environment for nurses to deliver care within, with nurses having to carry out activities that seem to go against their professional role, while at the same time providing care to prisoners who have greater health needs than the general population. There is a lack of theoretical consideration of how prison nurses carry out their role in the face of such challenges...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207581/the-impact-of-an-interprofessional-oral-health-curriculum-on-trainees
#7
Oren Berkowitz, Madeline F Brisotti, Leslie Gascon, Michelle Henshaw, Laura B Kaufman
PURPOSE: Despite the prevalence of oral disease, the subject of oral health historically has been absent from medical education. We have developed an interprofessional curriculum in collaboration with our school of dentistry to teach oral health in the primary care setting to physician assistant (PA) students. The goal was to create and assess the impact of a curricular model that would be adaptable to various academic settings. METHODS: A blend of classroom, clinical skills lab, observations in the dental clinic, and observed structured clinical examinations was used to teach oral health to first-year (didactic year) PA students...
March 2017: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189001/functional-outcome-at-school-age-of-children-born-with-gastroschisis
#8
Chiara C M M Lap, Sandra W Bolhuis, Koenraad N J A Van Braeckel, Sijmen A Reijneveld, Gwendolyn T R Manten, Arend F Bos, Jan B F Hulscher
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. STUDY DESIGN: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between 1999 and 2006 with 32 controls matched for gender, gestational age, birth weight, and corrected for small for gestational age (SGA) and parental socioeconomic status (SES)...
February 8, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187138/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-group-based-gaze-training-intervention-for-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder
#9
Greg Wood, Charlotte A L Miles, Ginny Coyles, Omid Alizadehkhaiyat, Samuel J Vine, Joan N Vickers, Mark R Wilson
: The aim of this study was to integrate a gaze training intervention (i.e., quiet eye training; QET) that has been shown to improve the throwing and catching skill of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), within an approach (i.e., group therapy) that might alleviate the negative psychosocial impact of these motor skill deficits. Twenty-one children with DCD were split into either QET (8 male 3 female, mean age of 8.6 years (SD = 1.04) or technical training (TT) groups (7 male 3 female, mean age of 8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184045/effect-of-novel-inhaler-technique-reminder-labels-on-the-retention-of-inhaler-technique-skills-in-asthma-a-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Iman A Basheti, Nathir M Obeidat, Helen K Reddel
: Inhaler technique can be corrected with training, but skills drop off quickly without repeated training. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of novel inhaler technique labels on the retention of correct inhaler technique. In this single-blind randomized parallel-group active-controlled study, clinical pharmacists enrolled asthma patients using controller medication by Accuhaler [Diskus] or Turbuhaler. Inhaler technique was assessed using published checklists (score 0-9). Symptom control was assessed by asthma control test...
December 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165489/the-interrelated-effect-of-sleep-and-learning-in-dogs-canis-familiaris-an-eeg-and-behavioural-study
#11
Anna Kis, Sára Szakadát, Márta Gácsi, Enikő Kovács, Péter Simor, Csenge Török, Ferenc Gombos, Róbert Bódizs, József Topál
The active role of sleep in memory consolidation is still debated, and due to a large between-species variation, the investigation of a wide range of different animal species (besides humans and laboratory rodents) is necessary. The present study applied a fully non-invasive methodology to study sleep and memory in domestic dogs, a species proven to be a good model of human awake behaviours. Polysomnography recordings performed following a command learning task provide evidence that learning has an effect on dogs' sleep EEG spectrum...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160101/enhancing-technical-skill-learning-through-interleaved-mixed-model-observational-practice
#12
Arthur Welsher, Lawrence E M Grierson
A broad foundation of behavioural (Hayes et al. in Exp Brain Res 204(2): 199-206, 2010) and neurophysiological (Kohler et al. in Science 297(5582): 846-848, 2002) evidence has revealed that the acquisition of psychomotor skills, including those germane to clinical practice (Domuracki et al. in Med Educ 49(2): 186-192, 2015), can be facilitated through observational practice. Interestingly, research also reveals that learning via observation is greatest when the learner has the opportunity to view both error-free expert demonstrations and flawed novice demonstrations (Rohbanfard and Proteau in Exp Brain Res 215: 183-197, 2011)...
February 3, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155320/fragmentation-of-maternal-child-and-hiv-services-a-missed-opportunity-to-provide-comprehensive-care
#13
Lyn J Haskins, Sifiso P Phakathi, Merridy Grant, Ntokozo Mntambo, Aurene Wilford, Christiane M Horwood
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, coverage of services for mothers and babies in the first year of life is suboptimal despite high immunisation coverage over the same time period. Integration of services could improve accessibility of services, uptake of interventions and retention in care. AIM: This study describes provision of services for mothers and babies aged under 1 year. SETTING: Primary healthcare clinics in one rural district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
December 2, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153768/physical-activity-behavior-change-for-older-veterans-after-dysvascular-amputation
#14
Matthew J Miller, Jennifer Stevens-Lapsley, Thomas T Fields, David Coons, Susan Bray-Hall, William Sullivan, Cory L Christiansen
OBJECTIVE: Determine the feasibility of using a physical-activity behavior-change (PABC) intervention for increasing physical activity and reducing disability in Veterans 1-5years following dysvascular lower-limb amputation (LLA). DESIGN: Cross-over, feasibility trial SETTING: VA Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center and Veterans Homes PARTICIPANTS: 32 Veterans with dysvascular LLA (1-5years after major LLA) INTERVENTION: The home-based study, using telerehabilitation technology, is intended to reduce participant burden by removing transportation and time barriers...
January 31, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153385/video-review-as-a-tool-to-improve-orthopedic-residents-performance-of-closed-manipulative-reductions
#15
Nickul S Jain, Ran Schwarzkopf, John A Scolaro
OBJECTIVE: Orthopedic residents commonly perform closed manipulative reductions as a part of their training. Traditionally, this skill is taught early in training but difficult to simulate. Proficiency is achieved through repetition and experience; faculty observation and instruction is unfortunately often limited. Direct resident teaching has been shown to increase competency, comfort, and long-term skill retention. We hypothesize that video review of closed fracture reductions will provide an inexpensive and valuable tool for resident education and improve skill performance...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146450/patient-simulation-for-assessment-of-layperson-management-of-opioid-overdose-with-intranasal-naloxone-in-a-recently-released-prisoner-cohort
#16
Leo Kobayashi, Traci C Green, Sarah E Bowman, Madeline C Ray, Michelle S McKenzie, Josiah D Rich
INTRODUCTION: Investigators applied simulation to an experimental program that educated, trained, and assessed at-risk, volunteering prisoners on opioid overdose (OD) prevention, recognition, and layperson management with intranasal (IN) naloxone. METHODS: Consenting inmates were assessed for OD-related experience and knowledge then exposed on-site to standardized didactics and educational DVD (without simulation). Subjects were provided with IN naloxone kits at time of release and scheduled for postrelease assessment...
February 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145842/evaluation-of-a-web-based-module-and-an-otoscopy-simulator-in-teaching-ear-disease
#17
Vincent Wu, Jason A Beyea
Objective To determine which teaching method-otoscopy simulation (OS), web-based module (WM), or standard classroom instruction (SI)-produced the best improvement in the diagnosis of middle/external ear pathologies and the development of otoscopy clinical skills. Study Design Prospective randomized controlled nonclinical trial. Setting Preclerkship undergraduate medical education. Subjects and Methods Fifty-four medical students (first year, 26; second year, 28) were randomized to receive 1 of the 3 interventions: OS, WM, or SI...
February 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141707/bullying-and-adhd-which-came-first-and-does-it-matter
#18
Robert Keder, Robert Sege, Peter C Raffalli, Marilyn Augustyn
Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138421/efficacy-and-retention-of-basic-life-support-education-including-automated-external-defibrillator-usage-during-a-physical-education-period
#19
Kae Watanabe, Dalia Lopez-Colon, Jonathan J Shuster, Joseph Philip
The American Heart Association (AHA) advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS), including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135199/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-as-an-additional-tool-for-hiv-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-belgium-the-be-prep-ared-study-protocol
#20
Irith De Baetselier, Thijs Reyniers, Christiana Nöstlinger, Kristien Wouters, Katrien Fransen, Tania Crucitti, Chris Kenyon, Jozefien Buyze, Céline Schurmans, Marie Laga, Bea Vuylsteke
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising and effective tool to prevent HIV. With the approval of Truvada as daily PrEP by the European Commission in August 2016, individual European Member states prepare themselves for PrEP implementation following the examples of France and Norway. However, context-specific data to guide optimal implementation is currently lacking. OBJECTIVE: With this demonstration project we evaluate whether daily and event-driven PrEP, provided within a comprehensive prevention package, is a feasible and acceptable additional prevention tool for men who have sex with men (MSM) at high risk of acquiring HIV in Belgium...
January 30, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
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