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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915214/non-hemodynamic-effects-of-catecholamines
#1
Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler, Benedikt Nußbaum
Circulatory shock is defined as an imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and demand, and mostly results from a loss of blood volume, cardiac pump failure, and/or reduction of vasomotor tone. The clinical hallmarks of circulatory shock are arterial hypotension and lactate acidosis. Since the degree and duration of hypotension are major determinants of outcome, vasopressor administration represents a cornerstone therapy to treat these patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of catecholamines as the drug of first choice...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905300/p2x7r-antagonism-after-subfailure-overstretch-injury-of-blood-vessels-reverses-vasomotor-dysfunction-and-prevents-apoptosis
#2
Weifeng Luo, Daniel Feldman, Reid McCallister, Colleen Brophy, Joyce Cheung-Flynn
Human saphenous vein (HSV) is harvested and prepared prior to implantation as an arterial bypass graft. Injury and the response to injury from surgical harvest and preparation trigger cascades of molecular events and contribute to graft remodeling and intimal hyperplasia. Apoptosis is an early response after implantation that contributes the development of neointimal lesions. Here, we showed that surgical harvest and preparation of HSV leads to vasomotor dysfunction, increased apoptosis and downregulation of the phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein, Niban...
September 13, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903474/nitric-oxide-heat-shock-protein-axis-in-menopausal-hot-flushes-neglected-metabolic-issues-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-associated-with-deranged-heat-shock-response
#3
Antônio Azambuja Miragem, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt
BACKGROUND: Although some unequivocal underlying mechanisms of menopausal hot flushes have been demonstrated in animal models, the paucity of similar approaches in humans impedes further mechanistic outcomes. Human studies might show some as yet unexpected physiological mechanisms of metabolic adaptation that permeate the phase of decreased oestrogen levels in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. This is particularly relevant because both the severity and time span of hot flushes are associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory disease...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870566/pre-and-postganglionic-vasomotor-dysfunction-causes-distal-limb-coldness-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#4
Kazumasa Shindo, Mai Tsuchiya, Yuta Ichinose, Kishin Koh, Takanori Hata, Nobuo Yamashiro, Fumikazu Kobayashi, Takamura Nagasaka, Yoshihisa Takiyama
BACKGROUND: The detailed pathophysiology of limb coldness in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated cutaneous vasomotor neural function in 18 MSA patients with or without limb coldness, and in 20 healthy volunteers as controls. We measured resting skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and spontaneous changes of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) and skin blood flow (skin vasomotor reflex: SVR), as well as SVR and reflex changes of SSNA after electrical stimulation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857417/increased-myoendothelial-feedback-is-associated-with-increased-connexin37-and-ik1-channel-expression-in-mesenteric-arteries-of-diet-induced-hyperhomocysteinemic-mice
#5
Robin C Looft-Wilson, Cara R Goodell, Christina A Mutch, Stephanie M Mutchler, Kayla L Miller, Monique Guraya
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we found that diet-induced HHcy in mice caused decreased eNOS expression and signaling in mesenteric arteries, but greatly enhanced non-NOS, non-prostacyclin-dependent vasodilation, which involves myoendothelial gap junction (MEJ) communication. To further assess whether HHcy enhances MEJ communication, this study examined endothelium-dependent attenuation of phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction (myoendothelial feedback) and key molecules involved. METHODS: Myoendothelial feedback was examined in isolated mouse mesenteric arteries, after 6-wk diet-induced HHcy, using pressure myography...
August 31, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855885/laser-doppler-assessment-of-vasomotor-axon-reflex-responsiveness-to-evaluate-neurovascular-function
#6
REVIEW
Marie Luise Kubasch, Anne Sophie Kubasch, Juliana Torres Pacheco, Sylvia J Buchmann, Ben Min-Woo Illigens, Kristian Barlinn, Timo Siepmann
The vasomotor axon reflex can be evoked in peripheral epidermal nociceptive C-fibers to induce local vasodilation. This neurogenic flare response is a measure of C-fiber functional integrity and therefore shows impairment in patients with small fiber neuropathy. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and laser Doppler imaging (LDI) are both techniques to analyze vasomotor small fiber function by quantifying the integrity of the vasomotor-mediated axon reflex. While LDF assesses the flare response following acetylcholine iontophoresis with temporal resolution at a single defined skin point, LDI records flare responses with spatial and temporal resolution, generating a two-dimensional map of superficial blood flow...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852570/internal-validation-of-an-automated-system-for-brachial-and-femoral-flow-mediated-dilation
#7
Brycen Ratcliffe, Robert Pawlak, Francisco Morales, Caleb Harrison, Alvaro N Gurovich
BACKGROUND: Flow Mediated Dilation (FMD) has immense potential to become a clinical, non-invasive biomarker of endothelial function and nitric oxide bioavailability, which regulate vasomotor activity. Unfortunately, FMD analysis techniques could deviate significantly in different laboratories if a validation process is not involved. The purpose of this study was to provide validation to the assessment of FMD analysis in our laboratory and to standardize this process before reporting results of FMD...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833634/long-term-endothelial-dysfunction-after-trans-radial-catheterization-a-meta-analytic-approach
#8
Alexios S Antonopoulos, George Latsios, Evangelos Oikonomou, Konstantinos Aznaouridis, Aggelos Papanikolaou, Dimitris Syrseloudis, Gerasimos Siasos, Manolis Vavuranakis, Konstantinos Toutouzas, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Following cardiac catheterization using radial artery (RA) access, persistent endothelial dysfunction may limit the use of RA as a conduit during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We reviewed published literature to investigate the effects of transradial coronary catheterization on RA endothelial function. METHODS: We searched PubMed from inception to April 2017 for published studies assessing RA endothelial function late (≥1 month) after coronary catheterization...
August 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807510/angina-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-the-need-for-precision-medicine
#9
Giampaolo Niccoli, Rocco Antonio Montone, Gaetano Antonio Lanza, Filippo Crea
Persistence or recurrence of angina after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) represent an important clinical issue involving from one fifth to one third of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization at one-year follow-up. A systematic approach to this syndrome is strongly needed. Precision medicine is particularly important in addressing angina after successful PCI because of the multiple underlying causes. Restenosis or coronary atherosclerosis progression explain symptom recurrence after successful PCI in some patients, while functional causes, including vasomotor abnormalities of epicardial coronary arteries and/or coronary microvascular dysfunction, explain symptoms in the remaining patients...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807217/adenosine-triphosphate-as-a-molecular-mediator-of-the-vascular-response-to-injury
#10
Christy M Guth, Weifung Luo, Olukemi Jolayemi, Kalyan S Chadalavada, Padmini Komalavilas, Joyce Cheung-Flynn, Colleen M Brophy
BACKGROUND: Human saphenous veins used for arterial bypass undergo stretch injury at the time of harvest and preimplant preparation. Vascular injury promotes intimal hyperplasia, the leading cause of graft failure, but the molecular events leading to this response are largely unknown. This study investigated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a potential molecular mediator in the vascular response to stretch injury, and the downstream effects of the purinergic receptor, P2X7R, and p38 MAPK activation...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797374/hormone-replacement-the-fountain-of-youth
#11
REVIEW
Bradley R Williams, Janet Soojeung Cho
Natural aging brings reduced production of growth and sex hormones, beginning in middle age, with noticeable physiologic changes by the sixth or seventh decade of life: reduced muscle mass, energy, and exercise capacity and alterations in sexual function. Hormones and hormone precursors have been investigated to delay changes in body composition, strength, and physical and cognitive function. Menopausal hormone therapy is effective for vasomotor and genitourinary symptoms. Testosterone is effective in men with hypogonadism and declines in physiologic function...
September 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769809/apixaban-enhances-vasodilatation-mediated-by-protease-activated-receptor-2-in-isolated-rat-arteries
#12
Ambra Villari, Giovanni Giurdanella, Claudio Bucolo, Filippo Drago, Salvatore Salomone
Apixaban (APX) is a direct inhibitor of factor X (FXa) approved for prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and atrial fibrillation. Because FXa activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of FXa by APX may affect vasomotor function. The effect of APX was assessed in vitro, by wire myography, in rat mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) and basilar arteries challenged with vasoconstrictors [phenylephrine (PE); 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], vasodilators [acetylcholine (ACh); sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] or with the PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGRL...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760945/inactivation-of-nitric-oxide-synthesis-exacerbates-the-development-of-alzheimer-disease-pathology-in-appps1-mice-amyloid-precursor-protein-presenilin-1
#13
Diana Cifuentes, Marine Poittevin, Philippe Bonnin, Anta Ngkelo, Nathalie Kubis, Tatyana Merkulova-Rainon, Bernard I Lévy
The epidemiological link between hypertension and Alzheimer disease is established. We previously reported that hypertension aggravates the Alzheimer-like pathology in APPPS1 mice (amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1, mouse model of Alzheimer disease) with angiotensin II-induced hypertension, in relation with hypertension and nitric oxide deficiency. To provide further insights into the role of nitric oxide in the hypertension-Alzheimer disease cross-talk, we studied the effects of nitric oxide blockade in APPPS1 mice using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) alone or in combination with hydralazine, to normalize blood pressure...
July 31, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758150/diabetes-and-cardioplegia
#14
Brittany A Potz, Laura A Scrimgeour, Jun Feng, Frank W Sellke
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest is associated with injury to the vasculature and microcirculation leading to coronary microvascular dysfunction, permeability changes and cardiac dysfunction. In the setting of cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegia, poorly-controlled diabetes is associated with significant changes in endothelium-dependent and independent vascular dysfunction, vascular reactivity, vascular permeability, protein expression, cell death, coronary/peripheral microcirculation and reduced vasomotor tone leading to hypotension and impaired endothelial function...
June 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756589/crosstalk-between-the-angiotensin-and-endothelin-system-in-the-cerebrovasculature-after-experimental-induced-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#15
Stefan Wanderer, Jan Mrosek, Hartmut Vatter, Volker Seifert, Juergen Konczalla
Under physiologic conditions, losartan showed a dose-dependent antagonistic effect to the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstriction. This reduced vasoconstriction was abolished after preincubation with an endothelin B1 receptor (ET(B1)-receptor) antagonist. Also, an increased ET(B1)-receptor-dependent relaxation to sarafotoxin S6c (S6c; an ET(B1)-receptor agonist) was detected by preincubation with losartan. Investigations after experimental induced subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are still missing. Therefore, we analyzed losartan in a further pathological setup...
July 29, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703351/a-comparative-study-between-responses-of-isolated-bovine-and-equine-digital-arteries-to-vasoactive-mediators
#16
C Zizzadoro, M Caruso, S Punzi, G Crescenzo, F Zongoli, C Belloli
Hemodynamic perturbations, partly resulting from abnormal vasoconstriction of digital vessels, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bovine and equine laminitis. This study compared the responsiveness of isolated bovine (BDA) and equine (EDA) digital arteries to pharmacological agents that stimulate receptor systems involved in the regulation of normal vessel tone. The role of the endothelium and the short- and longer-term effects of an experimentally induced endothelial damage were also evaluated. Species-related differences were found in the vessel reactivity to all of the receptor agonists tested...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701323/renal-denervation-attenuates-hypertension-but-not-salt-sensitivity-in-etb-receptor-deficient-rats
#17
Bryan K Becker, Amanda C Feagans, Daian Chen, Malgorzata Kasztan, Chunhua Jin, Joshua S Speed, Jennifer S Pollock, David M Pollock
Hypertension is a prevalent pathology that increases risk for numerous cardiovascular diseases. Because the etiology of hypertension varies across patients, specific and effective therapeutic approaches are needed. The role of renal sympathetic nerves is established in numerous forms of hypertension, but their contribution to salt-sensitivity and interaction with factors such as endothelin-1 are poorly understood. Rats deficient of functional ETB receptors (ETB-def) on all tissues except sympathetic nerves are hypertensive and exhibit salt-sensitive increases in blood pressure...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688830/differential-effects-of-renal-denervation-on-arterial-baroreceptor-function-in-goldblatt-hypertension-model
#18
Gisele S Lincevicius, Caroline G Shimoura, Erika E Nishi, Tales Oliveira, Juliana G Cespedes, Cássia T Bergamaschi, Ruy R Campos
Sympathetic vasomotor activity is significantly increased in renovascular hypertension. Renal denervation (DnX) has emerged as a novel therapy for resistant hypertension to drug therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding the reduction in blood pressure (BP) after DnX remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DnX of a clipped kidney on the baseline and baroreceptor reflex control of post-ganglionic sympathetic activity to the contralateral kidney (rSNA) and lumbar (lSNA) nerves in Goldblatt hypertensive rats (2K1C)...
June 21, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683787/the-effect-and-safety-of-postmenopausal-hormone-therapy-and-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulators-on-kidney-outcomes-in-women-a-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Sandra M Dumanski, Sharanya Ramesh, Matthew T James, Amy Metcalfe, Kara Nerenberg, Ellen W Seely, Helen Lee Robertson, Sofia B Ahmed
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of menopause in women with or at risk of chronic kidney disease is increasing globally. Although international guidelines on menopause recommend the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy with or without selective estrogen receptor modulators for control of vasomotor symptoms, the effects of these treatments on kidney function and albuminuria are unclear. Furthermore, women with chronic kidney disease are at significantly increased risk of venous thromboembolism and malignancy, well-documented adverse effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy...
July 7, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680280/interventions-to-address-sexual-problems-in-people-with-cancer
#20
L Barbera, C Zwaal, D Elterman, K McPherson, W Wolfman, A Katz, A Matthew
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction in people with cancer is a significant problem. The present clinical practice guideline makes recommendations to improve sexual function in people with cancer. METHODS: This guideline was undertaken by the Interventions to Address Sexual Problems in People with Cancer Expert Panel, a group organized by the Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc). Consistent with the pebc standardized approach, a systematic search was conducted for existing guidelines, and the literature in medline and embase for the years 2003-2015 was systematically searched for both systematic reviews and primary literature...
June 2017: Current Oncology
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