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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136654/vascular-surgical-stretch-injury-leads-to-activation-of-p2x7-receptors-and-impaired-endothelial-function
#1
Padmini Komalavilas, Weifeng Luo, Christy M Guth, Olukemi Jolayemi, Rachel I Bartelson, Joyce Cheung-Flynn, Colleen M Brophy
A viable vascular endothelial layer prevents vasomotor dysfunction, thrombosis, inflammation, and intimal hyperplasia. Injury to the endothelium occurs during harvest and "back table" preparation of human saphenous vein prior to implantation as an arterial bypass conduit. A subfailure overstretch model of rat aorta was used to show that subfailure stretch injury of vascular tissue leads to impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation. Stretch-induced impaired relaxation was mitigated by treatment with purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) inhibitors, brilliant blue FCF (FCF) and A740003, or apyrase, an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107517/entrainment-of-arteriole-vasomotor-fluctuations-by-neural-activity-is-a-basis-of-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-resting-state-connectivity
#2
Celine Mateo, Per M Knutsen, Philbert S Tsai, Andy Y Shih, David Kleinfeld
Resting-state signals in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) imaging are used to parcellate brain regions and define "functional connections" between regions. Yet a physiological link between fluctuations in blood oxygenation with those in neuronal signaling pathways is missing. We present evidence from studies on mouse cortex that modulation of vasomotion, i.e., intrinsic ultra-slow (0.1 Hz) fluctuations in arteriole diameter, provides this link. First, ultra-slow fluctuations in neuronal signaling, which occur as an envelope over γ-band activity, entrains vasomotion...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104591/melatonin-as-an-anti-inflammatory-agent-modulating-inflammasome-activation
#3
REVIEW
Gaia Favero, Lorenzo Franceschetti, Francesca Bonomini, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Rita Rezzani
Inflammation may be defined as the innate response to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, injury, and metabolic stress; its ultimate function is to restore the physiological homeostatic state. The exact aetiology leading to the development of inflammation is not known, but a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many inflammation-related clinical conditions. Recent studies suggest that the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases also involves the inflammasomes, intracellular multiprotein complexes that mediate activation of inflammatory caspases thereby inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096805/sex-related-differences-in-vasomotor-function-in-patients-with-angina-and%C3%A2-unobstructed-coronary-arteries
#4
Ahmed Aziz, Henrik Steen Hansen, Udo Sechtem, Eva Prescott, Peter Ong
BACKGROUND: Coronary vasomotor dysfunction is an important mechanism for angina in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of vasomotor dysfunction in a European population and to examine sex differences in the dose of acetylcholine leading to a positive acetylcholine provocation test (ACH test). METHODS: Between 2007 and 2014, we included 1,379 consecutive patients with stable angina, unobstructed coronaries and ACH test performed for epicardial vasospasm or coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) due to microvascular spasm...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090621/post-thyroidectomy-hypothyroidism-increases-the-expression-and-activity-of-ectonucleotidases-in-platelets-possible-involvement-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#5
Jucimara Baldissarelli, Micheli M Pillat, Roberta Schmatz, Andréia M Cardoso, Fátima H Abdalla, Juliana S de Oliveira, Carla R N Polachini, Emerson Casali, Clarissa Pereira Bornemann, Henning Ulrich, Vera M Morsch, Maria R C Schetinger
Signaling mediated by purines is a widespread mechanism of cell-cell communication related to vasomotor responses and the control of platelet function in the vascular system. However, little is known about the involvement of this signaling as well as the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the development of hypothyroidism. Therefore, the present study investigates changes in the purinergic system, including enzyme activities and expression in platelets, and oxidative profiles in patients with post-thyroidectomy hypothyroidism...
November 1, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080864/endothelial-progenitor-cell-biology-and-vascular-recovery-following-transradial-cardiac-catheterization
#6
Andrew Mitchell, Takeshi Fujisawa, Nicholas L Mills, Mairi Brittan, David E Newby, Nicholas L M Cruden
BACKGROUND: Transradial catheterization is associated with radial artery injury and vasomotor dysfunction and represents an accessible model of acute vascular injury in humans. We characterized vascular injury and functional recovery to understand the role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in vascular repair. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 50 patients (aged 64±10 years, 70% male) undergoing transradial cardiac catheterization, radial artery injury was assessed by optical coherence tomography and examination of explanted vascular sheaths...
October 28, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079734/limiting-injury-during-saphenous-vein-graft-preparation-for-coronary-arterial-bypass-prevents-metabolic-decompensation
#7
Joyce Cheung-Flynn, Jun Song, Igor Voskresensky, Eric S Wise, Yapu Liu, Yanhua Xiong, Susan S Eagle, Colleen M Brophy, C Robb Flynn
Standard harvest and preparation of human saphenous vein (HSV) for autologous coronary and peripheral arterial bypass procedures is associated with injury and increased oxidative stress that negatively affect graft performance. In this study we investigated the global metabolomic profiles of HSV before (unprepared; UP) and after standard vein graft preparation (AP). AP-HSV showed impaired vasomotor function that was associated with increased oxidative stress, phospholipid hydrolysis and energy depletion that are characteristic of mechanical and chemical injury...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076687/symptoms-of-menopause-in-peri-and-postmenopausal-women-and-their-attitude-towards-them
#8
Kausar Inayat, Nargis Danish, Lubna Hassan
BACKGROUND: The climacteric or perimenopause is the transitional phase during which reproductive function ceases. The average age of the menopause is 51.4 years with a duration of two years. Symptomatology include: vasomotor, psychological, urogenital/sexual, skin, menstrual irregularities and others. The objective was to study the attitude of these women towards menopause. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 500 women were included. RESULTS: Palpitations and headaches were found in 30% and 32% respectively in perimenopausal women compared to 16% and 20% in postmenopausal women...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072489/effects-of-losartan-on-vasomotor-function-and-canonical-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-the-aortas-of-sinoaortic-denervation-rats
#9
Minlie Liang, Wenliang Zhong, Fei Miao, Hongchao Wu, Yingfeng Liu
Increased short-term blood pressure variability (BPV) is strongly correlated with target organ damage. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal BPV-induced organ damage and effective therapeutic targets are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of losartan on vasomotor function and canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels in the aortas of rats with arterial pressure lability induced by sinoaortic denervation (SAD). SAD was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats at the age of 10 weeks...
October 26, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069110/vortioxetine-for-major-depressive-disorder-vasomotor-and-cognitive-symptoms-associated-with-the-menopausal-transition
#10
Marlene P Freeman, Laura J Cheng, Danna Moustafa, Abigail Davies, Alexandra Z Sosinsky, Betty Wang, Laura F Petrillo, Charlotte Hogan, Lee S Cohen
BACKGROUND: In a preliminary trial, we assessed the efficacy of vortioxetine for major depressive disorder (MDD) during the menopausal transition. Secondary outcomes included hot flashes (HFs), anxiety, and cognitive complaints. METHODS: Perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women with MDD (N = 27) received 8 weeks of open-label, flexible-dose treatment with vortioxetine. The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included: HF frequency, the Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS), Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MEN-QOL), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and Cogstate testing...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065123/supplemental-arginine-vasopressin-during-the-resuscitation-of-severe-hemorrhagic-shock-preserves-renal-mitochondrial-function
#11
Carrie A Sims, Guan Yuxia, Khushboo Singh, Evan C Werlin, Patrick M Reilly, Joseph A Baur
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary, plays a vital role in maintaining vasomotor tone during acute blood loss. We hypothesized that decompensated hemorrhagic shock is associated with decreased AVP stores and supplementation during resuscitation would improve both blood pressure and renal function. Using a decompensated hemorrhagic shock model, male Long-Evans rats were bled to mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 40mmHg and maintained until the MAP could not be sustained without fluid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059213/endothelial-camkii-as-a-regulator-of-enos-activity-and-no-mediated-vasoreactivity
#12
Shubha Murthy, Olha M Koval, Juan M Ramiro Diaz, Santosh Kumar, Daniel Nuno, Jason A Scott, Chantal Allamargot, Linda J Zhu, Kim Broadhurst, Velarchana Santhana, William J Kutschke, Kaikobad Irani, Kathryn G Lamping, Isabella M Grumbach
The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a serine/threonine kinase important in transducing intracellular Ca2+ signals. While in vitro data regarding the role of CaMKII in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are contradictory, its role in endothelial function in vivo remains unknown. Using two novel transgenic models to express CaMKII inhibitor peptides selectively in endothelium, we examined the effect of CaMKII on eNOS activation, NO production, vasomotor tone and blood pressure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047077/adventitial-fibroblast-nox4-expression-and-ros-signaling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
Scott A Barman, David Fulton
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease arising from remodeling and narrowing of pulmonary arteries (PA) resulting in high pulmonary arterial blood pressure and ultimately right ventricular failure. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a constitutively active enzyme, has been associated with oxygen sensing, vasomotor control, cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, senescence, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Further, elevated expression of Nox4 has been reported in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac failure, ischemic stroke, and PAH...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042424/angiotensin-ii-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-sacubitril-valsartan-improves-endothelial-dysfunction-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#14
Takunori Seki, Kenichi Goto, Yasuo Kansui, Toshio Ohtsubo, Kiyoshi Matsumura, Takanari Kitazono
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that antihypertensive treatment with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors restores the impaired endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Herein, we investigated whether the angiotensin II receptor-neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) would improve reduced EDH-mediated responses and whether LCZ696 would exert additional effects on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasorelaxation compared with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker alone during hypertension...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030424/stable-coronary-syndromes-pathophysiology-diagnostic-advances-and-therapeutic-need
#15
REVIEW
Thomas J Ford, David Corcoran, Colin Berry
The diagnostic management of patients with angina pectoris typically centres on the detection of obstructive epicardial CAD, which aligns with evidence-based treatment options that include medical therapy and myocardial revascularisation. This clinical paradigm fails to account for the considerable proportion (approximately one-third) of patients with angina in whom obstructive CAD is excluded. This common scenario presents a diagnostic conundrum whereby angina occurs but there is no obstructive CAD (ischaemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease-INOCA)...
October 13, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020717/ulnar-nerve-injury-on-removal-of-a-contraceptive-implant
#16
Eva E O'Grady, Dominic M Power
The close proximity of contraceptive implant placement to the course of the ulnar nerve can result in injury. Several factors have been implicated in this complication including: low BMI, erroneous placement of the implant, implantation over the brachial groove, and migration of the implant from its original insertion. Clinicians should familiarise themselves with the vulnerable neurovascular structures in the area and refer promptly to a specialist if any neurological symptoms develop during placement or removal of these devices...
December 2016: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991052/somatostatin-2-receptor-activation-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-does-not-mediate-the-decompensatory-phase-of-haemorrhage
#17
Phillip Bokiniec, Peter Gr Burke, Anita J Turner, Simon McMullan, Ann K Goodchild
Decompensation, a critical phase in the response to haemorrhage, is characterized by profound sympathoinhibition and the overriding of baroreflex mediated compensation. As sympathoexcitatory neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) maintain vasomotor tone and are essential for sympathetic baroreceptor reflex function, the RVLM is the likely mediator. However, how decompensation occurs is a mystery. Our previous work demonstrated that the inhibitory neuropeptide somatostatin (SST), evokes potent sympathoinhibition (1)...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983659/cardiac-and-peripheral-vasomotor-autonomic-functions-in-late-onset-transthyretin-val30met-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy
#18
Haruki Koike, Tomohiko Nakamura, Atsushi Hashizume, Ryoji Nishi, Shohei Ikeda, Yuichi Kawagashira, Masahiro Iijima, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
The objective of this study was to systematically investigate cardiac and peripheral vasomotor autonomic functions in late-onset transthyretin Val30Met familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP ATTR Val30Met) patients from non-endemic areas. The coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVR-R), responses to the Valsalva manoeuvre, head-up tilt test with impedance cardiography, noradrenaline infusion test, and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy were assessed in eight patients. Although only four patients manifested orthostatic hypotension during the head-up tilt test, CVR-R, responses to the Valsalva manoeuvre, and myocardial MIBG uptake indicated a higher prevalence of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction...
November 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982669/targeting-cx40-connexin40-expression-or-function-reduces-angiogenesis-in-the-developing-mouse-retina
#19
Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Florent Allagnat, Lauriane Hamard, Loïc Le Gal, Paolo Meda, Denise Nardelli-Haefliger, Elisabeth Génot, Florian Alonso
OBJECTIVE: Cx40 (Connexin40) forms intercellular channels that coordinate the electric conduction in the heart and the vasomotor tone in large vessels. The protein was shown to regulate tumoral angiogenesis; however, whether Cx40 also contributes to physiological angiogenesis is still unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we show that Cx40 contributes to physiological angiogenesis. Genetic deletion of Cx40 leads to a reduction in vascular growth and capillary density in the neovascularization model of the mouse neonatal retina...
November 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968190/the-conducted-vasomotor-response-function-biophysical-basis-and-pharmacological-control
#20
Donald G Welsh, Cam Ha T Tran, Bjorn O Hald, Maria Sancho
Arterial tone is coordinated among vessel segments to optimize nutrient transport and organ function. Coordinated vasomotor activity is remarkable to observe and depends on stimuli, sparsely generated in tissue, eliciting electrical responses that conduct lengthwise among electrically coupled vascular cells. The conducted response is the focus of this topical review, and in this regard, the authors highlight literature that advances an appreciation of functional significance, cellular mechanisms, and biophysical principles...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
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