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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820425/bioinformatics-analysis-of-phylogeny-and-transcription-of-taa-yuc-auxin-biosynthetic-genes
#1
Axel Poulet, Verena Kriechbaumer
Auxin is a main plant growth hormone crucial in a multitude of developmental processes in plants. Auxin biosynthesis via the tryptophan aminotransferase of arabidopsis (TAA)/YUCCA (YUC) route involving tryptophan aminotransferases and YUC flavin-dependent monooxygenases that produce the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan is currently the most researched auxin biosynthetic pathway. Previous data showed that, in maize and arabidopsis, TAA/YUC-dependent auxin biosynthesis can be detected in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) microsomal fractions, and a subset of auxin biosynthetic proteins are localized to the ER, mainly due to transmembrane domains (TMD)...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820074/exploring-the-cardio-metabolic-relevance-of-t-cadherin-a-pleiotropic-adiponectin-receptor
#2
Jaime Lynn Clark, Carla Gwen Taylor, Peter Zahradka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: T cadherin is a unique member of the cadherin family and is primarily expressed in the cardiovascular system. T cadherin has not been abundantly studied, but the studies conducted to date have explored the impact of this protein on health and the function of organs involved in metabolic regulation. METHODS: This article examines the recent knowledge of the ligand partners for T cadherin and the potential contribution(s) of T-cadherin to cardio-metabolic function...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819643/membrane-localization-of-acetylated-cnk1-mediates-a-positive-feedback-on-raf-erk-signaling
#3
Adrian Fischer, Wignand W D Mühlhäuser, Bettina Warscheid, Gerald Radziwill
Spatiotemporal control is a common mechanism that modulates activity and function of signal transducers in the signaling network. We identified acetylation of CNK1 (connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras-1) as a late step in the activation of CNK1 signaling, accompanied with prolonged stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We identified the acetyltransferase CREB (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein)-binding protein and the deacetylase SIRT2 (sirtuin type 2) as novel binding partners of CNK1, modulating the acetylation state of CNK1...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818427/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-nadph-dependent-cytochrome-p450-reductase-from-the-green-microalga-botryococcus-braunii-b-race
#4
Chung-Yau Tsou, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The green microalga Botryococcus braunii of the B race accumulates various lipophilic compounds containing a 10,11-oxidosqualene epoxide moiety in addition to large amounts of triterpene hydrocarbons. While 2,3-squalene epoxidases have already been isolated and characterized from the alga, the enzyme that catalyzes the 10,11-epoxidation of squalene has remained elusive. In order to obtain a molecular tool to explore a 10,11-squalene epoxidase, cDNA cloning of an NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that is required by both squalene epoxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes was carried out...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816422/dolichol-kinase-deficiency-dolk-cdg-two-new-cases-and-expansion-of-phenotype
#5
Eric T Rush, Craig V Baker, William B Rizzo
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a group of genetic diseases caused by mutations in genes that are necessary for the addition of oligosaccharides to acceptor proteins or lipids. An early step in this process requires dolichol kinase (DK) to catalyze the formation of dolichyl phosphate, which acts as a membrane anchor for initial attachment of sugar residues that are subsequently built up to oligosaccharides and transferred to acceptor proteins and lipids for further processing. Biallelic mutations in DOLK, the gene for DK, result in human in a CDG with variable symptoms, ranging from nonsyndromic dilated cardiomypopathy to severe multiorgan involvement...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816391/cytoskeleton-and-nucleoskeleton-involvement-in-processes-of-cytomixis-in-plants
#6
REVIEW
E A Kravets, A I Yemets, Ya B Blume
Cytomixis, is a form of cell-to-cell nuclear migration that involves the interaction of dynamic cytoskeletal components with the nucleus through signalling systems and linker complexes. In cytomixis two known mechanisms can be involved: actomyosin and/or microtubules and their associated motors. Perinuclear actin anchors and determines the direction of nuclear movement. In microsporogenesis cytomixis is probably initiated by a cascade of signals that trigger prophase reorganization of nucleus and cytoskeleton, and is a result of cytoskeletal protein activation, as well as a weakening of mechanisms responsible for anchoring the nucleus...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815695/a-distinctive-histidine-residue-is-essential-for-in-vivo-glycation-inactivation-of-human-cd59-transgenically-expressed-in-mice-erythrocytes-implications-for-human-diabetes-complications
#7
Rupam Sahoo, Pamela Ghosh, Michael Chorev, Jose A Halperin
Clinical and experimental evidences support a link between the complement system and the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. CD59, an extracellular cell membrane-anchored protein, inhibits formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), the main effector of complement-mediated tissue damage. This complement regulatory activity of human CD59 (hCD59) is inhibited by hyperglycemia-induced ε-amino glycation of Lys(41) . Biochemical and structural analyses of glycated proteins with known three-dimensional structure revealed that glycation of ε-amino lysyl residues occurs predominantly at "glycation motives" that include lysyl/lysyl pairs or proximity of a histidyl residue, in which the imidazolyl moiety is ≈ 5Å from the ε-amino group...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815523/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-crosstalk-mediated-by-the-extended-synaptotagmins
#8
Yasunori Saheki
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) possesses multiplicity of functions including protein synthesis, membrane lipid biogenesis, and Ca(2+) storage and has broad localization throughout the cell. While the ER and most other membranous organelles are highly interconnected via vesicular traffic that relies on membrane budding and fusion reactions, the ER forms direct contacts with virtually all other membranous organelles, including the plasma membrane (PM), without membrane fusion. Growing evidence suggests that these contacts play major roles in cellular physiology, including the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and signaling and control of cellular lipid homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814779/the-beach-protein-lrba-promotes-the-localization-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein-golf-to-olfactory-cilia
#9
Stefan Kurtenbach, Andreas Gießl, Siv Strömberg, Jan Kremers, Jenny Atorf, Sebastian Rasche, Eva M Neuhaus, Denis Hervé, Johann Helmut Brandstätter, Esther Asan, Hanns Hatt, Manfred W Kilimann
BEACH domain proteins are involved in membrane protein traffic and human diseases, but their molecular mechanisms are not understood. The BEACH protein LRBA has been implicated in immune response and cell proliferation, and human LRBA mutations cause severe immune deficiency. Here, we report a first functional and molecular phenotype outside the immune system of LRBA-knockout mice: compromised olfaction, manifesting in reduced electro-olfactogram response amplitude, impaired food-finding efficiency, and smaller olfactory bulbs...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814505/the-molecular-architecture-of-the-yeast-spindle-pole-body-core-determined-by-bayesian-integrative-modeling
#10
Shruthi Viswanath, Massimiliano Bonomi, Seung Joong Kim, Vadim A Klenchin, Keenan C Taylor, King C Yabut, Neil T Umbreit, Heather A Van Epps, Janet Meehl, Michele H Jones, Daniel Russel, Javier A Velazquez-Muriel, Mark Winey, Ivan Rayment, Trisha N Davis, Andrej Sali, Eric G Muller
Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) form, anchor and stabilize the polarized network of microtubules in a cell. The central MTOC is the centrosome that duplicates during the cell cycle and during mitosis assembles a bipolar spindle to capture and segregate sister chromatids. Yet, despite their importance in cell biology, the physical structure of MTOCs is poorly understood. Here we determine the molecular architecture of the core of the yeast spindle pole body (SPB) by Bayesian integrative structure modeling based on in vivo FRET, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and two-hybrid analysis...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812939/removing-dysfunctional-mitochondria-from-axons-independent-of-mitophagy-under-pathophysiological-conditions
#11
Mei-Yao Lin, Xiu-Tang Cheng, Yuxiang Xie, Qian Cai, Zu-Hang Sheng
Chronic mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in major neurodegenerative diseases. Long-term cumulative pathological stress leads to axonal accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Therefore, the early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. We recently investigated the axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer disease (AD)-linked neurons...
August 16, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811333/arabidopsis-lorelei-a-maternally-expressed-imprinted-gene-promotes-early-seed-development
#12
Yanbing Wang, Tatsuya Tsukamoto, Jennifer Ashley Noble, Xunliang Liu, Rebecca Mosher, Ravishankar Palanivelu
n flowering plants the female gametophyte controls pollen tube reception immediately before fertilization and regulates seed development immediately after fertilization, although controlling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we showed that LORELEI (LRE), which encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein, is critical for pollen tube reception by the female gametophyte before fertilization and initiation of seed development after fertilization. Here, we show that LRE is expressed in the synergid, egg, and central cells of the female gametophyte and in the zygote and proliferating endosperm of the seed...
August 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811266/expression-and-purification-of-a-difficult-sarcomeric-protein-telethonin
#13
Huanbo Tan, Wencheng Su, Pengju Wang, Wenyu Zhang, Michael Sattler, Peijian Zou
Telethonin anchors the N-terminal region of titin in the Z-disk of the sarcomere by binding to two immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains (Z1 and Z2) of titin (Z1Z2). Thereby telethonin plays an important role in myofibril assembly and in muscle development and functional regulation. The expression and purification of recombinant telethonin is very challenging. In previous studies, recombinant telethonin expressed from E. coli was refolded in the presence of Z1Z2. Here, we report various strategies to establish a reliable and efficient protocol for the preparation of telethonin and titin Z1Z2 protein...
August 12, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808796/structural-alteration-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-contribution-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#14
Weiqi Li, Wen Wang
The endothelial glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-protein layer that lines the luminal surface of the endothelium. It anchors to the cell membrane via its core proteins that share extended link to the actin cytoskeleton. It is widely accepted that those protein domains and the attached carbohydrates are susceptible to pathological changes. It is unclear, however, to what extent the actin cytoskeleton contributes to the glycocalyx stability. In this study, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the maintenance of the glycocalyx under static and laminar flow conditions in vitro...
August 14, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808245/structural-characterization-of-cas-sh3-domain-selectivity-and-regulation-reveals-new-cas-interaction-partners
#15
Jakub Gemperle, Rozálie Hexnerová, Martin Lepšík, Petr Tesina, Michal Dibus, Marian Novotný, Jan Brábek, Václav Veverka, Daniel Rosel
CAS is a docking protein downstream of the proto-oncogene Src with a role in invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. The CAS SH3 domain is indispensable for CAS-mediated signaling, but structural aspects of CAS SH3 ligand binding and regulation are not well understood. Here, we identified the consensus CAS SH3 binding motif and structurally characterized the CAS SH3 domain in complex with ligand. We revealed the requirement for an uncommon centrally localized lysine residue at position +2 of CAS SH3 ligands and two rather dissimilar optional anchoring residues, leucine and arginine, at position +5...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807993/nine-unanswered-questions-about-cytokinesis
#16
REVIEW
Thomas D Pollard
Experiments on model systems have revealed that cytokinesis in cells with contractile rings (amoebas, fungi, and animals) depends on shared molecular mechanisms in spite of some differences that emerged during a billion years of divergent evolution. Understanding these fundamental mechanisms depends on identifying the participating proteins and characterizing the mechanisms that position the furrow, assemble the contractile ring, anchor the ring to the plasma membrane, trigger ring constriction, produce force to form a furrow, disassemble the ring, expand the plasma membrane in the furrow, and separate the daughter cell membranes...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807980/cd177-modulates-human-neutrophil-migration-through-activation-mediated-integrin-and-chemoreceptor-regulation
#17
Ming Bai, Ricardo Grieshaber-Bouyer, Junxia Wang, Angela B Schmider, Zachary S Wilson, Liling Zeng, Olha Halyabar, Matthew D Godin, Hung N Nguyen, Anaïs Levescot, Pierre Cunin, Craig T Lefort, Roy J Soberman, Peter A Nigrovic
CD177 is a GPI-anchored protein expressed by a variable proportion of human neutrophils that mediates surface expression of the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) antigen proteinase 3. CD177 associates with β2 integrins and recognizes PECAM-1, suggesting a role in neutrophil migration. However, CD177(pos) neutrophils exhibit no clear migratory advantage in vivo, despite interruption of transendothelial migration by in vitro CD177 ligation. We sought to understand this paradox. Using a PECAM-1-independent transwell system, we found that CD177(pos) and CD177(neg) neutrophils migrated comparably...
August 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806058/metalloproteases-of-the-inner-mitochondrial-membrane
#18
Roman Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk
The inner mitochondrial membrane (IM) is among most protein-rich cellular compartments. The metastable IM sub-proteome where the concentration of proteins is approaching oversaturation creates a challenging protein folding environment with high probability for protein malfunction or aggregation. Failure to maintain protein homeostasis in such a setting can impair functional integrity of the mitochondria and drive clinical manifestations. The IM is equipped with a series of highly conserved, proteolytic complexes dedicated to the maintenance of normal protein homeostasis within this mitochondrial sub-compartment...
August 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803875/a-novel-plasma-membrane-anchored-protein-regulates-xylem-cell-wall-deposition-through-microtubule-dependent-lateral-inhibition-of-rho-gtpase-domains
#19
Yuki Sugiyama, Mayumi Wakazaki, Kiminori Toyooka, Hiroo Fukuda, Yoshihisa Oda
Spatial control of cell-wall deposition is essential for determining plant cell shape [1]. Rho-type GTPases, together with the cortical cytoskeleton, play central roles in regulating cell-wall patterning [2]. In metaxylem vessel cells, which are the major components of xylem tissues, active ROP11 Rho GTPases form oval plasma membrane domains that locally disrupt cortical microtubules, thereby directing the formation of oval pits in secondary cell walls [3-5]. However, the regulatory mechanism that determines the planar shape of active Rho of Plants (ROP) domains is still unknown...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803732/reck-and-gpr124-are-essential-receptor-cofactors-for-wnt7a-wnt7b-specific-signaling-in-mammalian-cns-angiogenesis-and-blood-brain-barrier-regulation
#20
Chris Cho, Philip M Smallwood, Jeremy Nathans
Reck, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, and Gpr124, an orphan GPCR, have been implicated in Wnt7a/Wnt7b signaling in the CNS vasculature. We show here that vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific reduction in Reck impairs CNS angiogenesis and that EC-specific postnatal loss of Reck, combined with loss of Norrin, impairs blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. The most N-terminal domain of Reck binds to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) domains of Gpr124, and weakening this interaction by targeted mutagenesis reduces Reck/Gpr124 stimulation of Wnt7a signaling in cell culture and impairs CNS angiogenesis...
August 7, 2017: Neuron
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