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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346375/liposomal-formulations-in-clinical-use-an-updated-review
#1
REVIEW
Upendra Bulbake, Sindhu Doppalapudi, Nagavendra Kommineni, Wahid Khan
Liposomes are the first nano drug delivery systems that have been successfully translated into real-time clinical applications. These closed bilayer phospholipid vesicles have witnessed many technical advances in recent years since their first development in 1965. Delivery of therapeutics by liposomes alters their biodistribution profile, which further enhances the therapeutic index of various drugs. Extensive research is being carried out using these nano drug delivery systems in diverse areas including the delivery of anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory drugs and therapeutic genes...
March 27, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346351/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-on-the-structural-organization-of-chs3-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Simon Gohlke, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Hans Merzendorfer
Chitin biosynthesis in yeast is accomplished by three chitin synthases (Chs) termed Chs1, Chs2 and Chs3, of which the latter accounts for most of the chitin deposited within the cell wall. While the overall structures of Chs1 and Chs2 are similar to those of other chitin synthases from fungi and arthropods, Chs3 lacks some of the C-terminal transmembrane helices raising questions regarding its structure and topology. To fill this gap of knowledge, we performed bioinformatic analyses and protease protection assays that revealed significant information about the catalytic domain, the chitin-translocating channel and the interfacial helices in between...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346138/dilation-of-fusion-pores-by-crowding-of-snare-proteins
#3
Zhenyong Wu, Oscar D Bello, Sathish Thiyagarajan, Sarah Marie Auclair, Wensi Vennekate, Shyam S Krishnakumar, Ben O'Shaughnessy, Erdem Karatekin
Hormones and neurotransmitters are released through fluctuating exocytotic fusion pores that can flicker open and shut multiple times. Cargo release and vesicle recycling depend on the fate of the pore, which may reseal or dilate irreversibly. Pore nucleation requires zippering between vesicle-associated v- and target membrane t-SNAREs, but the mechanisms governing the subsequent pore dilation are not understood. Here, we probed dilation of single fusion pores using v-SNARE-reconstituted ~23 nm diameter discoidal nanolipoprotein particles (vNLPs) as fusion partners with cells ectopically expressing cognate, 'flipped' t-SNAREs...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345878/multispectral-optical-tweezers-for-biochemical-fingerprinting-of-cd9-positive-exosome-subpopulations
#4
Randy P Carney, Sidhartha Hazari, Macalistair Colquhoun, Di Tran, Billanna Hwang, Michael S Mulligan, James D Bryers, Eugenia Girda, Gary S Leiserowitz, Zachary James Smith, Kit S Lam
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, are circulating nanoscale particles heavily implicated in cell signaling, and can be isolated in vast numbers from human biofluids. Study of their molecular profiling and materials properties is currently underway for purposes of describing a variety of biological functions and diseases. However, the large, and as yet unquantified, variety of EV subpopulations differing in composition, size, and likely function, necessitates characterization schemes capable of measuring single vesicles...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345763/the-role-of-runx2-in-facilitating-autophagy-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Manish Tandon, Ahmad H Othman, Vivek Ashok, Gary S Stein, Jitesh Pratap
Breast cancer metastases cause significant patient mortality. During metastases, cancer cells use autophagy, a catabolic process to recycle nutrients via lysosomal degradation, to overcome nutritional stress for their survival. The Runt-related transcription factor, Runx2, promotes cell survival under metabolic stress and regulates breast cancer progression and bone metastases. Here, we identify that Runx2 enhances autophagy in metastatic breast cancer cells. We defined Runx2 function in cellular autophagy by monitoring microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3B-II) levels, an autophagy-specific marker...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345489/primary-culture-of-human-cumulus-cells-requires-stearoyl-coenzyme-a-desaturase-1-activity-for-steroidogenesis-and-enhancing-oocyte-in-vitro-maturation
#6
Shabnam Fayezi, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Masoud Darabi, Mohsen Norouzian, Mohammad Nouri, Laya Farzadi, Maryam Darabi
Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism and is expressed in cumulus cells. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SCD1 inhibition in human cumulus cells on triglyceride content, steroidogenesis, and oocyte in vitro maturation. Human cumulus cells were exposed to SCD1 inhibitor CAY10566 (SCDinhib) alone or in combination with oleic acid in primary culture. The SCDinhib markedly suppressed triglyceride accumulation (-47%, P = .01), aromatase gene expression (-36%, P = ...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345149/t-vaginalis-exosome-like-vesicles-modify-the-cytokine-profile-and-reduce-inflammation-in-parasite-infected-mice
#7
Luis Mario Olmos-Ortiz, Marco Barajas-Mendiola, Miriam Barrios-Rodiles, Laura E Castellano, Sergio Arias-Negrete, Eva E Avila, Patricia Cuéllar-Mata
Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is a flagellated parasite commonly spread through sexual transmission. This protozoan initiates a severe inflammatory process, inducing nitric oxide, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-22 production by host immune cells. The parasites elicit these responses by releasing surface lipophosphoglycan, small extracellular vesicles (exosomes) and other factors. Tv exosomes are similar to mammalian exosomes and have been implicated in the modulation of IL-8 secretion by epithelial cells...
March 27, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344597/high-biologically-effective-dose-radiation-therapy-using-brachytherapy-in-combination-with-external-beam-radiotherapy-for-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#8
Keisei Okamoto, Akinori Wada, Naoaki Kohno
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with biologically effective dose (BED) ≥ 220 Gy of high-dose radiotherapy, using low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and short-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2005 to 2013, a total of 143 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated by radiotherapy of BED ≥ 220 Gy with a combination of LDR brachytherapy, EBRT, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)...
February 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344432/quantification-of-mixing-in-vesicle-suspensions-using-numerical-simulations-in-two-dimensions
#9
G Kabacaoğlu, B Quaife, G Biros
We study mixing in Stokesian vesicle suspensions in two dimensions on a cylindrical Couette apparatus using numerical simulations. The vesicle flow simulation is done using a boundary integral method, and the advection-diffusion equation for the mixing of the solute is solved using a pseudo-spectral scheme. We study the effect of the area fraction, the viscosity contrast between the inside (the vesicles) and the outside (the bulk) fluid, the initial condition of the solute, and the mixing metric. We compare mixing in the suspension with mixing in the Couette apparatus without vesicles...
February 2017: Physics of Fluids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344166/micrornas-as-players-and-signals-in-the-metastatic-cascade-implications-for-the-development-of-novel-anti-metastatic-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Paolo Gandellini, Valentina Doldi, Nadia Zaffaroni
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Increasing evidence emerging from human tumor preclinical models clearly indicates that specific miRNAs, collectively termed "metastamirs," play a functional role in different steps of the metastatic cascade, by exerting either pro- or anti-metastatic functions, and behave as signaling mediators to enable tumor cell to colonize a specific organ. miRNAs also actively participate in the proficient interaction of cancer cells with tumor microenvironment, either at the primary or at the metastatic site...
March 23, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344072/osteopontin-metallothionen-i-ii-interactions-in-experimental-autoimmunune-encephalomyelitis
#11
Hrvoje Jakovac, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Sandra Šućurović, Biserka Mulac-Jeričević, Biserka Radošević-Stašić
Osteopontin (OPN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) glyco-phosphoprotein, plays an important role in autoimmune-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As an integrin and CD44 binding protein it participates in bidirectional communication between the ECM and target cells and affects transduction pathways that maintain neuronal and immune cells homeostasis. Its biological activity is also heavily influenced by microenvironment, which stimulates the cleavage of OPN and changes its functions...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344015/transdermal-delivery-of-atorvastatin-calcium-from-novel-nanovesicular-systems-using-polyethylene-glycol-fatty-acid-esters-ameliorated-effect-without-liver-toxicity-in-poloxamer-407-induced-hyperlipidemic-rats
#12
Mohamed O Mahmoud, Heba M Aboud, Amira H Hassan, Adel A Ali, Thomas P Johnston
CONTEXT: Atorvastatin calcium (ATV), a cholesterol-lowering agent, suffers from poor systemic availability (14%) after oral administration in addition to other side effects on the gastrointestinal tract, liver and muscle. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present investigation was to improve ATV bioavailability and overcome complications attendant with peroral administration by developing a new nanovesicular system encapsulating ATV for its delivery via the transdermal route...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343869/spatiotemporal-regulation-of-synaptic-vesicle-fusion-sites-in-central-synapses
#13
Dario Maschi, Vitaly A Klyachko
The number and availability of vesicle release sites at the synaptic active zone (AZ) are critical factors governing neurotransmitter release; yet, these fundamental synaptic parameters have remained undetermined. Moreover, how neural activity regulates the spatiotemporal properties of the release sites within individual central synapses is unknown. Here, we combined a nanoscale imaging approach with advanced image analysis to detect individual vesicle fusion events with ∼27 nm localization precision at single hippocampal synapses under physiological conditions...
March 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343627/invited-review-milk-phospholipid-vesicles-their-colloidal-properties-and-potential-as-delivery-vehicles-for-bioactive-molecules
#14
E Arranz, M Corredig
The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a unique colloidal assembly of phospholipids and proteins, with numerous potential applications as functional ingredient. The phospholipid components of the MFGM are gaining interest as they are a useful matrix for use as a constituent of delivery systems such as liposomes. Liposomes formulated with milk phospholipids are becoming an alternative to other sources of phospholipids such as soybean or egg yolk. However, incorporation of phospholipids fractionated from the milk fat globule membrane in dairy products requires an in-depth understanding of the functional properties of phospholipids...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342976/translating-the-microrna-signature-of-microvesicles-derived-from-human-coronary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-in-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-and-coronary-artery-disease
#15
David de Gonzalo-Calvo, Ana Cenarro, Katia Garlaschelli, Fabio Pellegatta, David Vilades, Laura Nasarre, Sandra Camino-Lopez, Javier Crespo, Francesc Carreras, Rubén Leta, Alberico Luigi Catapano, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Fernando Civeira, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes
AIMS: To analyze the impact of atherogenic lipoproteins on the miRNA signature of microvesicles derived from human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC) and to translate these results to familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS: Conditioned media was collected after exposure of CASMC to atherogenic lipoproteins. Plasma samples were collected from two independent populations of diagnosed FH patients and matched normocholesterolemic controls (Study population 1, N=50; Study population 2, N=24) and a population of patients with suspected CAD (Study population 3, N=50)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342805/phosphoethanolamine-addition-to-the-heptose-i-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-modifies-the-inner-core-structure-and-has-an-impact-on-the-binding-of-polymyxin-b-to-the-escherichia-coli-outer-membrane
#16
Javier Salazar, Mackarenna Alarcon, Jaime Huerta, Belén Navarro, Daniel Aguayo
Phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) decoration of E. coli Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides resistance to the antimicrobial Polymyxin B (PolB). While EptA and EptB enzymes catalyze the addition of pEtN to the Lipid A and Kdo (pEtN-Kdo-Lipid A), EptC catalyzes the pEtN addition to the Heptose I (pEtN-HeptI). In this study, we investigated the contribution of pEtN-HeptI to PolB resistance using eptA/eptB and eptC deficient E. coli K12 and its wild-type parent strains. These mutations were shown to decrease the antimicrobial activity of PolB on cells grown under pEtN-addition inducing conditions...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342230/self-assembled-chiral-nanostructure-as-scaffold-for-asymmetric-reaction
#17
Jian Jiang, Guanghui Ouyang, Li Zhang, Minghua Liu
Asymmetric reaction is one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis. While large amount of efficient molecular catalysts have been developed and applied, supramolecular and nanostructured catalysts have been attracting recent interest. In this mini review, we focused on the self-assembled chiral nanostructures and reviewed their possibility and feasibility as the enantioselective catalyst. The design concept and the requirement of the chiral scaffold as the catalysts are discussed. Based on the chirality and catalytic performance of the building molecules and the supramolecular nanostructures, the nanocatalyst is divided into chiral nanostructure driven (CND) and chiral nanostructure enhanced (CNE) enantioselective catalysts...
March 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341929/molecular-characterisation-of-four-echinostomes-digenea-echinostomatidae-from-birds-in-new-zealand-with-descriptions-of-echinostoma-novaezealandense-n-sp-and-echinoparyphium-poulini-n-sp
#18
Simona Georgieva, Isabel Blasco-Costa, Aneta Kostadinova
Morphological and molecular characterisation of echinostome specimens (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) recovered in one Anas platyrhynchos L. and one Cygnus atratus (Latham) (Anseriformes: Anatidae) from New Zealand revealed the presence of two known species, Echinostoma miyagawai Ishii, 1932 and Echinoparyphium ellisi (Johnston & Simpson, 1944) and two species new to science. Comparative morphological and phylogenetic analyses supported the distinct species status of Echinostoma novaezealandense n. sp. ex Branta canadensis (L...
March 24, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341602/cytosolic-yb-1-and-nsun2-are-the-only-proteins-recognizing-specific-motifs-present-in-mrnas-enriched-in-exosomes
#19
Olga A Kossinova, Alexander V Gopanenko, Svetlana N Tamkovich, Olga A Krasheninina, Alexey E Tupikin, Elena Kiseleva, Darya D Yanshina, Alexey A Malygin, Alia G Ven'yaminova, Marsel R Kabilov, Galina G Karpova
Exosomes, membranous vesicles secreted by various cells, are involved in intercellular communication and carry vast repertoires of RNAs and proteins. Processes mediating RNA sorting into exosomes are currently poorly understood. Using bioinformatics approaches, three structural motifs ACCAGCCU, CAGUGAGC and UAAUCCCA have been discovered as enriched in exosomal mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs. Here, utilizing short RNA hairpins, each containing one of the motifs, in a pull-down assay of cytosolic extract of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, we prove that multifunctional RNA-binding protein YB-1 specifically interacts with all three motifs, whereas methyltransferase NSUN2 recognizes only the motif CAGUGAGC...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341600/metabolic-disorder-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-bioenergetics-redox-homeostasis-and-central-carbon-metabolism
#20
Annadurai Anandhan, Maria S Jacome, Shulei Lei, Pablo Hernandez-Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Robert Powers, Rodrigo Franco
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of protein inclusions (Lewy bodies) are the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is triggered by genetic alterations, environmental/occupational exposures and aging. However, the exact molecular mechanisms linking these PD risk factors to neuronal dysfunction are still unclear. Alterations in redox homeostasis and bioenergetics (energy failure) are thought to be central components of neurodegeneration that contribute to the impairment of important homeostatic process in dopaminergic cells such as protein quality control mechanisms, neurotransmitter release/metabolism, axonal transport of vesicles and cell survival...
March 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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