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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777705/membrane-proteins-significantly-restrict-exosome-mobility
#1
Mikhail Skliar, Vasiliy S Chernyshev, David M Belnap, German V Sergey, Samer M Al-Hakami, Philip S Bernard, Inge J Stijleman, Rakesh Rachamadugu
Exosomes are membrane nanovesicles implicated in cell-to-cell signaling in which they transfer their molecular cargo from the parent to the recipient cells. This role essentially depends on the exosomes' small size, which is the prerequisite for their rapid migration through the crowded extracellular matrix and into and out of circulation. Here we report much lower exosome mobility than expected from the size of their vesicles, implicate membrane proteins in a substantially impeded rate of migration, and suggest an approach to quantifying the impact...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777296/polymersomes-as-nanoreactors-for-preparative-biocatalytic-applications-current-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Ludwig Klermund, Kathrin Castiglione
Polymersomes are hollow, spherical vesicles that are surrounded by a polymer membrane. The applied polymer must be amphiphilic to promote self-assembly in aqueous solution. At the same time, the polymer composition is highly versatile, which leads to diverse properties in terms of chemical and mechanical stability, membrane permeability and the ability to functionalize the membrane. By encapsulating chemical or biological substances within the polymersomes, drug delivery systems, cell mimetics or catalytic nanoreactors can be assembled...
May 17, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777258/development-of-a-two-stage-in-vitro-model-system-to-investigate-the-mineralization-mechanisms-involved-in-idiopathic-stone-formation-stage-1-biomimetic-randall-s-plaque-using-decellularized-porcine-kidneys
#3
Archana C Lovett, Saeed R Khan, Laurie B Gower
Idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers form stones that are commonly attached to calcium phosphate (CaP) deposits in the renal tissue, known as Randall's plaques (RP). Plaques are suggested to originate in the renal tubular basement membrane, where they exhibit a morphology of concentrically laminated apatitic spherules, while in the interstitial regions, the collagen fibrils and vesicles become mineralized. We hypothesize that these minerals might form by non-classical crystallization mechanisms, such as via amorphous precursors, some of which might originate from a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process...
May 18, 2018: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777034/membrane-fluctuations-and-acidosis-regulate-cooperative-binding-of-marker-of-self-cd47-with-macrophage-checkpoint-receptor-sirp%C3%AE
#4
Jan Steinkühler, Bartosz Różycki, Cory Alvey, Reinhard Lipowsky, Thomas R Weikl, Rumiana Dimova, Dennis E Discher
Cell-cell interactions that result from membrane proteins binding weakly in trans can cause accumulations in cis that suggest cooperativity and thereby an acute sensitivity to environmental factors. The ubiquitous "marker of self" protein CD47 binds weakly to SIRPα on a macrophage, which leads to accumulation of SIRPα at a phagocytic synapse and ultimately to inhibition of engulfment of 'self' cells - including cancer cells. We reconstituted this macrophage checkpoint with CD47-GFP displayed on giant vesicles generated from plasma membranes and then imaged vesicles adhering to SIRPα immobilized on a surface...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776664/rhod-localization-and-function-is-dependent-on-its-gtp-gdp-bound-state-and-unique-n-terminal-motif
#5
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Pontus Aspenström
The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD has previously been shown to have a major impact on the organization and function of the actin filament system. However, when first discovered, RhoD was found to regulate endosome trafficking and dynamics and we therefore sought to investigate this regulation in more detail. We found that exogenously expressed RhoD in human fibroblasts localized to vesicles and the plasma membrane and that the active GTP-bound conformation was required for the plasma membrane localization but not for vesicle localization...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776311/phospholipid-block-copolymer-hybrid-vesicles-with-lysosomal-escape-ability
#6
Wei Zong, Bo Thingholm, Fabian Itel, Philipp Sebastian Schattling, Edit Brodszkij, Daniel Mayer, Steffen Stenger, Kenneth N Goldie, Xiaojun Han, Brigitte Städler
The success of nanoparticulate formulations in drug delivery depends on various aspects including their toxicity, internalization and intracellular location. Vesicular assemblies consisting of phospholipid and amphiphilic block copolymers are an emerging platform, which combines the benefits from liposomes and polymersomes while overcoming their challenges. We report the synthesis of poly(cholesteryl methacrylate)-block-poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (pCMA-b-pDMAEMA) block copolymers and their assembly with phospholipids into hybrid vesicles...
May 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776071/effect-of-ac-electric-field-on-the-dynamics-of-a-vesicle-under-shear-flow-in-the-small-deformation-regime
#7
Kumari Priti Sinha, Rochish M Thaokar
Vesicles or biological cells under simultaneous shear and electric field can be encountered in dielectrophoretic devices or designs used for continuous flow electrofusion or electroporation. In this work, the dynamics of a vesicle subjected to simultaneous shear and uniform alternating current (ac) electric field is investigated in the small deformation limit. The coupled equations for vesicle orientation and shape evolution are derived theoretically, and the resulting nonlinear equations are handled numerically to generate relevant phase diagrams that demonstrate the effect of electrical parameters on the different dynamical regimes such as tank treading (TT), vacillating breathing (VB) [called trembling (TR) in this work], and tumbling (TU)...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775645/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induce-a-permissive-state-in-the-bone-marrow-that-enhances-g-csf-induced-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization-in-mice
#8
Evert-Jan F M de Kruijf, Rob Zuijderduijn, Marjolein C Stip, Willem E Fibbe, Melissa van Pel
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) support hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in vivo and enhance HSC engraftment and hematopoietic recovery upon co-transplantation with HSC. These data have led to the hypothesis that MSC may impact the HSC niche, leading to changes in HSC retention and trafficking. We studied the effect of MSC administration on the HSC compartment in the bone marrow (BM) in mice. Following injection of MSC, HSC numbers in the BM were decreased coinciding with an increased cell cycle activity compared to PBS-injected controls...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775614/tumor-dependent-secretion-of-close-homolog-of-l1-results-in-elevation-of-its-circulating-level-in-mouse-model-for-human-lung-tumor
#9
Norihiro Kotani, Yui Ida, Takanari Nakano, Izumi Sato, Ryusuke Kuwahara, Arisa Yamaguchi, Masahiro Tomita, Koichi Honke, Takayuki Murakoshi
Close homolog of L1 (CHL1) and its truncated form mainly play crucial roles in mouse brain development and neural functions. Herein, we newly identified that truncated form of CHL1 is produced and released from lung tumor tissue in a mouse model expressing human EML4-ALK fusion gene. Both western blot and direct ELISA analysis revealed that mouse CHL1 level in serum (including serum extracellular vesicles) was significantly elevated in EML4-ALK transgenic mice. The correlation between the tumor size and the amount of CHL1 secretion could be examined in this study, and showed a significant positive correlation in a tumor size-dependent manner...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775562/rapid-quantification-of-vesicle-concentration-for-dopg-dopc-and-cardiolipin-dopc-mixed-lipid-systems-of-variable-composition
#10
Margaret M Elmer-Dixon, Bruce E Bowler
A novel approach to quantify mixed lipid systems is described. Traditional approaches to lipid vesicle quantification are time consuming, require large amounts of material and are destructive. We extend our recently described method for quantification of pure lipid systems to mixed lipid systems. The method only requires a UV-Vis spectrometer and does not destroy sample. Mie scattering data from absorbance measurements are used as input into a Matlab program to calculate the total vesicle concentration and the concentrations of each lipid in the mixed lipid system...
May 15, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774170/liquid-biopsy-of-vitreous-reveals-an-abundant-vesicle-population-consistent-with-the-size-and-morphology-of-exosomes
#11
Yuanjun Zhao, Sarah R Weber, Joshua Lease, Mariano Russo, Christopher A Siedlecki, Li-Chong Xu, Han Chen, Weiwei Wang, Michael Ford, Rafael Simó, Jeffrey M Sundstrom
Purpose: To investigate the molecular components of the vitreous in order to better understand retinal physiology and disease. Methods: Vitreous was acquired from patients undergoing vitrectomy for macular hole and/or epiretinal membrane, postmortem donors, and C57BL/6J mice. Unbiased proteomic analysis was performed via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Gene ontology analysis was performed and results were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)...
May 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774141/exosome-mediated-peritoneal-dissemination-in-gastric-cancer-and-its-clinical-applications
#12
REVIEW
Kai-Bo Chen, Jian Chen, Xiao-Li Jin, Yi Huang, Qiu-Ming Su, Li Chen
The prognosis of patients with peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer is poor, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Exosomes, as macromolecular phospholipid bilayer vesicles comprising of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, serve as mediators of cell-cell communication. Gastric cancer tumor-derived exosomes may be involved in the pathological process of peritoneal dissemination by mediating crosstalk between cancer cells and mesothelial cells, to result in the induction of enhanced tumor growth, migratory, adhesive and invasive abilities, peritoneal fibrosis and apoptosis, mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis and chemoresistance...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774070/role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-viral-and-bacterial-infections-pathogenesis-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#13
REVIEW
Meryl Rodrigues, Jia Fan, Christopher Lyon, Meihua Wan, Ye Hu
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), or exosomes, are nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen-derived protein, nucleic acid, and lipid cargos. They are secreted by most cell types and play important roles in normal cell-to-cell communications but can also spread pathogen- and host-derived molecules during infections to alter immune responses and pathophysiological processes. New research is beginning to decipher how EVs influence viral and bacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we will describe how EVs influence viral and bacterial pathogenesis by spreading pathogen-derived factors and how they can promote and inhibit the immune response to these pathogens...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774068/platelet-camouflaged-nanococktail-simultaneous-inhibition-of-drug-resistant-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-via-a-cancer-cells-and-tumor-vasculature-dual-targeting-strategy
#14
Lijia Jing, Haijing Qu, Dongqi Wu, Chaojian Zhu, Yongbo Yang, Xing Jin, Jian Zheng, Xiangsheng Shi, Xiufeng Yan, Yang Wang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a great challenge to cancer therapy. It is difficult to inhibit the growth of MDR cancer due to its chemoresistance. Furthermore, MDR cancers are more likely to metastasize, causing a high mortality among cancer patients. In this study, a nanomedicine RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX was developed by encapsulating melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) and doxorubicin (DOX) inside RGD peptide (c(RGDyC))-modified nanoscale platelet vesicles (RGD-NPVs) to efficiently inhibit the growth and metastasis of drug-resistant tumors via a cancer cells and tumor vasculature dual-targeting strategy...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773710/arginine-methylation-is-required-for-canonical-wnt-signaling-and-endolysosomal-trafficking
#15
Lauren V Albrecht, Diego Ploper, Nydia Tejeda-Muñoz, Edward M De Robertis
Arginine methylation has emerged as a widespread and reversible protein modification with the potential to regulate a multitude of cellular processes, but its function is poorly understood. Endolysosomes play an important role in Wnt signaling, in which glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) becomes sequestered inside multivesicular bodies (MVBs) by the process known as microautophagy, causing the stabilization of many proteins. Up to 20% of cellular proteins contain three or more consecutive putative GSK3 sites, and of these 33% also contain methylarginine (meArg) modifications...
May 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773668/plants-send-small-rnas-in-extracellular-vesicles-to-fungal-pathogen-to-silence-virulence-genes
#16
Qiang Cai, Lulu Qiao, Ming Wang, Baoye He, Feng-Mao Lin, Jared Palmquist, Hsien-Da Huang, Hailing Jin
Some pathogens and pests deliver small RNAs (sRNAs) into host cells to suppress host immunity. Conversely, hosts also transfer sRNAs into pathogens and pests to inhibit their virulence. Although sRNA trafficking has been observed in a wide variety of interactions, how sRNAs are transferred, especially from hosts to pathogens/pests, is still unknown. Here we show that host Arabidopsis cells secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles to deliver sRNAs into fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea These sRNA-containing vesicles accumulate at the infection sites and are taken up by the fungal cells...
May 17, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773651/usp25m-protease-regulates-ubiquitin-like-processing-of-tug-proteins-to-control-glut4-glucose-transporter-translocation-in-adipocytes
#17
Estifanos N Habtemichael, Don T Li, Abel Alcázar-Román, Xavier O Westergaard, Muyi Li, Max C Petersen, Hanbing Li, Stephen G DeVries, Eric Li, Omar Julca-Zevallos, Joseph S Wolenski, Jonathan S Bogan
Insulin stimulates the exocytic translocation of specialized vesicles in adipocytes, which inserts GLUT4 glucose transporters into the plasma membrane to enhance glucose uptake.  Previous results support a model in which TUG proteins trap these GLUT4 storage vesicles at the Golgi matrix, and in which insulin triggers endoproteolytic cleavage of TUG to translocate GLUT4.  Here, we identify Usp25m as a protease required for insulin-stimulated TUG cleavage and GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes.  Usp25m is expressed in adipocytes, binds TUG and GLUT4, dissociates from TUG-bound vesicles after insulin addition, and colocalizes with TUG and insulin-responsive cargoes in unstimulated cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773130/identification-of-emu-tegp11-an-ef-hand-domain-containing-tegumental-protein-of-echinococcus-multilocularis
#18
Yadong Zheng, Xiaola Guo, Meng Su, Xiaoqian Chen, Xiaoliang Jin, Juntao Ding, Zhengrong Wang, Xinwen Bo, Mazhar Ayaz, Ivan Kutyrev, Wanzhong Jia, Xichen Zhang, Jing Zhang
Tegumental proteins (TegPs) are a group of proteins that coat on the surface of worms, mainly being involved in ion uptake and immune evasion. Echinococcus species have many TegPs, but none of them have been characterized and their role remains unclear. The genome-wide analysis revealed that there were at least 14 tegp genes (tegp1 - 14) in Echinococcus species, the majority of which were found to contain an EF-hand domain or a dynein light chain-like domain or both. Despite low identity, all TegP11 proteins from 25 flatworms were conserved in structure...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773101/-microvesicles-derived-from-lps-induced-microglia-aggravate-the-injury-of-tight-junction-in-rat-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-under-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#19
Yanni Lyu, Longsheng Fu, Yanming Li, Jinhua Wen, Xiaohua Wei, Yisong Qian
Objective To study the effect of the administration of the circulating microvesicles (MV) obtained from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia supernatant into rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) on the injury of tight junction in RBECs under the condition of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) as well as the underlying mechanism. Methods The circulating MV was isolated from the supernatant of microglia stimulated with LPS 1 mg/L for 24 hours and subjected to morphological identification. The expression of miR-27a in MV was detected by real-time PCR...
March 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772810/determination-of-the-membrane-environment-of-cd59-in-living-cells
#20
Gergő Fülöp, Mario Brameshuber, Andreas M Arnold, Gerhard J Schütz, Eva Sevcsik
The organization and dynamics of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane, and their role in membrane functionality, have been subject of a long-lasting debate. Specifically, it is unclear to what extent membrane proteins are affected by their immediate lipid environment and vice versa. Studies on model membranes and plasma membrane vesicles indicated preferences of proteins for lipid phases characterized by different acyl chain order; however, whether such phases do indeed exist in live cells is still not known...
May 17, 2018: Biomolecules
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