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visceral fat AND subcutaneous fat AND obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142011/effect-of-distinct-lifestyle-interventions-on-mobilization-of-fat-storage-pools-the-central-mri-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110748/perinatal-maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-early-obesity-and-sex-specific-alterations-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-of-weanling-rat-offspring
#2
Mariana M Almeida, Camilla P Dias-Rocha, André S Souza, Mariana F Muros, Leonardo S Mendonca, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Isis H Trevenzoli
Perinatal maternal high-fat (HF) diet programmes offspring obesity. Obesity is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in adult subjects, but the role of the ECS in the developmental origins of obesity is mostly unknown. The ECS consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2)) and metabolising enzymes. We hypothesised that perinatal maternal HF diet would alter the ECS in a sex-dependent manner in white and brown adipose tissue of rat offspring at weaning in parallel to obesity development...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108812/correlation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-with-other-body-fat-compartments-and-patient-characteristics-a-retrospective-analysis-in-a-large-patient-cohort-using-pet-ct
#3
Cornelia Brendle, Matthias K Werner, Maria Schmadl, Christian la Fougère, Konstantin Nikolaou, Norbert Stefan, Christina Pfannenberg
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity with different fat compartments of the body, body mass index (BMI), outdoor temperature, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, blood glucose, age, and sex in a large patient population using F-18-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scans obtained under thermoneutral conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FDG-PET/CT scans of 4852 patients were retrospectively analyzed for BAT activity...
November 3, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104685/the-use-of-computed-tomography-in-the-diagnosis-of-fatty-liver-and-abdominal-fat-distribution-among-a-saudi-population
#4
Gasim Ibrahim Gasim, Fahd Mohamed Elshehri, Mahmoud Kheidr, Fahad Khalid Alshubaily, ElZaki Mohamed ElZaki, Imad R Musa
BACKGROUND: The pandemic of obesity is striking heavily worldwide and particularly among the affluent Gulf States where it is expected to continue to rise along with its complications. AIM: To examine the link between liver fat infiltration and abdominal fat amount using plain computer-assisted tomography (CT). METHODS: Fifty patients visiting the obesity clinic of "King Fahd Specialist Hospital" or Dr Suliman Alhabeeb Hospital between January 2015 and April 2016 were included...
October 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083059/do-visceral-or-subcutaneous-fat-influence-peripheral-cortical-bone-strength-during-adolescence-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Natalie A Glass, James C Torner, Elena M Letuchy, Trudy L Burns, Kathleen F Janz, Julie M Eichenberger Gilmore, Janet A Schlechte, Steven M Levy
This study evaluated the longitudinal relationships among visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and peripheral bone strength during adolescence. Fat and lean mass, VAT and SAT area and android/gynoid (A/G) ratio were estimated with DXA. Our main outcome was strength-strain index (SSI), an indicator of peripheral bone strength estimated by pQCT at the radius and tibia. Sex-specific analyses evaluated the longitudinal bone-fat relationship from ages 11-19 years with linear mixed models using biological age as the time variable and adjusted for limb length and lean mass in 182 girls and 167 boys...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075334/association-of-body-mass-index-and-visceral-fat-with-aortic-valve-calcification-and-mortality-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-the-obesity-paradox-in-severe-aortic-stenosis
#6
Jennifer Mancio, Paulo Fonseca, Bruno Figueiredo, Wilson Ferreira, Monica Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Pedro Braga, Alberto Rodrigues, Antonio Barros, Ines Falcao-Pires, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama Ribeiro, Nuno Bettencourt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC) and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS). However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. AIMS: To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074621/the-trpc1-ca-2-permeable-channel-inhibits-exercise-induced-protection-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-type-ii-diabetes
#7
Danielle Krout, Anne Schaar, Yuyang Sun, Pramod Sukumaran, James N Roemmich, Brij B Singh, Kate J Claycombe-Larson
The transient receptor potential canonical channel-1 (TRPC1) is a Ca2+ permeable channel found in key metabolic organs and tissues, including the hypothalamus, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Loss of TRPC1 may alter the regulation of cellular energy metabolism resulting in insulin resistance thereby leading to diabetes. Exercise reduces insulin resistance, but it is not known whether TRPC1 is involved in exercise-induced insulin sensitivity. The role of TRPC1 in adiposity and obesity-associated metabolic diseases has not yet been determined...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072701/caspase-2-deficiency-enhances-whole-body-carbohydrate-utilisation-and-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#8
Claire H Wilson, Andrej Nikolic, Stephen J Kentish, Marianne Keller, George Hatzinikolas, Loretta Dorstyn, Amanda J Page, Sharad Kumar
Caspase-2 has been shown to be involved in metabolic homeostasis. Here, we show that caspase-2 deficiency alters basal energy metabolism by shifting the balance in fuel choice from fatty acid to carbohydrate usage. At 4 weeks of age, whole-body carbohydrate utilisation was increased in Casp2(-/-) mice and was maintained into adulthood. By 17 weeks of age, Casp2(-/-) mice had reduced white adipose mass, smaller white adipocytes decreased fasting blood glucose and plasma triglycerides but maintained normal insulin levels...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071111/impact-of-pioglitazone-and-bradykinin-type-1-receptor-antagonist-on-type-2-diabetes-in-high-fat-diet-fed-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
S El Akoum, Y Haddad, R Couture
AIM: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major complication of obesity and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Antagonizing bradykinin type 1 receptor (B1R) improved body and tissue fat mass and reversed vascular and adipose tissue inflammation in a rat model of insulin resistance. This study aimed at evaluating further the role of B1R in a mouse model of T2D by comparing the antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects of the B1R antagonist SSR240612 (SSR) in adipose tissue with those of pioglitazone (TZD), an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071103/definition-of-new-cut-offs-of-bmi-and-waist-circumference-based-on-body-composition-and-insulin-resistance-differences-between-children-adolescents-and-adults
#10
M Hübers, M Pourhassan, W Braun, C Geisler, M J Müller
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m(-2)). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATtotal, SATtrunk) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063494/bariatric-embolization-of-the-left-gastric-arteries-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-9-month-data-in-5-patients
#11
Zhi-Bin Bai, Yong-Lin Qin, Gang Deng, Guo-Feng Zhao, Bin-Yan Zhong, Gao-Jun Teng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and 9-month effectiveness of transcatheter left gastric artery embolization (LGAE) for treating patients with obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The protocol of this study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board. Five obese patients (3 men and 2 women) with mean weight of 102.0 ± 16.19 kg (range, 82.1-125.5 kg) and mean body mass index (BMI) of 38.1 kg/m(2) ± 3.8 (range, 32.9-42...
October 23, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042391/korean-obesity-surgical-treatment-study-kobess-protocol-of-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study-on-obese-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#12
Young Suk Park, Do Joong Park, Joo Ho Lee, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Tae Kyung Ha, Yong-Jin Kim, Seung-Wan Ryu, Sang-Moon Han, Moon-Won Yoo, Sungsoo Park, Sang-Uk Han, Yoonseok Heo
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery effectively induces long-term weight loss in Western populations. However, its effectiveness in Asians remains to be confirmed objectively. The Korean Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery proposes the first prospective cohort study on Koreans undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Korean OBEsity Surgical treatment Study (KOBESS) is a prospective, multicentre, single-arm, observational, cohort study on morbidly obese patients who undergo primary sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in Korea...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018909/the-depth-from-the-skin-to-the-celiac-artery-measured-using-computed-tomography-is-a-simple-predictive-index-for-longer-operation-time-during-laparoscopic-distal-gastrectomy
#13
Hironobu Goto, Shingo Kanaji, Takashi Yasuda, Taro Oshikiri, Masashi Yamamoto, Takeru Matsuda, Tetsu Nakamura, Satoshi Suzuki, Yasuhiro Fujino, Masahiro Tominaga, Yoshihiro Kakeji
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to classify obesity. However, BMI does not always reflect the degree of visceral fat. This study aimed to clarify the usefulness of measuring the depth from the skin to the celiac artery using computed tomography, as a simple predictive index for longer operation time during laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG). METHODS: From September 2012 to March 2016, 66 patients who underwent LDG with D1+ lymph node dissection were included...
October 10, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017799/automated-segmentation-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-obese-adolescent-in-mri
#14
Steve C N Hui, Teng Zhang, Lin Shi, Defeng Wang, Chei-Bing Ip, Winnie C W Chu
PURPOSE: To develop a reliable and reproducible automatic technique to segment and measure SAT and VAT based on MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical-shift water-fat MRI were taken on twelve obese adolescents (mean age: 16.1±0.6, BMI: 31.3±2.3) recruited under the health monitoring program. The segmentation applied a spoke template created using Midpoint Circle algorithm followed by Bresenham's Line algorithm to detect narrow connecting regions between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues...
October 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994775/assessment-of-human-adipose-tissue-microvascular-function-using-videomicroscopy
#15
Melissa G Farb, Song-Young Park, Shakun Karki, Noyan Gokce
While obesity is closely linked to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, little is known about mechanisms that govern these processes. It is hypothesized that pro-atherogenic mediators released from fat tissues particularly in association with central/visceral adiposity may promote pathogenic vascular changes locally and systemically, and the notion that cardiovascular disease may be the consequence of adipose tissue dysfunction continues to evolve. Here, we describe a unique method of videomicroscopy that involves analysis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor responses of intact small human arterioles removed from the adipose depot of living human subjects...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978130/body-fat-composition-as-predictive-factor-for-treatment-response-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma-subgroup-analysis-of-the-prospective-gmmg-mm5-trial
#16
Jonathan P GroΔ, Johanna Nattenmüller, Stefan Hemmer, Diana Tichy, Julia Krzykalla, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Uta Bertsch, Stefan Delorme, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Jens Hillengass, Maximilian Merz
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for malignant tumors and increased body mass index (BMI) is correlated to the risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM). The correlation of body fat composition with disease activity, adverse events and treatment response of MM patients has not been investigated yet. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A subgroup of 108 patients from a single institution enrolled in the prospective GMMG-MM5 trial, who received a whole-body low-dose computed tomography (WBLDCT) before induction therapy, were included in this study...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974138/cardiovascular-risk-of-adipokines-a-review
#17
Frédéric Dutheil, Brett Ashley Gordon, Geraldine Naughton, Edward Crendal, Daniel Courteix, Elodie Chaplais, David Thivel, Gérard Lac, Amanda Clare Benson
Over the last two decades, the understanding of adipose tissue has undergone radical change. The perception has evolved from an inert energy storage tissue to that of an active endocrine organ. Adipose tissue releases a cluster of active molecules named adipokines. The severity of obesity-related diseases does not necessarily correlate with the extent of body fat accumulation but is closely related to body fat distribution, particularly to visceral localization. There is a distinction between the metabolic function of central obesity (visceral abdominal) and peripheral obesity (subcutaneous) in the production of adipokines...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969236/comparative-study-of-ultrasonographic-and-anthropometric-measurements-of-regional-adiposity-in-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Rudresh Hiremath, Jebin Ibrahim, Krishna Prasanthi, Harish T Reddy, Rushit Sandeep Shah, Ch Haritha
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome is complex disorder unifying dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hyper insulinemia. Rising global epidemic of obesity has tremendous impact on metabolic syndrome. Ultrasound is becoming widely utilized modality for measuring the visceral adiposity. AIM: To determine the usefulness of ultrasonographic measurements in the estimation of regional adiposity and to compare them with anthropometric measurements and to correlate ultrasonographic measurements of regional adiposity and metabolic syndrome...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967613/relationship-of-serum-leptin-with-some-biochemical-anthropometric-parameters-and-abdominal-fat-volumes-as-measured-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Nawal S Hijjawi, Ali M Al-Radaideh, Kholoud I Al-Fayomi, Nisreen A Nimer, Hadeel A Alabadi, Rana M Al-Zu'bi, Lana M Agraib, Sabika S Allehdan, Reema F Tayyem
AIMS: To measure the level of leptin in volunteers and correlate it with several anthropometric, biochemical variables and abdominal fat volumes. METHODS: The level of leptin was investigated in 167 disease-free volunteers. Serum levels of IL-6, adiponectin, and resistin, blood lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) were determined. Waist circumference (WC) was measured using tape and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images...
September 22, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959056/irs1-dna-promoter-methylation-and-expression-in-human-adipose-tissue-are-related-to-fat-distribution-and-metabolic-traits
#20
Kerstin Rohde, Matthias Klös, Lydia Hopp, Xuanshi Liu, Maria Keller, Michael Stumvoll, Arne Dietrich, Michael R Schön, Daniel Gärtner, Tobias Lohmann, Miriam Dreßler, Peter Kovacs, Hans Binder, Matthias Blüher, Yvonne Böttcher
The SNP variant rs2943650 near IRS1 gene locus was previously associated with decreased body fat and IRS1 gene expression as well as an adverse metabolic profile in humans. Here, we hypothesize that these effects may be mediated by an interplay with epigenetic alterations. We measured IRS1 promoter DNA methylation and mRNA expression in paired human subcutaneous and omental visceral adipose tissue samples (SAT and OVAT) from 146 and 41 individuals, respectively. Genotyping of rs2943650 was performed in all individuals (N = 146)...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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