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visceral fat AND subcutaneous fat AND obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441693/sex-differences-in-fat-distribution-influence-the-association-between-bmi-and-arterial-stiffness
#1
Inge C L van den Munckhof, Suzanne Holewijn, Jacqueline de Graaf, Joost H W Rutten
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The increase in arterial stiffness in patients with the metabolic syndrome is strongly related to the amount of visceral adipose tissue. In clinical practice, anthropometric measurements such as BMI and waist circumference are commonly used to assess general and abdominal adiposity. Waist circumference is a composite measure of subcutaneous and visceral abdominal adipose tissue. As the distribution of intra-abdominal fat differs between men and women, we investigated the sex-specific associations between different anthropometric measures for general and abdominal obesity with arterial stiffness...
June 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439190/review-metabolic-syndrome-in-black-south-african-women
#2
REVIEW
Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge, Nigel J Crowther
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in African populations, and is particularly high in Black South African women (42%) vs women in the United Kingdom (23%) and the United States of America (36%). This population group is also known to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the sub-Saharan African region (42%), and consequently, a high risk of non-communicable diseases. In this article, we discuss factors (abdominal subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, lean mass, adiponectin, leptin, vitamin D, smoking and menopausal status) that have been investigated for their possible association with metabolic syndrome in African women, and discuss some recommendations for management of the syndrome...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439091/abdominal-adiposity-intensifies-the-negative-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-lung-function-in-korean-men
#3
H-J Kim, J-H Park, J-Y Min, K-B Min, Y-S Seo, J M Yun, H Kwon, J-I Kim, B Cho
BACKGROUND: Some studies have provided the possibility that adipose tissue may mediate air pollution-induced lung dysfunction. Studies using quantified fat mass data are needed to understand the biological mechanisms between adipocyte and air pollution in lung function. We aimed to investigate whether abdominal adiposity measured by computed tomography (CT) modifies the effects of air pollution on lung function in Korean men. METHODS: A total of 1876 men who visited one of two health checkup centers were recruited for this study...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432036/increased-inflammation-from-childhood-to-adolescence-predicts-sleep-apnea-in-boys-a-preliminary-study
#4
Jordan Gaines, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Fan He, Susan L Calhoun, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
While chronic systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been traditionally considered a consequence of intermittent hypoxia, several treatment studies targeting inflammation suggest that this process may precede the development of the disorder. A recent cross-sectional study in the Penn State Child Cohort (PSCC) revealed that inflammation largely mediates the association between visceral adiposity and OSA in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine for the first time whether, longitudinally, inflammation precedes OSA during this developmental period...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428027/fructose-intervention-for-12-weeks-does-not-impair-glycemic-control-or-incretin-hormone-responses-during-oral-glucose-or-mixed-meal-tests-in-obese-men
#5
N Matikainen, S Söderlund, E Björnson, L H Bogl, K H Pietiläinen, A Hakkarainen, N Lundbom, B Eliasson, S M Räsänen, A Rivellese, L Patti, A Prinster, G Riccardi, J-P Després, N Alméras, J J Holst, C F Deacon, J Borén, M-R Taskinen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m(2)) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle...
March 18, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423008/perirenal-fat-thickness-measured-with-computed-tomography-is-a-reliable-estimate-of-perirenal-fat-mass
#6
Guillaume Favre, Caroline Grangeon-Chapon, Charles Raffaelli, Florence François-Chalmin, Antonio Iannelli, Vincent Esnault
Deposition of perirenal adipose tissue has been associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular events. We compared various methods to measure perirenal adipose tissue using computerized tomography (CT)-scan and performed correlations with anthropometric measures associated with renal and cardiovascular events. Voluntary overweight and obese subjects undergoing a CT-scan for diagnostic purposes were included in the study. Perirenal adipose tissue volume, adipose tissue area of the renal sinus and perirenal fat thickness were manually measured bilaterally...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411232/wnt5a-regulates-adipose-tissue-angiogenesis-via-anti-angiogenic-vegfa165b-in-obese-humans
#7
Shakun Karki, Doan Ngo, Melissa G Farb, Song-Young Park, Samantha M Saggese, Naomi M Hamburg, Brian Carmine, Donald T Hess, Kenneth Walsh, Noyan Gokce
Experimental studies suggest that Wingless-related integration site 5a (WNT5A) is a pro-inflammatory secreted protein that is associated with metabolic dysfunction in obesity. Impaired angiogenesis in fat has been implicated in the development of adipose tissue capillary rarefaction, hypoxia, inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. We recently demonstrated that impaired adipose tissue angiogenesis is associated with overexpression of anti-angiogenic factor VEGF-A165b in human fat and the systemic circulation...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403191/visceral-adipose-tissue-but-not-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-is-associated-with-urine-and-serum-metabolites
#8
Inga Schlecht, Wolfram Gronwald, Gundula Behrens, Sebastian E Baumeister, Johannes Hertel, Jochen Hochrein, Helena U Zacharias, Beate Fischer, Peter J Oefner, Michael F Leitzmann
Obesity is a complex multifactorial phenotype that influences several metabolic pathways. Yet, few studies have examined the relations of different body fat compartments to urinary and serum metabolites. Anthropometric phenotypes (visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the ratio between VAT and SAT (VSR), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)) and urinary and serum metabolite concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were measured in a population-based sample of 228 healthy adults...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400411/fatty-acid-uptake-and-blood-flow-in-adipose-tissue-compartments-of-morbidly-obese-subjects-with-or-without-type-2-diabetes-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#9
Prince Dadson, Ele Ferrannini, Linda Landini, Jarna C Hannukainen, Kari K Kalliokoski, Maija Vaittinen, Henri Honka, Henry K Karlsson, Jetro J Tuulari, Minna Soinio, Paulina Salminen, Riitta Parkkola, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
Body fat accumulation, distribution and metabolic activity are factors in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated adipose blood flow, fatty acid uptake (FAU), and subcutaneous and visceral fat cellularity in obese patients with or without T2D. A total 23 morbidly obese (BMI 42 kg/m(2)) patients were studied before and 6 months after bariatric surgery; 15 nonobese subjects served as controls. Positron emission tomography was used to measure tissue FAU (with (18)F-FTHA) and blood flow (with H2(15)O); MRI was used for fat distribution, fat biopsy for adipocyte size...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392937/reduced-lpl-and-subcutaneous-lipid-storage-capacity-are-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-postmenopausal-women-with-obesity
#10
M C Serra, A S Ryan, A P Goldberg
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the hypothesis that lower adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and a limited capacity for subcutaneous adipocyte expansion will be associated with metabolic syndrome (MSyn) in postmenopausal women who are overweight and obese. METHODS: Women (N = 150; age 60 ± 1 year; BMI: 31.5 ± 0.3 kg m(-2); mean ± standard errors of the means [SEM]) with and without MSyn had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for total body fat, CT scans for visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue areas, lipid and glucose metabolic profiles, and abdominal and gluteal fat aspirations for subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; N = 150) and LPL activity (N = 100)...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369345/obesity-induced-hypoadiponectinaemia-the-opposite-influences-of-central-and-peripheral-fat-compartments
#11
M C Borges, I O Oliveira, D F Freitas, B L Horta, K K Ong, D P Gigante, A J D Barros
Background and Aims: The substantial reduction in adiponectin concentration among obese individuals seems to depend on fat distribution and is a marker of metabolic and adipose tissue dysfunction. We aimed to: (i) address whether abdominal fat from different compartments (visceral, deep subcutaneous abdominal and superficial subcutaneous abdominal) and gluteofemoral fat are independently associated with blood adiponectin concentration; and (ii) investigate whether abdominal (proxied by waist circumference) and gluteofemoral fat (proxied by hip circumference) accumulation causally determine blood adiponectin concentration...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364190/pu-erh-tea-extract-mediated-protection-against-hepatosteatosis-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity-is-associated-with-the-induction-of-de-novo-lipogenesis-in-visceral-adipose-tissue
#12
Xianbin Cai, Shuhei Hayashi, Chongye Fang, Shumei Hao, Xuanjun Wang, Shuhei Nishiguchi, Hiroko Tsutsui, Jun Sheng
BACKGROUND: White adipose tissue (WAT) is important for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis, and metabolic syndrome is sometimes associated with WAT dysfunction in humans and animals. WAT reportedly plays a key, beneficial role in the maintenance of glucose and lipid homeostasis during de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Pu'erh tea extract (PTE) can inhibit harmful, ectopic DNL in the liver, thus protecting against hepatosteatosis, in mice with diet-induced obesity. We examined whether PTE could induce DNL in WAT and consequently protect against hepatosteatosis...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360931/mechanisms-for-the-anti-obesity-actions-of-bofutsushosan-in-high-fat-diet-fed-obese-mice
#13
Shinjiro Kobayashi, Yuki Kawasaki, Tatsuo Takahashi, Hironori Maeno, Masaaki Nomura
BACKGROUND: The Kampo medicine bofutsushosan (BTS; Pulvis ledebouriellae compositae; Fang Feng Tong Sheng San) has been used as an anti-obesity treatment in overweight patients. In this study, we assessed the underlying physiological changes induced by BTS in obese mice maintained on a high-fat diet. METHODS: Male ICR mice were fed a 60% kcal fat diet for 5 weeks starting at 4 weeks of age and then fed the same diet with administration of water (control) or aqueous BTS extract (1...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338809/resveratrol-derivative-btm-0512-mitigates-obesity-by-promoting-beige-remodeling-of-subcutaneous-preadipocytes
#14
Qingqing Li, Kuansong Wang, Yipeng Ma, Chunxiang Qin, Changsheng Dong, Ping Jin, Yan Wu, Xiaoming Xiong, Niansheng Li, Changping Hu, Jun Peng, Zhichun Yang
Recent studies revealed that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and its agonist resveratrol showed anti-obesity effect. This study aims to determine whether BTM-0512, a novel derivative of resveratrol, acts as an antagonist of obesity and to explore its possible mechanisms. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were intragastrically administered with BTM-0512 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day) or resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day). It was found that the body weight, Lee's index, ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to body weight, and blood glucose were significantly reduced in BTM-0512-treated mice when compared with those in mice treated with resveratrol...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337718/sex-dependent-effects-of-neonatal-maternal-deprivation-on-endocannabinoid-levels-in-the-adipose-tissue-influence-of-diet
#15
Virginia Mela, Fabiana Piscitelli, Alvaro Llorente Berzal, Julie Chowen, Cristoforo Silvestri, Maria Paz Viveros, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Maternal deprivation (MD) during neonatal life has diverse long-term effects, including modification of metabolism. We have previously reported that MD modifies the metabolic response to high-fat diet (HFD) intake, with this response being different between males and females, while previous studies indicate that in mice with HFD-induced obesity, endocannabinoid (EC) levels are markedly altered in various brown and white adipose tissue depots. Here, we analyzed the effects of MD (24 h at postnatal day 9), alone or in combination with a HFD from weaning until the end of the experiment in Wistar rats of both sexes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332865/the-association-between-ultrasound-estimated-visceral-fat-deposition-and-uterine-fibroids-an-observational-study
#16
Andrea Ciavattini, Giovanni Delli Carpini, Lorenzo Moriconi, Nicolò Clemente, Francesca Orici, Anna Chiara Boschi, Nina Montik, Laura Mazzanti
Uterine fibroids are the most common neoplasm of the genital tract in reproductive women. Obesity holds a role as risk factor for uterine fibroids, through hormonal and inflammatory mechanisms. Visceral fat is a hormonally active tissue, so an increase in visceral fat may be considered as a risk factor, through the increased production of inflammatory mediators. The aim of the study was, therefore, to evaluate the association between the presence of uterine fibroids and fat tissue distribution, and to assess the efficacy of both anthropometric and instrumental indicators, in particular the sonographic measurement of preperitoneal fat thickness (PFT) and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT)...
March 23, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327129/short-term-overfeeding-of-zebrafish-with-normal-or-high-fat-diet-as-a-model-for-the-development-of-metabolically-healthy-versus-unhealthy-obesity
#17
Kathrin Landgraf, Susanne Schuster, Andrej Meusel, Antje Garten, Thomas Riemer, Dorit Schleinitz, Wieland Kiess, Antje Körner
BACKGROUND: Obese individuals differ in their risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular complications depending on fat distribution (subcutaneous versus visceral) and adipose tissue (AT) phenotype (hyperplasic versus hypertrophic). However, the exact mechanisms which determine whether an obese individual is metabolically healthy or unhealthy are not clear, and analyses of the underlying pathomechanisms are limited by the lack of suitable in vivo models in which metabolically healthy versus metabolically unhealthy AT accumulation can be specifically induced...
March 21, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323935/association-of-in-vivo-adipose-tissue-cellular-kinetics-with-markers-of-metabolic-health-in-humans
#18
Ursula A White, Mark D Fitch, Robbie A Beyl, Marc K Hellerstein, Eric Ravussin
Context: Adipose tissue expansion occurs by hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Impaired hyperplasia, or adipogenesis, has been associated with obesity-related diseases. The cellular mechanisms underlying in vivo adipose cell turnover are not elucidated. Objective: We previously reported differences in in vivo cellular kinetics between the subcutaneous abdominal (scABD) and femoral (scFEM) depots using an 8-week incorporation of deuterium in women with obesity. We have now examined how in vivo kinetics correlate with markers of metabolic health...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322576/the-effects-of-exercise-on-abdominal-fat-and-liver-enzymes-in-pediatric-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Katherine González-Ruiz, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Mark D Peterson, Antonio García-Hermoso
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of obesity and the multiple position stands promoting exercise for the treatment of obesity and hepatic function, a meta-analytic approach has not previously been used to examine the effects in the pediatric population. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on abdominal fat, liver enzymes, and intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese youth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computerized search was made using three databases...
March 21, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315007/central-obesity-and-risks-of-cardiovascular-events-and-mortality-in-prevalent-hemodialysis-patients
#20
Heba Wahid El Said, Osama Mahmoud Mohamed, Tamer Wahid El Said, Ahmed Bahaa El Serwi
BACKGROUND: To date, no attempt has been made to assess the best anthropometric method for defining abdominal adiposity in hemodialysis (HD) patients or to determine whether the quantity of intra-abdominal fat relates to morbidity and mortality in that population. We aimed to describe the prevalence of central obesity in HD patients and to investigate the relationship between central obesity assessed by anthropometric variables, and composite outcomes, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among HD patients and whether this parameter correlates with intra-abdominal fat assessed by computed tomography scan (CT scan)...
March 17, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
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