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visceral fat AND subcutaneous fat AND obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198147/intrahepatic-fat-abdominal-adipose-tissues-and-metabolic-state-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#1
Anat Yaskolka Meir, Lilac Tene, Noa Cohen, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Yftach Gepner, Hila Zelicha, Michal Rein, Nitzan Bril, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Yoash Chassidim, Benjamin Sarusy, Dror Dicker, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic-fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous-adipose tissue (SAT) is controversial. While IHF > 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat sub-depots, pancreatic and renal-sinus fats. METHODS: We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat sub-depots, %pancreatic and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
February 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192105/adolescent-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-roles-of-ectopic-fat-accumulation-and-adipose-inflammation
#2
Sonia Caprio, Rachel Perry, Romy Kursawe
As a consequence of the global rise in the prevalence of Adolescent Obesity, an unprecedented phenomenon of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has emerged in pediatrics. At the heart of T2D development lies a key metabolic derangement: Insulin Resistance (IR) . Despite the widespread occurrence of IR affecting an unmeasurable number of youths worldwide, its pathogenesis remains elusive. IR in obese youth is a complex phenomenon that defies explanation by a single pathway. In this review we first describe recent data on the prevalence, severity, and racial/ethnic differences in Pediatric Obesity...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190685/impact-of-body-fat-and-muscle-distribution-on-severity-of-acute-pancreatitis
#3
Seung Bae Yoon, Moon Hyung Choi, In Seok Lee, Chul-Hyun Lim, Jin Soo Kim, Yu Kyung Cho, Jae Myung Park, Bo-In Lee, Young-Seok Cho, Myung-Gyu Choi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis (AP); however, the impact of visceral obesity or sarcopenic obesity on severity of AP has not been well studied. We compared the relationship between severity of AP and various body parameters including body weight, body mass index (BMI), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and visceral fat-to-muscle ratio (VMR). METHODS: We analyzed the data of patients who were diagnosed with AP from 2009 to 2015...
February 6, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176415/visceral-fat-is-associated-with-the-racial-differences-in-liver-fat-between-black-and-white-adolescent-boys-with-obesity
#4
SoJung Lee, Jennifer L Kuk
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether racial differences in liver fat are associated with the differences in abdominal fat distribution or cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: Participants included 57 black and white obese boys (12-18 years). Total and abdominal fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. CRF was measured using a maximal graded treadmill test with the use of standard open-circuit spirometry techniques until volitional fatigue...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169882/greater-visceral-abdominal-fat-is-associated-with-a-lower-probability-of-conversion-of-prehypertension-to-normotension
#5
You-Cheol Hwang, Wilfred Y Fujimoto, Steven E Kahn, Donna L Leonetti, Edward J Boyko
OBJECTIVE: Prehypertension is associated with increased risk for incident hypertension. However, little is known about how frequently prehypertension converts to normotension, and which variables predict this conversion. METHODS: We identified 186 Japanese Americans with prehypertension (110 men, 76 women) aged 34-75 years (mean age of 52.3 years) who were followed at 5 and 10 years after enrollment. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer and average blood pressure was calculated...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151993/adipose-tissue-macrophages-impair-preadipocyte-differentiation-in-humans
#6
Li Fen Liu, Colleen M Craig, Lorna L Tolentino, Okmi Choi, John Morton, Homero Rivas, Samuel W Cushman, Edgar G Engleman, Tracey McLaughlin
AIM: The physiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance are not fully understood. Impaired adipocyte differentiation and localized inflammation characterize adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant humans. The directionality of this relationship is not known, however. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adipose tissue inflammation is causally-related to impaired adipocyte differentiation. METHODS: Abdominal subcutaneous(SAT) and visceral(VAT) adipose tissue was obtained from 20 human participants undergoing bariatric surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148928/subcutaneous-fat-loss-is-greater-than-visceral-fat-loss-with-diet-and-exercise-weight-loss-promoting-drugs-and-bariatric-surgery-a-critical-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
C Merlotti, V Ceriani, A Morabito, A E Pontiroli
Aim of this review is to compare visceral and subcutaneous fat loss with all available strategies (diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting agents, and bariatric surgery). Eighty-nine studies, all full papers, were analysed to evaluate visceral and subcutaneous fat changes, measured through ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and expressed as thickness, weight, area, and volume. Studies were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model). Intervention effect (absolute and percent changes of visceral and subcutaneous fat) was expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD), with 95% confidence intervals (C...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143590/the-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-question-2-5-obesity-related-cancers-more-questions-than-answers
#8
EDITORIAL
Ajit Venniyoor
Obesity is recognized as the second highest risk factor for cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying tobacco-related cancers are well characterized and effective programs have led to a decline in smoking and related cancers, but there is a global epidemic of obesity without a clear understanding of how obesity causes cancer. Obesity is heterogeneous, and approximately 25% of obese individuals remain healthy (metabolically healthy obese, MHO), so which fat deposition (subcutaneous versus visceral, adipose versus ectopic) is "malignant"? What is the mechanism of carcinogenesis? Is it by metabolic dysregulation or chronic inflammation? Through which chemokines/genes/signaling pathways does adipose tissue influence carcinogenesis? Can selective inhibition of these pathways uncouple obesity from cancers? Do all obesity related cancers (ORCs) share a molecular signature? Are there common (over-lapping) genetic loci that make individuals susceptible to obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancers? Can we identify precursor lesions of ORCs and will early intervention of high risk individuals alter the natural history? It appears unlikely that the obesity epidemic will be controlled anytime soon; answers to these questions will help to reduce the adverse effect of obesity on human condition...
January 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129354/quantification-of-abdominal-fat-in-obese-and-healthy-adolescents-using-3-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-free-software-for-image-analysis
#9
Juliana Cristina Eloi, Matias Epifanio, Marília Maia de Gonçalves, Augusto Pellicioli, Patricia Froelich Giora Vieira, Henrique Bregolin Dias, Neide Bruscato, Ricardo Bernardi Soder, João Carlos Batista Santana, Marialena Mouzaki, Matteo Baldisserotto
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128075/under-the-surface-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-biology
#10
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandžić Jakšić, Danijela Grizelj
The global obesity epidemic enhanced contemporary interest in adipose tissue biology. Two structurally and functionally distinct depots, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), are spread throughout the body. Their distribution was recognized to be a major determinant of metabolic risk. Unlike VAT, SAT showed some protective endocrine and inflammatory features that might explain the occurrence of obese but metabolically healthy persons. The unique developmental gene expression signature, angiogenesis, and adipogenic potential of SAT determines its growth ability under the positive energy balance...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123944/celastrol-ameliorates-liver-metabolic-damage-caused-by-a-high-fat-diet-through-sirt1
#11
Yinliang Zhang, Chao Geng, Xiaoyan Liu, Meixia Li, Mingyue Gao, Xiaojun Liu, Fude Fang, Yongsheng Chang
OBJECTIVE: Celastrol was recently identified as a potential novel treatment for obesity. However, the effect of Celastrol on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains elusive. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of Celastrol in NAFLD. METHODS: Functional studies were performed using wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) mice and liver specific Sirt1-deficient (LKO) mice. The molecular mechanism was explored in primary mouse liver and primary hepatocytes. RESULTS: When WT mice receiving a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with Celastrol, reductions in body weight, subcutaneous and visceral fat content, and liver lipid droplet formation were observed, along with reduced hepatic intracellular triglyceride and serum triglyceride, free fatty acid, and ALT concentrations...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123942/fetal-development-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-is-dependent-on-zfp423
#12
Mengle Shao, Chelsea Hepler, Lavanya Vishvanath, Karen A MacPherson, Napoleon C Busbuso, Rana K Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Zfp423 is a multi zinc-finger transcription factor expressed in preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in vivo. Our recent work has revealed a critical role for Zfp423 in maintaining the fate of white adipocytes in adult mice through suppression of the beige cell thermogenic gene program; loss of Zfp423 in mature adipocytes of adult mice results in a white-to-beige phenotypic switch. However, the exact requirements of Zfp423 in the fetal stages of early adipose development in vivo have not been clarified...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116314/comparable-effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-and-prolonged-continuous-exercise-training-on-abdominal-visceral-fat-reduction-in-obese-young-women
#13
Haifeng Zhang, Tom K Tong, Weifeng Qiu, Xu Zhang, Shi Zhou, Yang Liu, Yuxiu He
This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n = 15), MICT (n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110193/effects-of-polyphenol-compounds-melanin-on-nafld-nash-prevention
#14
Natalia Belemets, Nazarii Kobyliak, Oleksandr Virchenko, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Tsyryuk Olena, Petro Bodnar, Oleksiy Savchuk, Tetyana Galenova, Martin Caprnda, Luis Rodrigo, Lubomir Skladany, Delian Delev, Radka Opatrilova, Peter Kruzliak, Tetyana Beregova, Lyudmyla Ostapchenko
BACKGROUND: One of the pathogenic mechanisms of the progression non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). So, antioxidant therapy is necessary for successful treatment of the liver injury. We have paid attention to melanin produced by yeast Nadsoniella nigra strain X-1 as novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with low toxicity. In current study we aimed to investigate the preventive effect of melanin on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced NAFLD model in rats...
January 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107410/prognostic-impact-of-ct-quantified-muscle-and-fat-distribution-before-and-after-first-line-chemotherapy-in-lung-cancer-patients
#15
Johanna Nattenmüller, Raoul Wochner, Thomas Muley, Martin Steins, Simone Hummler, Birgit Teucher, Joachim Wiskemann, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Mark Oliver Wielpütz, Claus Peter Heussel
INTRODUCTION: Cachexia and sarcopenia are associated with poor outcome and increased chemotherapy-induced toxicity in lung cancer patients. However, the complex interplay of obesity, sarcopenia and cachexia, and its impact on survival in the context of first-line-chemotherapy is not yet understood. METHODS: In 200 consecutively recruited lung cancer patients (70 female, mean age 62y; mean BMI 25 kg/m2; median follow-up 15.97 months) with routine staging-CT before and after chemotherapy (CTX, mean interval: 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104915/visceral-obesity-is-associated-with-white-matter-hyperintensity-and-lacunar-infarct
#16
K W Kim, H Seo, M-S Kwak, D Kim
BACKGROUND: The presences of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) and lacunar infarct are recognized as risk factors of dementia, stroke, and mortality. It is undetermined whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area is associated with an increased risk of cerebral small vessel disease. We explored whether VAT area was responsible for cerebral small vessel disease through the identification of WMH and lacunar infarct. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 subjects free of cerebrovascular disease who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and abdominal fat computed tomography (CT) during a general health check-up were enrolled...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101721/quantitative-assessment-of-visceral-obesity-and-postoperative-colon-cancer-outcomes
#17
Oluwatobi O Ozoya, Erin M Siegel, Thejal Srikumar, Amanda M Bloomer, Amanda DeRenzis, David Shibata
BACKGROUND: Quantitative computed tomography (CT) assessment of visceral adiposity may be superior to body mass index (BMI) as a predictor of surgical morbidity. We sought to examine the association of CT measures of obesity and BMI with short-term postoperative outcomes in colon cancer patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 110 patients treated with colectomy for stage I-III colon cancer were classified as obese or non-obese by preoperative CT-based measures of adiposity or BMI [obese: BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), visceral fat area (VFA) to subcutaneous fat area ratio (V/S) ≥0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087813/ethnic-differences-in-anthropometric-measures-and-abdominal-fat-distribution-a-cross-sectional-pooled-study-in-inuit-africans-and-europeans
#18
Pernille F Rønn, Gregers S Andersen, Torsten Lauritzen, Dirk L Christensen, Mette Aadahl, Bendix Carstensen, Marit E Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. METHODS: We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077863/what-have-human-experimental-overfeeding-studies-taught-us-about-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-susceptibility-to-obesity-and-metabolic-complications
#19
REVIEW
D J Cuthbertson, T Steele, J P Wilding, J C G Halford, J A Harrold, M Hamer, F Karpe
Overfeeding experiments, in which we impose short-term positive energy balance, help unravel the cellular, physiological and behavioural adaptations to nutrient excess. These studies mimic longer-term mismatched energy expenditure and intake. There is considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in the magnitude of weight gain when exposed to similar relative caloric excess reflecting variable activation of compensatory adaptive mechanisms. Significantly, given similar relative weight gain, individuals may be protected from/predisposed to metabolic complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071718/reproducibility-and-repeatability-of-computer-tomography-based-measurement-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissues
#20
Yuan-Hao Lee, Hsing-Fen Hsiao, Hou-Ting Yang, Shih-Yi Huang, Wing P Chan
Excessive accumulation of abdominal adipose tissue is a widely recognized as a major feature of obesity, and it can be quantified by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, in a phantom study, the inter- and intra-instrument reliability of DXA remains unpredictable. Thus, we attempted to determine the precision of estimates from computer tomography-based measurements and analysis with AZE Virtual Place software. To determine the inter-rater reproducibility and intra-rater repeatability of adipose tissue area estimates, we used the automatic boundary-tracing function of the AZE Virtual Place to generate cross-sectional areas of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues from the abdomen of reconstructed CT images...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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