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visceral fat AND subcutaneous fat AND obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809783/role-of-omentin-vaspin-cardiotrophin-1-tweak-and-nov-ccn3-in-obesity-and-diabetes-development
#1
REVIEW
Xavier Escoté, Saioa Gómez-Zorita, Miguel López-Yoldi, Iñaki Milton-Laskibar, Alfredo Fernández-Quintela, J Alfredo Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga, María P Portillo
Adipose tissue releases bioactive mediators called adipokines. This review focuses on the effects of omentin, vaspin, cardiotrophin-1, Tumor necrosis factor-like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis (TWEAK) and nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV/CCN3) on obesity and diabetes. Omentin is produced by the stromal-vascular fraction of visceral adipose tissue. Obesity reduces omentin serum concentrations and adipose tissue secretion in adults and adolescents. This adipokine regulates insulin sensitivity, but its clinical relevance has to be confirmed...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800775/lack-of-high-bmi-related-features-in-adipocytes-and-inflammatory-cells-in-the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-ifp
#2
Anja J de Jong, Inge R Klein-Wieringa, Stefan N Andersen, Joanneke C Kwekkeboom, Linda Herb-van Toorn, Badelog J E de Lange-Brokaar, Danny van Delft, John Garcia, Wu Wei, Huub J L van der Heide, Yvonne M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Annemarie M Zuurmond, Vedrana Stojanovic-Susulic, Rob G H H Nelissen, René E M Toes, Margreet Kloppenburg, Andreea Ioan-Facsinay
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Although the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) could be involved in this association, due to its intracapsular localization in the knee joint, there is currently little known about the effect of obesity on the IFP. Therefore, we investigated cellular and molecular body mass index (BMI)-related features in the IFP of OA patients. METHODS: Patients with knee OA (N = 155, 68% women, mean age 65 years, mean (SD) BMI 29...
August 11, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790027/increased-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-adipocytes-underlies-mitochondrial-alterations-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#3
Lauren E Wright, Denis Vecellio Reane, Gabriella Milan, Anna Terrin, Giorgia di Bello, Anna Belligoli, Marta Sanna, Mirto Foletto, Francesca Favaretto, Anna Raffaello, Cristina Mammucari, Donato Nitti, Roberto Vettor, Rosario Rizzuto
Intracellular calcium influences an array of pathways and affects cellular processes. With the rapidly progressing research investigating the molecular identity and the physiological roles of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU) complex, we now have the tools to understand the functions of mitochondrial Ca(2+) in the regulation of pathophysiological processes. Herein, we describe the role of key MCU complex components in insulin resistance in mouse and human adipose tissue. Adipose tissue gene expression was analysed from several models of obese and diabetic rodents and in obese patients, as well as in vitro insulin-resistant adipocytes...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770629/ipragliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-reduces-intrahepatic-lipid-content-and-abdominal-visceral-fat-volume-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Akio Ohta, Hiroyuki Kato, Satoshi Ishii, Yosuke Sasaki, Yuta Nakamura, Tomoko Nakagawa, Yoshio Nagai, Yasushi Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: We recently investigated the effect of ipragliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2I), in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes by a 24-week. SGLT-2Is also have an anti-obesity effect, and reduction of body fat has been demonstrated by indirect methods. However, evaluation of the effect on the total visceral fat volume and intrahepatic lipid content has not been performed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured the abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (SFV) and visceral fat volume (VFV) by whole abdominal CT scanning, the intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and the fat mass index (FI) and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 20 patients from our previous study...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762561/diet-induced-obesity-causes-visceral-but-not-subcutaneous-lymph-node-hyperplasia-via-increases-in-specific-immune-cell-populations
#5
A M Magnuson, D P Regan, J K Fouts, A D Booth, S W Dow, M T Foster
OBJECTIVES: The spatial proximity of adipose depots to secondary lymph nodes allows a unique relation between the two systems. Obesity, predominately visceral adiposity, links to numerous diseases; hence, we postulate that secondary lymphatics within this region contributes to disease risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard CHOW (18% kcal fat) or Western diet (45% kcal fat) for 7 weeks. Visceral and subcutaneous lymph nodes and associated adipose depots they occupy were excised...
August 1, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738905/visceral-fat-mass-is-it-the-link-between-uric-acid-and-diabetes-risk
#6
Neda Seyed-Sadjadi, Jade Berg, Ayse A Bilgin, Ross Grant
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) has been suggested as a novel risk factor for diabetes. However, its definite role in this prevalent disease is still the subject of much discussion because it is always accompanied with other major risk factors such as obesity and high visceral adiposity. In order to clarify the role of UA in diabetes, this study aimed to investigate the associations between plasma UA and fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and inflammatory markers after accounting for the contribution of other diabetes risk factors such as BMI and VAT fat mass...
July 24, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736442/family-history-of-type-2-diabetes-abdominal-adipocyte-size-and-markers-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#7
P Anthanont, P Ramos, M D Jensen, K C Hames
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A major risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a positive family history of diabetes. First degree relatives (FDR) of patients with T2DM are more insulin resistant and are reported to have larger abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes than adults without a family history. Our objectives were to assess whether a family history of T2DM is associated with larger abdominal adipocytes independent of age, sex, and abdominal subcutaneous fat and to assess whether FDR of T2DM is also independently related to femoral adipocyte size, as well as visceral fat and fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735463/impact-of-pioglitazone-on-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-marrow-fat-content
#8
L M Pop, I Lingvay, Q Yuan, X Li, B Adams-Huet, N M Maalouf
Pioglitazone use is associated with an increased risk of fractures. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, pioglitazone use for 12 months was associated with a significant increase in bone marrow fat content at the femoral neck, accompanied by a significant decrease in total hip bone mineral density. The change in bone marrow fat with pioglitazone use was predominantly observed in female vs. male participants. INTRODUCTION: Use of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone is associated with greater fracture incidence, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood...
July 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719363/vitamin-d-metabolism-in-human-adipose-tissue-could-it-explain-low-vitamin-d-status-in-obesity
#9
Adryana Cordeiro, Alejandro Santos, Miguel Bernardes, Andrea Ramalho, Maria João Martins
Obesity and a low vitamin D (VD) status, as well as a positive association between them, are prevalent worldwide. Additionally, a low VD status has been positively correlated with metabolic dysfunction (although not so convincingly as for obesity). The VD receptor (VDR) mediates VD biological actions in adipose tissue (AT), where VD can be activated or inactivated/degraded through specific hydroxylation steps. Additionally, AT can also store and release VD when needed. A lower VD activation/VD inactivation ratio and an impaired VDR signaling in AT could contribute to metabolic dysfunction besides the aforementioned association between obesity and VD status...
July 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706239/increased-adipose-tissue-heme-levels-and-exportation-are-associated-with-altered-systemic-glucose-metabolism
#10
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Amaia Rodríguez, Francisco Ortega, Sara Becerril, Mònica Sabater-Masdeu, Jessica Latorre, Wifredo Ricart, Gema Frühbeck, José Manuel Fernández-Real
Iron status is known to be associated with the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). We aimed to investigate AT heme and expression of heme exporter (FLVCR1) in association with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Substantial amounts of FLVCR1 mRNA and protein levels were detected in AT, being significantly increased in subjects with T2D, and positively correlated with fasting glucose, fasting triglycerides and with circulating markers of iron stores (serum ferritin, blood hemoglobin and hematocrit). In both visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous AT (SAT), increased heme levels were found in subjects with T2D...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690544/lotus-leaf-aqueous-extract-reduces-visceral-fat-mass-and-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-in-hfd-induced-obese-rats-by-regulating-ppar%C3%AE-2-expression
#11
Kemin Yan, Huijuan Zhu, Jian Xu, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Meijuan Liu, FengYing Gong
Objectives: Lotus leaf is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine. We aimed to explore the effects of lotus leaf aqueous extract (LLAE) on peroxisome proliferative activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) expression in preadipocytes and adipocytes and further investigate its effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Methods: pGL3-Enhancer-PPARγ2 (625 bp)-Luc plasmid, a luciferase reporter gene expression plasmid containing PPARγ2 promoter, was stably transfected into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. PPARγ2 promoter activities were determined by assaying the luciferase activities...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680407/cardiac-ion-channel-regulation-in-obesity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-relevance-to-long-qt-syndrome-and-atrial-fibrillation
#12
REVIEW
Ademuyiwa S Aromolaran, Mohamed Boutjdir
Obesity and its associated metabolic dysregulation leading to metabolic syndrome is an epidemic that poses a significant public health problem. More than one-third of the world population is overweight or obese leading to enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. Obesity predisposes to atrial fibrillation, ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmias; conditions that are underlain by dysfunction in electrical activity of the heart. To date, current therapeutic options for cardiomyopathy of obesity are limited, suggesting that there is considerable room for development of therapeutic interventions with novel mechanisms of action that will help normalize rhythm in obese patients...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679946/independent-tissue-contributors-to-obesity-associated-insulin-resistance
#13
Yvo Ham Kusters, Casper G Schalkwijk, Alfons Jhm Houben, M Eline Kooi, Lucas Lindeboom, Jos Op 't Roodt, Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink, Eugene J Barrett, Coen DA Stehouwer
BACKGROUND: Induction of insulin resistance is a key pathway through which obesity increases risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular events. Although the detrimental effects of obesity on insulin sensitivity are incompletely understood, accumulation of visceral, subcutaneous, and liver fat and impairment of insulin-induced muscle microvascular recruitment (MVR) may be involved. As these phenotypic changes often coincide in obesity, we aimed to unravel whether they independently contribute to insulin resistance and thus constitute separate targets for intervention...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673384/testosterone-therapy-of-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-study
#14
Line Velling Magnussen
The prevalence of chronic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are increasing. The usage of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has escalated in the Western countries during the past decades especially in aging men without clear organic indication for TRT although the safety of long-term TRT has not been clarified regarding the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aging men with T2D have an increased risk of CVD and these patients are often characterized by lowered T-levels, ectopic fat depots, a deranged adipokine profile with e...
July 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656620/autonomous-cortisol-secretion-in-adrenal-incidentalomas-and-increased-visceral-fat-accumulation-during-follow-up
#15
Serkan Yener, Mustafa Baris, Ahmet Peker, Omer Demir, Basak Ozgen, Mustafa Secil
OBJECTIVE: Autonomous cortisol secretion of adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. Because centripetal obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor, we aimed to investigate whether autonomous cortisol secretion is associated with increased visceral fat accumulation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS: Patients with AIs who attended for follow-up between January 2014 and December 2016 were evaluated...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650669/visceral-adiposity-and-expression-of-clock-genes-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-a-pilot-study
#16
Sue Kim, Hye-Sun Lee, Hyun-Ki Park, John A Linton, Ji-Won Lee, Hyangkyu Lee
Increasing evidence suggests a close interrelationship between disrupted circadian rhythms and obesity and metabolic disturbances. In particular, abdominal obesity, which contributes to the pathogenesis of metabolic disease, is associated with disrupted clock gene expression. However, little is known about the relationship between clock gene expression and accurate computed tomography (CT)-based measurements of visceral adiposity. Therefore, we examined the relationship between expression of clock genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in 75 healthy overweight or obese individuals...
June 26, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640157/association-of-visceral-fat-area-with-the-presence-of-depressive-symptoms-in-chinese-postmenopausal-women-with-normal-glucose-tolerance
#17
Qin Xiong, Xiang Hu, Yiting Xu, Xueli Zhang, Xiaoping Pan, Yunfeng Xiao, Xiaojing Ma, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
OBJECTIVE: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders, and women are more vulnerable to depression than men, particularly during stages of hormonal fluctuations. After menopause, fat accumulation shifts from the subcutaneous area to the visceral area, and the risk of metabolic disorder increases in parallel. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between abdominal fat distribution and the presence of depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Visceral fat area (VFA) was detected by magnetic resonance imaging...
June 19, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638930/-different-adipose-tissue-depots-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-human
#18
Ran Wang, Xiao-Nan Li
Obesity is characterized by abnormal and excessive adipose tissue accumulated in the body. Compared with peripheral obesity (the accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue), abdominal obesity (the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue) is associated with increased risk of the metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and dyslipidemia. Adipose tissue is a highly heterogeneous endocrine organ. Adipose tissue depots differ significantly in anatomy, cell biology, glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in endocrine regulation...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#19
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613919/hypercapnia-accelerates-adipogenesis-a-novel-role-of-high-co2-in-exacerbating-obesity
#20
Ryota Kikuchi, Takao Tsuji, Osamu Watanabe, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Kinya Furukawa, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Kazutetsu Aoshiba
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), which manifest as intermittent hypercapnia and sustained plus intermittent hypercapnia, respectively. In this study, we investigated whether CO2 affects adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) and maturation (hypertrophy). Human visceral or subcutaneous preadipocytes were grown to confluence and then induced to differentiate to adipocytes under hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia with or without hypoxia...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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