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visceral fat AND subcutaneous fat AND obesity

Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Francisco Sampaio, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events...
October 17, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Amir Reza Radmard, Mohammad Sadegh Rahmanian, Alireza Abrishami, Ali Yoonessi, Soheil Kooraki, Mehrdad Dadgostar, Amir Pejman Hashemi Taheri, Marjan Gerami Seresht, Hossein Poustchi, Elham Jafari, Reza Malekzadeh, Shahin Merat
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and quantitative measures of central adiposity in the general population using a semi-automated method on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from Golestan Cohort Study. Two groups of 120 individuals with and without fatty liver were randomly selected based on findings of ultrasound. Non-invasive diagnosis of NAFLD was made by combination of ultrasound and MRI...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Bernardo Sousa-Pinto, Laura Gonçalves, Adriana R Rodrigues, Inês Tomada, Henrique Almeida, Delminda Neves, Alexandra M Gouveia
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity, influencing the release of inflammation mediators and promoting remodeling and collagen deposition in the adipose tissue (AT). In this context, this work aims to elucidate whether TGF-β and Smad-dependent or Smad-independent signaling pathways contribute to regional differentiation of AT in high-fat diet (HFD) and energy-restricted (ER) rat models. For this, TGF-β, TGF-β receptors I and II, PAI-1 and GLUT4 mRNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR, and western blotting assays allowed the semiquantification of TGF-β and proteins from Smad3, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways in subcutaneous and visceral (epididymal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric) fat depots from control, HFD and ER-treated rats...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Iana M de Araujo, Carlos E G Salmon, Andressa K Nahas, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa, Jorge Elias Junior, Francisco Ja de Paula
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of bone mass and marrow adipose tissue (MAT) with other fat depots, insulin resistance, bone remodeling markers, adipokines and glucose control in type 2 diabetes and obesity. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study; comprised 24 controls (C), 26 obese (O) and 28 type 2 diabetes. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD). Blood samples were collected for biochemical measurements. 1H Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess MAT in the L3 vertebra and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess intrahepatic lipids, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
U Smith, B B Kahn
Obesity, the major cause of the current global epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D), induces insulin resistance in peripheral insulin target tissues. Several mechanisms have been identified related to cross-talk between adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. These mechanisms involve both increased free fatty acid release and altered secretion of adipokines from adipose tissue. A major determinant of metabolic health is the ability of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to store excess fat rather than allowing it to accumulate in ectopic depots including liver (i...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
A Michaud, J Tordjman, M Pelletier, Y Liu, S Laforest, S Noël, G Le Naour, C Bouchard, K Clément, A Tchernof
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue fibrosis is a relatively new notion and its relationship with visceral obesity and cardiometabolic alterations remains unclear, particularly in moderate obesity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine if total and pericellular collagen accumulation are relevant for the pathophysiology of visceral obesity and related cardiometabolic risk. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Surgical omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) fat samples were obtained in 56 women (age: 47...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Giulia Ferrannini, Maria Namwanje, Bin Fang, Manashree Damle, Dylan Li, Qiongming Liu, Mitchell A Lazar, Li Qiang
OBJECTIVE: Genetic background largely contributes to the complexity of metabolic responses and dysfunctions. Induction of brown adipose features in white fat, known as brown remodeling, has been appreciated as a promising strategy to offset the positive energy balance in obesity and further to improve metabolism. Here we address the effects of genetic background on this process. METHODS: We investigated browning remodeling in a depot-specific manner by comparing the response of C57BL/6J, 129/Sv and FVB/NJ mouse strains to cold...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Melissa G Farb, Shakun Karki, Song-Young Park, Samantha M Saggese, Brian Carmine, Donald T Hess, Caroline Apovian, Jessica L Fetterman, Rosa Bretón-Romero, Naomi M Hamburg, José J Fuster, María A Zuriaga, Kenneth Walsh, Noyan Gokce
Obesity is associated with the development of vascular insulin resistance; however, pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood. We sought to investigate the role of WNT5A-JNK in the regulation of insulin-mediated vasodilator responses in human adipose tissue arterioles prone to endothelial dysfunction. In 43 severely obese (BMI 44±11 kg/m(2)) and five metabolically normal non-obese (BMI 26±2 kg/m(2)) subjects, we isolated arterioles from subcutaneous and visceral fat during planned surgeries. Using videomicroscopy, we examined insulin-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses and characterized adipose tissue gene and protein expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses...
September 28, 2016: Vascular Medicine
Ruth Schübel, Mirja E Graf, Johanna Nattenmüller, Diana Nabers, Disorn Sookthai, Laura F Gruner, Theron Johnson, Christopher L Schlett, Oyunbileg von Stackelberg, Romy Kirsten, Nina Habermann, Mario Kratz, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Cornelia M Ulrich, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn
Mechanistic studies suggest benefits of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) in chronic disease prevention that may exceed those of continuous calorie restriction (CCR), even at equal net calorie intake. Despite promising results from first trials, it remains largely unknown whether ICR-induced metabolic alterations reported from experimental studies can also be observed in humans, and whether ICR diets are practicable and effective in real life situations. Thus, we initiated the HELENA Trial to test the effects of ICR (eu-caloric diet on five days and very low energy intake on two days per week) on metabolic parameters and body composition over one year...
September 28, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Gregory Lacraz, Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Sebastien M Labbé, Mathieu Vernier, Christophe Noll, Marian Mayhue, Jana Stankova, Adel Schwertani, Guillaume Grenier, André Carpentier, Denis Richard, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Julie Fradette, Marek Rola-Pleszczynski, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Sheela Ramanathan
OBJECTIVE: IL-15 is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by many cell types. IL-15 is also produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscle and has been reported to reduce weight gain in mice. Contrarily, our findings on IL-15 knockout (KO) mice indicate that IL-15 promotes obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pro-obesity role of IL-15 in adipose tissues. METHODS: Control and IL-15 KO mice were maintained on high fat diet (HFD) or normal control diet...
2016: PloS One
Janne West, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Thobias Romu, Rory Collins, Steve Garratt, Jimmy D Bell, Magnus Borga, Louise Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Quantitative and accurate measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important for prevention and diagnosis of diseases related to obesity and muscle degeneration. Manually segmenting muscle and fat compartments in MR body-images is laborious and time-consuming, hindering implementation in large cohorts. In the present study, the feasibility and success-rate of a Dixon-based MR scan followed by an intensity-normalised, non-rigid, multi-atlas based segmentation was investigated in a cohort of 3,000 subjects...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer K Yee, Guang Han, Juan Vega, Wai-Nang P Lee, Michael G Ross, Mina Desai
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with rapid catch-up growth leads to adult obesity and insulin resistance. We have previously shown that IUGR male rats demonstrated increased de novo fatty acid synthesis in the subcutaneous (SC) fat, but not the visceral fat, during the nursing period prior to the onset of obesity. Young IUGR females do not exhibit the same increase. We further hypothesized that in male IUGR offspring, de novo synthesis is a programmed intrinsic effect that persists to adulthood and does not suppress in response to a high fat diet...
September 22, 2016: Lipids
Hannah Loher, Roland Kreis, Chris Boesch, Emanuel Christ
In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Taek Gun Jeong, Ji Wan Kim, Sun-Young Lee, Hee Sun Park, Hye Seung Han, Dae Yong Hwang
BACKGROUND: Correlation between colorectal cancer (CRC) and abdominal obesity has been established, but there is a paucity of data on non-obese CRC patients. The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of CRCs that occur in such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive CRC patients without cachexia were included. Unintended body weight loss, T4- or M1-staged CRCs, extensive lymph node involvement, or synchronous malignancy were classified as cachectic conditions...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Sunelle A Barnard, Marlien Pieters, Cornelie Nienaber-Rousseau, Herculina S Kruger
INTRODUCTION: Although the relationship of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with obesity has been well established, the relationship of PAI-1 with different body fat distribution patterns is less clear particularly in non-white ethnicities. METHODS: We investigated the cross-sectional association of PAI-1act with body fat % and two different body fat distribution patterns, namely sarcopenic obesity (SO) and visceral (VAT) compared to subcutaneous (SCAT) abdominal obesity, in 246 healthy African women by creating sub-groups according to different body fat distribution patterns...
October 2016: Thrombosis Research
Nicté Figueroa-Vega, Benjamín Jordán, Elva Leticia Pérez-Luque, Luis Parra-Laporte, Serafín Garnelo, Juan Manuel Malacara
Angiogenesis in inflammation are hallmarks for adipose tissue expansion in obesity. The role of angiopoietin/Tie-2 system in adipose tissue expansion and immune cell recruitment is unclear. We studied the effect of sleeve gastrectomy and the influence of FTO rs9930506 polymorphism on Tie-2, angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 expression in morbid obesity. Fifteen morbidly obese subjects (4 men and 11 women) aged 24-55 years were followed-up 3 and 6 months after sleeve gastrectomy. Serum sTie-2, angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α concentrations were determined by ELISA...
August 31, 2016: Endocrine
Salvatore Fabbiano, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Dorothée Rigo, Christelle Veyrat-Durebex, Ana Stevanovic Dokic, Didier J Colin, Mirko Trajkovski
Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan from yeast to mammals, delays onset of age-associated diseases, and improves metabolic health. We show that CR stimulates development of functional beige fat within the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, contributing to decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice kept at room temperature or at thermoneutrality and in obese leptin-deficient mice. These metabolic changes are mediated by increased eosinophil infiltration, type 2 cytokine signaling, and M2 macrophage polarization in fat of CR animals...
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Roberta D C da Cunha de Sá, Amanda R Crisma, Maysa M Cruz, Amanda R Martins, Laureane N Masi, Catia L do Amaral, R Curi, Maria I C Alonso-Vale
KEY POINTS: Fish oil (FO), rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has beneficial effects on changes induced by obesity and partially prevents associated comorbidities. The effects of FO on adipocytes from different adipose tissue depots in high-fat (HF) diet induced obese mice have not been uninvestigated. This is the first study to examine the effects of FO on changes in metabolism and adipokine production in adipocytes from s.c. (inguinal; ING) or visceral (retroperitoneal; RP) white adipose depots in a HF diet-induced obese mice...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Anca Tomsa, Sara Klinepeter Bartz, Rajesh Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar Krishnamurthy, Fida Bacha
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the physical and metabolic determinants of endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in normal weight and overweight adolescents with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 81 adolescents: 21 normal weight, 25 overweight with normal glucose tolerance, 19 overweight with impaired glucose regulation, and 16 with type 2 diabetes mellitus underwent evaluation of reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and augmentation index (AIx) at heart rate 75 bpm by peripheral arterial tonometry; oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to measure insulin sensitivity; and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging for percentage of body fat and abdominal fat partitioning...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
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