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visceral fat AND subcutaneous fat AND obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087813/ethnic-differences-in-anthropometric-measures-and-abdominal-fat-distribution-a-cross-sectional-pooled-study-in-inuit-africans-and-europeans
#1
Pernille F Rønn, Gregers S Andersen, Torsten Lauritzen, Dirk L Christensen, Mette Aadahl, Bendix Carstensen, Marit E Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. METHODS: We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077863/what-have-human-experimental-overfeeding-studies-taught-us-about-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-susceptibility-to-obesity-and-metabolic-complications
#2
REVIEW
D J Cuthbertson, T Steele, J P Wilding, J C G Halford, J A Harrold, M Hamer, F Karpe
Overfeeding experiments, in which we impose short-term positive energy balance, help unravel the cellular, physiological and behavioural adaptations to nutrient excess. These studies mimic longer-term mismatched energy expenditure and intake. There is considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in the magnitude of weight gain when exposed to similar relative caloric excess reflecting variable activation of compensatory adaptive mechanisms. Significantly, given similar relative weight gain, individuals may be protected from/predisposed to metabolic complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071718/reproducibility-and-repeatability-of-computer-tomography-based-measurement-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissues
#3
Yuan-Hao Lee, Hsing-Fen Hsiao, Hou-Ting Yang, Shih-Yi Huang, Wing P Chan
Excessive accumulation of abdominal adipose tissue is a widely recognized as a major feature of obesity, and it can be quantified by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, in a phantom study, the inter- and intra-instrument reliability of DXA remains unpredictable. Thus, we attempted to determine the precision of estimates from computer tomography-based measurements and analysis with AZE Virtual Place software. To determine the inter-rater reproducibility and intra-rater repeatability of adipose tissue area estimates, we used the automatic boundary-tracing function of the AZE Virtual Place to generate cross-sectional areas of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues from the abdomen of reconstructed CT images...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070205/plasticity-of-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-fasting-and-refeeding-in-male-mice
#4
Hao-Neng Tang, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Shu-Wen Tan, Yue Guo, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Hou-De Zhou
BACKGROUND: Fasting is the most widely prescribed and self-imposed strategy for treating excessive weight gain and obesity, and has been shown to exert a number of beneficial effects. The aim of the present study was to determine the exact role of fasting and subsequent refeeding on fat distribution in mice. METHODS: C57/BL6 mice fasted for 24 to 72 h and were then subjected to refeeding for 72 h. At 24, 48 and 72 h of fasting, and 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of refeeding, the mice were sacrificed, and serum and various adipose tissues were collected...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069727/the-obesity-paradox-in-cancer-moving-beyond-bmi
#5
EDITORIAL
Shlomit Strulov Shachar, Grant R Williams
Body mass index (BMI) and simple counts of weight are easy and available tools in the clinic and in research. Recent studies have shown that cancer patients with a low normal BMI (or those with weight loss) have worse outcomes than obese patients. These results suggest that obesity has a protective effect and has been termed the "obesity paradox." In this commentary, we discuss hypothetical explanations and take a step beyond BMI or simple weights alone to present other useful and more specific body composition metrics, such as muscle tissue mass, visceral fat mass, and subcutaneous fat mass...
January 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063251/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049553/validation-of-intimate-correlation-between-visceral-fat-and-hepatic-steatosis-quantitative-measurement-techniques-using-ct-for-area-of%C3%A2-fat-and-mr-for-hepatic-steatosis
#7
Moon Hyung Choi, Joon-Il Choi, Michael Yong Park, Sung Eun Rha, Soon Nam Oh, Seung Eun Jung, Jae Young Byun, Stephan Kannengiesser, Yohan Son
BACKGROUND & AIM: The relationship between obesity and hepatic steatosis is well known, and there are many methods to measure obesity and severity of hepatic steatosis. Because of advances in radiologic techniques, the areas of certain body components can be measured on computed tomography (CT) while the severity of hepatic steatosis can be measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with high accuracy. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between degree of fatty infiltration of the liver measured by MRS and body composition measured from CT images...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028035/cardiometabolic-risk-improvement-in-response-to-a-3-yr-lifestyle-modification-program-in-men-contribution-of-improved-cardiorespiratory-fitness-vs-weight-loss
#8
Anne-Laure Borel, Julie-Anne Nazare, Aurélie Baillot, Natalie Alméras, Angelo Tremblay, Jean Bergeron, Dr Paul Poirier, Jean-Pierre Despres
OBJECTIVE: To examine the respective contributions of changes in visceral adiposity, subcutaneous adiposity, liver fat, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the improvements in cardiometabolic risk markers observed in response to a 3-year healthy eating/physical activity lifestyle intervention. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ninety-four out of 144 viscerally obese but otherwise healthy men completed a 3-year lifestyle intervention. Body weight, body composition and fat distribution were assessed by anthropometry and DEXA/computed tomography...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005982/depot-dependent-effects-of-dexamethasone-on-gene-expression-in-human-omental-and-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipose-tissues-from-obese-women
#9
R Taylor Pickering, Mi-Jeong Lee, Kalypso Karastergiou, Adam Gower, Susan K Fried
Glucocorticoids promote fat accumulation in visceral compared to subcutaneous depots, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. To identify long-term changes in gene expression that are differentially sensitive or responsive to glucocorticoids in these depots, paired samples of human omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) adipose tissues obtained from obese women during elective surgery were cultured with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (Dex, 0, 1, 10, 25 and 1000 nM) for 7 days...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999858/frailty-syndrome-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-frailty-in-patients-with-symptomatic-severe-aortic-stenosis
#10
M Pinheiro, J Mancio, G Conceição, W Ferreira, M Carvalho, A Santos, L Vouga, V Gama Ribeiro, A Leite-Moreira, I Falcão-Pires, N Bettencourt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), frailty is a clinically relevant measure of increased vulnerability that should be included in the preoperative risk assessment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) derived phase angle (PA) reflects cell membrane integrity and function. Few studies are available on the relative contribution of adiposity distribution on frailty, and about the influences of frailty and visceral obesity in PA value. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate associations among frailty, visceral fat depots and PA in patients with symptomatic severe AS...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994266/secretory-activity-of-subcutaneous-abdominal-adipose-tissue-in-male-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis-association-with-clinical-and-laboratory-data
#11
Ewa Kontny, Agnieszka Zielińska, Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska, Piotr Głuszko
INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data...
2016: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977529/physical-activity-and-adiposity-related-inflammation-the-mesa
#12
Chantal A Vella, Matthew A Allison, Mary Cushman, Nancy S Jenny, Mary P Miles, Britta Larsen, Susan G Lakoski, Erin D Michos, Michael J Blaha
PURPOSE: Physical activity is associated with decreased adiposity-related inflammation in adults. Whether this association is independent of central obesity is unknown but important for understanding the mechanisms associated with reducing cardiometabolic disease risk through physical activity. This study examined whether associations of physical activity and obesity-related inflammatory markers were independent of central adiposity. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2005, 1970 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis completed detailed health history and physical activity questionnaires, underwent physical measurements including computed tomography to quantify abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, and measurements of adiponectin, leptin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and resistin...
December 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916988/circulating-scd36-levels-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-controls
#13
S Heebøll, M K Poulsen, M J Ornstrup, T N Kjær, S B Pedersen, S Nielsen, H Grønbæk, A Handberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CD36 is implicated in fatty acid uptake in multiple tissues, including hepatocytes and adipocytes. Circulating CD36 (sCD36) is increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).We explored this association further by investigating correlations between sCD36 levels, intrahepatic lipid content and markers of obesity in NAFLD patients and controls. METHODS: 111 NAFLD patients and 33 normal/overweight controls were included. Intrahepatic lipid content was measured by MR spectroscopy; and subgroups of participants had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (n=99), magnetic resonance imaging (n=94, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue) and liver biopsy (n=28 NAFLD patients) performed...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916214/assessment-of-abdominal-fat-using-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-anthropometric-and-biochemical-parameters
#14
Ali Al-Radaideh, Reema Tayyem, Kholoud Al-Fayomi, Nisreen Nimer, Amer Malkawi, Rana Al-Zu Bi, Lana Agraib, Imad Athamneh, Nawal Hijjawi
BACKGROUND: To measure the abdominal subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) volumes using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate their association with selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters among obese and nonobese apparently healthy participants. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 167 healthy participants. Abdominal scans were acquired at 3T MRI, and the SF and VF were segmented and their volumes were calculated...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913605/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-is-associated-with-early-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-survivors
#15
Maurizio Delvecchio, Paola Muggeo, Mariantonietta Monteduro, Giuseppe Lassandro, Chiara Novielli, Federica Valente, Emanuela Salinaro, Annapaola Zito, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Vito Leonardo Miniello, Nicola Santoro, Paola Giordano, Maria Felicia Faienza
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) survivors have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in childhood ALL and if it is associated with early cardiovascular dysfunction. METHODS: In total, 53 childhood ALL survivors and 34 controls underwent auxological evaluation, biochemical assay, liver, heart and vascular ultrasound study. RESULTS: NAFLD was more frequent in ALL patients than in controls (39...
February 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899146/impact-of-visceral-fat-on-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-cells-in-obese-japanese-subjects
#16
Yoshinari Obata, Norikazu Maeda, Yuya Yamada, Koji Yamamoto, Seiji Nakamura, Masaya Yamaoka, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Shigeki Masuda, Hirofumi Nagao, Shiro Fukuda, Yuya Fujishima, Shunbun Kita, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsubara, Yuji Matsuzawa, Iichiro Shimomura
BACKGROUND: Visceral fat plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The association of visceral fat accumulation with cardio-metabolic diseases has been reported, but the impact of visceral fat on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells of obese subjects...
November 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884920/systematic-review-of-bariatric-surgery-liver-biopsies-clarifies-the-natural-history-of-liver-disease-in-patients-with-severe-obesity
#17
Pierre Bedossa, Joan Tordjman, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Christine Poitou, Jean-Michel Oppert, Adriana Torcivia, Jean-Luc Bouillot, Valerie Paradis, Vlad Ratziu, Karine Clément
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent complication of morbid obesity, but its severity varies greatly and thus there is a strong need to better define its natural history in these patients. DESIGN: Liver biopsies were systematically performed in 798 consecutive patients with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. Histology was compared with clinical, biological, anthropometrical and body composition characteristics. RESULTS: Patients with presumably normal liver (n=179, 22%) were significantly younger at bariatric surgery than patients with NAFLD (37...
November 24, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876617/canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-attenuates-obesity-induced-inflammation-in-the-nodose-ganglion-hypothalamus-and-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#18
Farhana Naznin, Hideyuki Sakoda, Tadashi Okada, Hironobu Tsubouchi, T M Zaved Waise, Kenji Arakawa, Masamitsu Nakazato
Chronic inflammation in systemic organs, such as adipose tissue, nodose ganglion, hypothalamus, and skeletal muscles, is closely associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Because sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by promoting urinary excretion of glucose and subsequent caloric loss, we investigated the effect of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, on obesity-induced inflammation in neural tissues and skeletal muscles of mice. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed male C57BL/6J mice were treated with canagliflozin for 8 weeks...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875786/inflammation-dysregulated-metabolism-and-aromatase-in-obesity-and-breast-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Heba Zahid, Evan R Simpson, Kristy A Brown
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of estrogen-dependent breast cancer after menopause. Adipose tissue undergoes important changes in obesity due to excess storage of lipids, leading to adipocyte cell death and the recruitment of macrophages. The resultant state of chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the activation of NFkB signaling and elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. This occurs not only in the visceral and subcutaneous fat, but also in the breast fat...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871812/effects-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-bone-mineral-density-and-marrow-adipose-tissue
#20
Miriam A Bredella, Logan B Greenblatt, Alireza Eajazi, Martin Torriani, Elaine W Yu
Bariatric surgery is associated with bone loss but skeletal consequences may differ between Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), the two most commonly performed bariatric procedures. Furthermore, severe weight loss is associated with high marrow adipose tissue (MAT); however, MAT is also increased in visceral adiposity. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of RYGB and SG on BMD and MAT. We hypothesized that both bariatric procedures would lead to a decrease in BMD and MAT...
February 2017: Bone
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