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visceral fat AND subcutaneous fat AND obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351490/significant-improvement-in-cardiometabolic-health-in-healthy-non-obese-individuals-during-caloric-restriction-induced-weight-loss-and-weight-loss-maintenance
#1
Jasper Most, L Anne Gilmore, Steven R Smith, Hongmei Han, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Caloric restriction (CR) triggers benefits for healthspan including decreased risk of cardiometabolic disease. In an ancillary study to CALERIE 2, a 24-month 25% CR study, we assessed the cardiometabolic effects of CR in 53 non-obese (BMI: 22-28 kg/m2) men (n=17) and women (n=36). According to the energy-balance method (doubly labeled water and changes in body energy stores), the 25% CR intervention (n=34) produced 17{plus minus}1% (mean{plus minus}SE) and 14{plus minus}1% CR after 12 and 24 months (M12, M24), resulting in significant weight loss (M12: -9{plus minus}0...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343706/caloric-restriction-lowers-endocannabinoid-tonus-and-improves-cardiac-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
Huub J van Eyk, Linda D van Schinkel, Vasudev Kantae, Charlotte E A Dronkers, Jos J M Westenberg, Albert de Roos, Hildo J Lamb, J Wouter Jukema, Amy C Harms, Thomas Hankemeier, Mario van der Stelt, Ingrid M Jazet, Patrick C N Rensen, Johannes W A Smit
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Endocannabinoids (ECs) are associated with obesity and ectopic fat accumulation, both of which play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effect of prolonged caloric restriction on ECs in relation to fat distribution and cardiac function is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate this relationship in obese T2D patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a prospective intervention study, obese T2D patients with CAD (n = 27) followed a 16 week very low calorie diet (VLCD; 450-1000 kcal/day)...
January 17, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338526/associations-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-fat-with-insulin-resistance-and-secretion-differ-between-men-and-women-the-netherlands-epidemiology-of-obesity-study
#3
Renée de Mutsert, Karin Gast, Ralph Widya, Eelco de Koning, Ingrid Jazet, Hildo Lamb, Saskia le Cessie, Albert de Roos, Jan Smit, Frits Rosendaal, Martin den Heijer
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sex differences may exist. We aimed to investigate the associations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, fasting and postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured and abdominal fat depots were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 2253 participants (53% women)...
January 17, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338002/the-associations-between-adult-body-composition-and-abdominal-adiposity-outcomes-and-relative-weight-gain-and-linear-growth-from-birth-to-age-22-in-the-birth-to-twenty-plus-cohort-south-africa
#4
Alessandra Prioreschi, Richard J Munthali, Juliana Kagura, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Emanuella De Lucia Rolfe, Lisa K Micklesfield, Shane A Norris
BACKGROUND: The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. OBJECTIVES: To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335416/lack-of-pronounced-changes-in-the-expression-of-fatty-acid-handling-proteins-in-adipose-tissue-and-plasma%C3%A2-of-morbidly-obese-humans
#5
Ewa Anna Grzegorczyk, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Bartlomiej Lukaszuk, Dorota Harasiuk, Barbara Choromanska, Piotr Mysliwiec, Malgorzata Zendzian-Piotrowska, Adrian Chabowski
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fatty acid handling proteins are involved in the process of accumulation of lipids in different fat tissue depots. Thus, the aim of the study was to estimate the expression of both fatty acid transport and binding proteins in the subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of patients with morbid obesity without metabolic syndrome, as well as the plasma concentrations of these transporters. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Protein (Western blotting) and mRNA (Real-time PCR) expression of selected fatty acid handling proteins was assessed in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 30 patients with morbid obesity...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334669/anti-obesity-effects-of-clausena-excavata-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#6
Young-Rak Cho, Jung A Lee, Yoon Yeon Kim, Jae-Shin Kang, Jae-Ho Lee, Eun-Kyung Ahn
Clausena excavata (C. excavata) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, enteritis, dysentery, and malaria. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 50% ethanol extract of C. excavata (ECE) on weight loss, adipocyte size, and obesity-related biochemical parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. After 6 weeks of HFD + ECE administration, HFD-induced total fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat were evaluated by micro-computed tomography. The serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were evaluated with a biochemical analyzer, and leptin and adiponectin levels in the serum were assessed via enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310809/relation-of-overall-and-abdominal-adiposity-with-electrocardiogram-parameters-of-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease-in-individuals-aged-45-to-65-years-from-the-netherlands-epidemiology-of-obesity-study
#7
Theodora W Elffers, Renée de Mutsert, Hildo J Lamb, Arie C Maan, Peter W Macfarlane, Ko Willems van Dijk, Frits R Rosendaal, J Wouter Jukema, Stella Trompet
Overall and abdominal obesity are well-established risk factors for cardiometabolic disease. However, associations of overall and abdominal adiposity with electrocardiographic (ECG) markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we investigated these associations in a population without preexisting CVD. We performed cross-sectional analyses in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study. Body mass index (BMI), total body fat, and waist circumference were assessed in all participants, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue (by magnetic resonance imaging) were assessed in a random subgroup...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303933/perirenal-adiposity-is-associated-with-lower-progression-free-survival-from-ovarian-cancer
#8
Yan Zhang, Adriana M Coletta, Pamela K Allen, Aaroh M Parikh, Matthes Cox-Mattin, Larissa A Meyer, Charlotte C Sun, Karen M Basen-Engquist, Karen H Lu, Ann H Klopp
OBJECTIVES: Abdominal obesity is linked with a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. However, the link between abdominal obesity and survival after diagnosis of ovarian cancer is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of abdominal obesity on progression-free survival in patients with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Among 258 patients, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, along with perirenal adipose tissue thickness (a visceral adiposity proxy measure) was retrospectively measured from abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans obtained within 6 months of ovarian cancer diagnosis...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286302/microrna-27b-depletion-enhances-endotrophic-and-intravascular-lipid-accumulation-and-induces-adipocyte-hyperplasia-in-zebrafish
#9
Chia-Chun Hsu, Chi-Yu Lai, Chiu-Ya Lin, Kun-Yun Yeh, Guor Mour Her
miR-27b has emerged as a regulatory hub in cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and as a potential therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis and obesity. However, the impact of miR-27b on lipid levels in vivo remains to be determined. Zebrafish lipids are normally stored as triacylglycerols (TGs) and their main storage sites are visceral, intramuscular, and subcutaneous lipid depots, and not blood vessels and liver. In this study, we applied microRNA-sponge (miR-SP) technology and generated zebrafish expressing transgenic miR-27b-SP (C27bSPs), which disrupted endogenous miR-27b activity and induced intravascular lipid accumulation (hyperlipidemia) and the early onset of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285243/high-visceral-fat-percentage-is-associated-with-poor-outcome-in-endometrial-cancer
#10
Karen Klepsland Mauland, Øyvin Eng, Sigmund Ytre-Hauge, Ingvild L Tangen, Anna Berg, Helga B Salvesen, Øyvind O Salvesen, Camilla Krakstad, Jone Trovik, Erling A Hoivik, Henrica Maria Johanna Werner, Gunnar Mellgren, Ingfrid S Haldorsen
Despite evidence of increased endometrial cancer (EC) risk in obese women, the impact of obesity on clinical and histological phenotype is poorly understood. This study explored abdominal fat volumes and fat distribution quantified by computed tomography (CT), in relation to tumor characteristics and outcome. 227 EC patients with preoperative abdominal CT scans were included. Total abdominal fat volume (TAV), subcutaneous abdominal fat volume (SAV) and visceral abdominal fat volume (VAV) were quantified, and visceral fat percentage calculated (VAV%=[VAV/TAV]x100)...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273198/enlarged-adipocytes-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-associated-to-hyperandrogenism-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-volume-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#11
Bárbara Echiburú, Francisco Pérez-Bravo, José E Galgani, Daniel Sandoval, Carolina Saldías, Nicolás Crisosto, Manuel Maliqueo, Teresa Sir-Petermann
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an androgen excess disorder associated with obesity and adipose tissue disturbances. Our aim was to evaluate gene expression of adipocytokines and adipocyte characteristics in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of PCOS women. DESIGN: Twelve PCOS (PCOSw) and 12 control (Cw) premenopausal women (BMI 20-35 kg/m2) were included, with measurements of whole-body composition assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume, by magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232191/salivary-adiponectin-concentration-in-healthy-adult-males-in-relation-to-anthropometric-measures-and-fat-distribution
#12
Mona Mohamed Ibrahim Abdalla, S C Soon
OBJECTIVES: Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF), visceral fat level (VF), and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF)...
October 26, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225114/fructose-induced-inflammation-and-increased-cortisol-a-new-mechanism-for-how-sugar-induces-visceral-adiposity
#13
REVIEW
James J DiNicolantonio, Varshil Mehta, Neema Onkaramurthy, James H O'Keefe
Traditionally, the leading hypothesis regarding the development of obesity involves caloric imbalance, whereby the amount of calories consumed exceeds the amount of calories burned which causes obesity. Another hypothesis for why we get fat has surfaced in the last decade which is the idea that the overconsumption of added sugars and refined carbohydrates induce insulin resistance and high insulin levels causing obesity. While insulin is a fat-storing hormone, this hypothesis does not explain visceral adiposity, or why certain people are found to have fat stored in and around their organs...
December 7, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216922/lactic-fermented-egg-white-improves-visceral-fat-obesity-in-japanese-subjects-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#14
Ryosuke Matsuoka, Keiko Kamachi, Mika Usuda, Wei Wang, Yasunobu Masuda, Masaaki Kunou, Akira Tanaka, Kazunori Utsunomiya
BACKGROUND: It was reported that egg white protein (EWP) reduced body fat in rats. We developed a lactic-fermented egg white (LE) that facilitates the consumption of egg whites by fermenting them with lactobacillus, and were able to study their intake in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we evaluated the effect of LE on visceral fat area (VFA). METHODS: Participants included 37 adult males and females aged ≥40 years (VFA at navel ≥100 cm2)...
December 8, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196841/implication-of-visceral-obesity-in-patients-with-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Akihiko Okamura, Masayuki Watanabe, Kotaro Yamashita, Masami Yuda, Masaru Hayami, Yu Imamura, Shinji Mine
PURPOSE: Visceral obesity is considered to be associated not only with chronic systemic inflammation but also with aggressive cancer behavior. However, the implication of visceral obesity in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is unclear. METHODS: Computed tomography volumetry was performed in 364 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. We calculated the ratio of the visceral fat area to the subcutaneous fat area (VS ratio), which is a valuable parameter of visceral obesity...
December 2, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186387/resveratrol-intake-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-modulates-the-early-metabolic-effects-of-maternal-nutrition-differently-in-male-and-female-offspring
#16
Purificación Ros, Francisca Díaz, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Pilar Argente-Arizón, Vicente Barrios, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
Poor maternal nutrition can have detrimental long-term consequences on energy homeostasis in the offspring. Resveratrol exerts antioxidant and antiobesity actions, but its impact during development remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation could improve the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring metabolism. Wistar rats received a low-fat diet (LFD; 10.2% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 61.6% kcal from fat), with half of each group receiving resveratrol in their drinking water (50 mg/L) during pregnancy and lactation...
February 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184687/ct-based-assessment-of-visceral-adiposity-and-outcomes-for-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#17
Nadia Saeed, Ravi Shridhar, Khaldoun Almhanna, Sarah Hoffe, Michael Chuong, Kenneth Meredith
Background: Various methods of quantifying and correlating obesity to outcomes for patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) have been evaluated. Published data suggest that quantification of adiposity may be more accurate than body mass index (BMI) as a prognostic factor. We report our analysis of adiposity as a prognostic factor in a series of patients with EA. Methods: This single institution retrospective review included patients with EA who underwent esophagectomy from 1994-2008...
October 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177207/can-pancreatic-cancer-behavior-be-predicted-based-on-computed-tomography-measurements-of-fat-and-muscle-mass
#18
Whalen Clark, Forat Swaid, Kenneth Luberice, Ty A Bowman, Darrell Downs, Sharona B Ross, Alexander S Rosemurgy
Many studies purport that obesity, and specifically visceral fat, impact survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, these studies involve crude measures of obesity [eg, body mass index (BMI)] or visceral fat [eg, linear measurements on computed tomographic (CT) scans]. Some studies purport that weight loss and muscle wasting (ie, sarcopenia) presage poor survival in these patients. This study was undertaken to accurately measure and reexamine the impact of visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and sarcopenia on pancreatic cancer...
December 2016: International Journal of Surgery. Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174027/association-of-serum-fibroblast-growth-factor-19-levels-with-visceral-fat-accumulation-is-independent-of-glucose-tolerance-status
#19
X Hu, Q Xiong, Y Xu, X Zhang, X Pan, X Ma, Y Bao, W Jia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies suggested that circulating fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 levels might be associated with the fat content and distribution, and varied with different glucose tolerance status. This study aimed to investigate the association of serum FGF19 levels with obesity and visceral fat accumulation in a Chinese population with differing glucose tolerance status. METHODS AND RESULTS: The 2383 participants were divided into subgroups of glucose tolerance status: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 1754), impaired glucose regulation (IGR, n = 499), and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM, n = 130)...
October 18, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169989/adamts18-deficiency-leads-to-visceral-adiposity-and-associated-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#20
Rui Zhu, Mengting Cheng, Tiantian Lu, Ning Yang, Shuai Ye, Yi-Hsuan Pan, Tao Hong, Suying Dang, Wei Zhang
Visceral adiposity is of greater risk than obesity in subcutaneous adipose tissue for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Its pathogenesis remains unclear, but it is associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs) are a family of secreted Zn-dependent metalloproteinases that play crucial roles in development and various diseases owing to their ECM remodeling activity. ADAMTS18 is an "orphan ADAMTS" whose function and substrate remain unclear...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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