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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678652/octogenarians-undergoing-open-repair-have-higher-mortality-compared-to-fenestrated-endovascular-repair-of-intact-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-involving-the-visceral-vessels
#1
Satinderjit Locham, Muhammad Faateh, Hanaa Dakour Aridi, Besma Nejim, Mahmoud Malas
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that octogenarians have a higher risk of mortality compared to non-octogenarians undergoing open (OAR) and endovascular (EVAR) abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Fenestrated-endovascular repair (F-EVAR) was approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 and has been populated as a less invasive approach to treat patients with suboptimal neck anatomy with favorable outcomes compared to traditional OAR. The aim of the study is to compare 30-day outcomes of F-EVAR vs...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678520/sorafenib-suppresses-tgf-%C3%AE-responses-by-inducing-caveolae-lipid-raft-mediated-internalization-degradation-of-cell-surface-type-ii-tgf-%C3%AE-receptors-implications-in-development-of-effective-adjunctive-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Chih-Ling Chung, Shih-Wei Wang, Wei-Chih Sun, Chih-Wen Shu, Yu-Chen Kao, Meng-Shin Shiao, Chun-Lin Chen
Sorafenib is the only FDA approved drug for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other malignancies. Studies indicate that TGF-β signalling is associated with tumour progression in HCC. Autocrine and paracrine TGF-β promotes tumour growth and malignancy by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Sorafenib is believed to antagonize tumour progression by inhibiting TGF-β-induced EMT. It improves survival of patients but HCC later develops resistance and relapses. The underlying mechanism of resistance is unknown...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677603/the-comparative-evidence-basis-for-the-efficacy-of-second-generation-antidepressants-in-the-treatment-of-depression-in-the-us-a-bayesian-meta-analysis-of-food-and-drug-administration-reviews
#3
Rei Monden, Annelieke M Roest, Don van Ravenzwaaij, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Richard Morey, Klaas J Wardenaar, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown similar efficacy of different antidepressants in the treatment of depression. METHOD: Data of phase-2 and -3 clinical-trials for 16 antidepressants (levomilnacipran, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, venlafaxine, paroxetine, escitalopram, vortioxetine, mirtazapine, venlafaxine XR, sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine CR, nefazodone, bupropion, vilazodone), approved by the FDA for the treatment of depression between 1987 and 2016, were extracted from the FDA reviews that were used to evaluate efficacy prior to marketing approval, which are less liable to reporting biases...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677482/allosteric-ligands-for-the-pharmacologically-important-flavivirus-target-ns5-from-zinc-database-based-on-pharmacophoric-points-free-energy-calculations-and-dynamics-correlation
#4
Abbas Khan, Shoaib Saleem, Muhammad Idrees, Syed Shujait Ali, Muhammad Junaid, Aman Chandra Kaushik, Dong-Qing Wei
Dengue virus belongs to a group of human pathogens, which causes different diseases, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome in humans. It possesses RNA as a genetic material and is replicated with the aid of NS5 protein. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important domain of NS5 in the replication of that virus. The catalytic process activity of RdRp is making it an important target for antiviral chemical therapy. To date, No FDA drug has been approved and marketed for the treatment of diseases caused by Dengue virus...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674356/farrell-at-goldberg-kb-pazdur-r-flexibility-and-innovation-in-the-fda-s-novel-regulatory-approval-strategies-for-hematologic-drugs-blood-2017-130-11-1285-1289
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673151/tumor-molecular-profiling-for-an-individualized-approach-to-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-patient-case-study
#6
Kristine Posadas, Anita Ankola, Zhaohai Yang, Nelson S Yee
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in incidence, and the associated mortality rate remains among the highest. For advanced HCC, sorafenib has been shown to slightly prolong survival, and regorafenib and nivolumab, both recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), may produce clinical benefits to a limited extent. Systemic chemotherapy has been shown to produce a modest response, but there is no clinically valid biomarker that can be used to predict which patients may benefit...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672168/rucaparib-a-new-treatment-option-for-ovarian-cancer
#7
Ilaria Sabatucci, Giuseppa Maltese, Stefano Lepori, Elisa Tripodi, Giorgio Bogani, Domenica Lorusso
Approximately 50% of high-grade serous ovarian cancers present a deficiency in the pathways involved in homologous recombination (HR). PARP inhibitors prevent single-strand DNA damage repair and determine a progression of the defect towards double-strand breaks, which results in a process known as 'synthetic lethality'. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the efficacy and toxicity of rucaparib either as a single agent or as a maintenance treatment for ovarian cancer. This includes the NGS Foundation Medicine evaluation of the role of this drug in the treatment algorithm of ovarian cancer...
April 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671387/positioning-europe-for-the-epitranscriptomics-challenge
#8
Michael Jantsch, Alessandro Quattrone, Mary O'Connell, Mark Helm, Michaela Frye, Manuel Macias-Gonzales, Marie Ohman, Stefan Ameres, Luc Willems, Francois Fuks, Anastasis Oulas, Stepanka Vanacova, Henrik Nielsen, Cecile Bousquet-Antonelli, Yuri Motorin, Jean-Yves Roignant, Nikolaos Balatsos, Andras Dinnyes, Pavel Baranov, Vincent Kelly, Ayelet Lamm, Gideon Rechavi, Mattia Pelizzola, Janis Liepins, Irina Holodnuka Kholodnyuk, Vanessa Zammit, Duncan Ayers, Finn Drablos, John Arne Dahl, Janusz Bujnicki, Carmen Jeronimo, Raquel Almeida, Monica Neagu, Marieta Costache, Jasna Bankovic, Bojana Banovic, Jan Kyselovic, Luis Miguel Valor, Stefan Selbert, Pinar Pir, Turan Demircan, Victoria Cowling, Matthias Schäfer, Walter Rossmanith, Denis Lafontaine, Alexandre David, Clement Carre, Frank Lyko, Raffael Schaffrath, Schraga Schwartz, Andre Verdel, Arne Klungland, Elzbieta Purta, Gordana Timotijevic, Fernando Cardona, Alberto Davalos, Ester Ballana, Donal O Carroll, Jernej Ule, Rupert Fray
The genetic alphabet consists of the four letters: C, A, G, and T in DNA and C,A,G, and U in RNA. Triplets of these four letters jointly encode 20 different amino acids out of which proteins of all organisms are built. This system is universal and is found in all kingdoms of life. However, bases in DNA and RNA can be chemically modified. In DNA, around 10 different modifications are known, and those have been studied intensively over the past 20 years. Scientific studies on DNA modifications and proteins that recognize them gave rise to the large field of epigenetic and epigenomic research...
April 19, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670046/resistance-to-anti-angiogenic-therapy-in-cancer-alterations-to-anti-vegf-pathway
#9
REVIEW
Yoshiro Itatani, Kenji Kawada, Takamasa Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Sakai
Anti-angiogenic therapy is one of the promising strategies for many types of solid cancers. Bevacizumab (Avastin), a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, was approved for the first time as an anti-angiogenic drug for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2004. In addition, the other VEGF pathway inhibitors including small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sunitinib, sorafenib, and pazopanib), a soluble VEGF decoy receptor (aflibercept), and a humanized monoclonal antibody of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) (ramucirumab) have been approved for cancer therapy...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669600/review-of-targeted-therapy-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-what-a-radiologist-needs-to-know-about-ct-interpretation
#10
REVIEW
Babina Gosangi, Matthew Davids, Bhanusupriya Somarouthu, Francesco Alessandrino, Angela Giardino, Nikhil Ramaiya, Katherine Krajewski
The last 5 years have been marked by profound innovation in the targeted treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and indolent lymphomas. Using CLL as a case study, we present a timeline and overview of the current treatment landscape for the radiologist, including an overview of clinical and radiological features of CLL, discussion of the targeted agents themselves, and the role of imaging in response and toxicity assessment. The goal is to familiarize the radiologist with multiple Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved targeted agents used in this setting and associated adverse events which are commonly observed in this patient population...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668215/limited-distribution-networks-stifle-competition-in-the-generic-and-biosimilar-drug-industries
#11
Laura Karas, Kenneth M Shermock, Celia Proctor, Mariana Socal, Gerard F Anderson
A limited distribution network (LDN) restricts the distribution channel for a pharmaceutical drug to 1 or a very small number of distributors. This strategy may allow for more effective allocation of drugs in shortage and is purported to help ensure the safe distribution of high-risk drugs to small patient populations. However, in recent years, some drug companies, including Turing Pharmaceuticals, have used LDNs to prevent generic and biosimilar companies from accessing samples of drug products necessary to perform testing required by the FDA for generic and biosimilar drug applications...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666811/immune-checkpoint-pathways-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Young Kwang Chae, Ayush Arya, Wade Iams, Marcello Cruz, Nisha Mohindra, Victoria Villaflor, Francis J Giles
Immunotherapy has evolved at a phenomenal pace in cancer therapeutics. This has primarily been fueled by the much perceived necessity to procure an alternative to current standard of care chemotherapy agents, owing to several concerns such as treatment-related toxicity and poor long-term survival associated with the same. The knowledge of various mechanisms involved in regulation of immune response to cancer cells has served a fundamental role in identifying key molecules through which immune cell activity may be modulated...
March 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663292/the-potential-role-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Hadi Fattah, Volker Vallon
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a difficult disease to treat due to the relative paucity of therapeutic options other than injectable insulin. The latter, however, can induce hypoglycemia, which has been linked to enhanced cardiovascular risk. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-hyperglycemic medications that do not increase the hypoglycemia risk and are US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 inhibitors may also be of benefit in type 1 diabetic patients, in addition to insulin, although they have not yet been approved for this indication...
April 16, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662544/sunitinib-in-the-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-an-update-on-recent-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Mimma Rizzo, Camillo Porta
Sunitinib is a multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor endowed mainly by antiangiogenic effects, although an indirect inhibitory effect on tumor growth and, more recently, a complex activity on antitumor immune response has been described. From approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2006, sunitinib represents a key molecule in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) due to the peculiar molecular pathogenesis of this neoplasm. Over the past 10 years, clinical trials and real-world experiences helped clinicians to understand how, when and for how long to use sunitinib...
August 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661867/triclosan-is-an-aminoglycoside-adjuvant-for-the-eradication-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms
#15
Michael M Maiden, Alessandra M Agostinho Hunt, Mitchell P Zachos, Jacob A Gibson, Martin E Hurwitz, Martha H Mulks, Christopher M Waters
One of the most important clinical obstacles in cystic fibrosis (CF) is antibiotic treatment failure due to biofilms produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa The ability of this pathogen to survive eradication by tobramycin and pathoadapt into a hyper-biofilm state leading to chronic infections is key to its success. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that preventing this pathoadaptation by improving eradication is essential to extend the lives of CF patients. To identify adjuvants that enhance tobramycin eradication of P...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660390/review-of-embryo-fetal-developmental-toxicity-studies-performed-for-pharmaceuticals-approved-by-fda-in-2016-and-2017
#16
REVIEW
Paul Barrow
Details of embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies were compiled for all FDA drug approvals in 2016-17. Rats and rabbits were used for 63% of small molecule (SM) drugs. The cynomolgus monkey was used for 47% of biopharmaceuticals. Rodent studies using the clinical mAb or animal homologue replaced monkey studies under some circumstances. EFD studies were not required for anti-cancer drugs when the mode of action was associated with known developmental risk. One quarter of SM non-oncology drugs and all tested SM anti-cancer drugs were teratogenic in at least one species...
April 13, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659804/high-content-screen-for-modifiers-of-niemann-pick-type-c-disease-in-patient-cells
#17
Emily K Pugach, McKenna Feltes, Randal J Kaufman, Daniel S Ory, Anne G Bang
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused primarily by mutations in NPC1. NPC1 encodes the lysosomal cholesterol transport protein NPC1. The most common NPC1 mutation is a missense mutation (NPC1I1061T) that causes misfolding and rapid degradation of mutant protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Cholesterol accumulates in enlarged lysosomes as a result of decreased levels of lysosomal NPC1I1061T protein in patient cells. There is currently no cure or FDA-approved treatment for patients...
April 12, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659168/metformin-alleviates-human-cellular-aging-by-upregulating-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-glutathione-peroxidase-7
#18
Jingqi Fang, Jiping Yang, Xun Wu, Gangming Zhang, Tao Li, Xi'e Wang, Hong Zhang, Chih-Chen Wang, Guang-Hui Liu, Lei Wang
Metformin, an FDA-approved antidiabetic drug, has been shown to elongate lifespan in animal models. Nevertheless, the effects of metformin on human cells remain unclear. Here, we show that low-dose metformin treatment extends the lifespan of human diploid fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells. We report that a low dose of metformin upregulates the endoplasmic reticulum-localized glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7). GP×7 expression levels are decreased in senescent human cells, and GPx7 depletion results in premature cellular senescence...
April 16, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655961/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-for-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#19
REVIEW
Armin Ghobadi
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic malignancy. More than 20,000 people in United States, more than 37,000 people in Europe and more than 199,000 people worldwide die of NHL every year. Recent advances in immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer have resulted in development of new classes of very effective immunotherapeutic approaches including chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy that are designed to bypass cancer immune evasion. Here, we review recent advances in CAR-T cell therapy for NHL...
April 11, 2018: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655783/cytoto-xicity-of-34-fda-approved-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitor-s-in-primary-rat-and-human-hepatocytes
#20
Jun Zhang, Lijun Ren, Xi Yang, Matthew White, James Greenhaw, Tashika Harris, Qiangen Wu, Matthew Bryant, Thomas Papoian, William Mattes, Qiang Shi
Of the 34 FDA approved oral small-molecule kinase inhibitors (KI), 23 (68%) have warnings for hepatotoxicity in product labeling. To better understand the mechanisms of KI hepatotoxicity and whether such effects can be predicted, we examined 34 KIs for cytotoxicity in primary rat and human hepatocytes. The hepatocytes were treated with KIs at ten concentrations normalized to maximal therapeutic blood levels (Cmax). At 5 and 24 h post treatment, lactate dehydrogenase or alanine aminotransferase leakage, caspase 3/7 activities and cellular adenosine triphosphate levels were measured...
April 12, 2018: Toxicology Letters
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