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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366739/the-evolution-of-fangs-venom-and-mimicry-systems-in-blenny-fishes
#1
Nicholas R Casewell, Jeroen C Visser, Kate Baumann, James Dobson, Han Han, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Michael Morgan, Anthony Romilio, Vera Weisbecker, Syed A Ali, Jordan Debono, Ivan Koludarov, Ivo Que, Gregory C Bird, Gavan M Cooke, Amanda Nouwens, Wayne C Hodgson, Simon C Wagstaff, Karen L Cheney, Irina Vetter, Louise van der Weerd, Michael K Richardson, Bryan G Fry
Venom systems have evolved on multiple occasions across the animal kingdom, and they can act as key adaptations to protect animals from predators [1]. Consequently, venomous animals serve as models for a rich source of mimicry types, as non-venomous species benefit from reductions in predation risk by mimicking the coloration, body shape, and/or movement of toxic counterparts [2-5]. The frequent evolution of such deceitful imitations provides notable examples of phenotypic convergence and are often invoked as classic exemplars of evolution by natural selection...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335712/exploring-the-evolutionary-origin-of-floral-organs-of-erycina-pusilla-an-emerging-orchid-model-system
#2
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286410/how-private-is-private-information-the-ability-to-spot-deception-in-an-economic-game
#3
Michèle Belot, Jeroen van de Ven
We provide experimental evidence on the ability to detect deceit in a buyer-seller game with asymmetric information. Sellers have private information about the value of a good and sometimes have incentives to mislead buyers. We examine if buyers can spot deception in face-to-face encounters. We vary whether buyers can interrogate the seller and the contextual richness. The buyers' prediction accuracy is above chance, and is substantial for confident buyers. There is no evidence that the option to interrogate is important and only weak support that contextual richness matters...
2017: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253006/duplicity-among-the-dark-triad-three-faces-of-deceit
#4
Daniel N Jones, Delroy L Paulhus
Although all 3 of the Dark Triad members are predisposed to engage in exploitative interpersonal behavior, their motivations and tactics vary. Here we explore their distinctive dynamics with 5 behavioral studies of dishonesty (total N = 1,750). All 3 traits predicted cheating on a coin-flipping task when there was little risk of being caught (Study 1). Only psychopathy predicted cheating when punishment was a serious risk (Study 2). Machiavellian individuals also cheated under high risk-but only if they were ego-depleted (Study 3)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243500/deceitful-clustered-papules-on-the-scalp-of-a-middle-aged-woman
#5
Massimo Mascolo, Francesca Pagliuca, Claudia Costa, Massimiliano Scalvenzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194120/sincere-deceitful-and-ironic-communicative-acts-and-the-role-of-the-theory-of-mind-in-childhood
#6
Francesca M Bosco, Ilaria Gabbatore
The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship among age, first- and second-order Theory of Mind and the increasing ability of children to understand and produce different kinds of communicative acts - sincere, ironic, and deceitful communicative acts - expressed through linguistic and extralinguistic expressive means. To communicate means to modify an interlocutor's mental states (Grice, 1989), and pragmatics studies the inferential processes that are necessary to fill the gap, which often exists in human communication, between the literal meaning of a speaker's utterance and what the speaker intends to communicate to the interlocutor...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168103/in-situ-morphometric-survey-elucidates-the-evolutionary-systematics-of-the-eurasian-himantoglossum-clade-orchidaceae-orchidinae
#7
Richard M Bateman, Attila Molnár V, Gábor Sramkó
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141838/when-it-pays-to-cheat-examining-how-generalized-food-deception-increases-male-and-female-fitness-in-a-terrestrial-orchid
#8
Ryan P Walsh, Helen J Michaels
BACKGROUND: Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108912/the-concepts-of-hope-and-fear-in-the-islamic-thought-implications-for-spiritual-health
#9
Fatemeh Bahmani, Mitra Amini, Seyed Ziaeddin Tabei, Mohamad Bagher Abbasi
The Holy Qur'ān and medieval Islamic writings have many references to "hope" (rajā) and "fear" (khawf) as both single and paired concepts. However, a comprehensive analytical study on these two notions from an Islamic point of view still seems lacking. Both paper and electronic documents related to Islamic and Qur'ānic literature are being used in this study. Also Web resources are searched for keywords of fear, hope and Islam in three languages of Arabic, English and Persian, including Tanzil.net, Almaany...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012980/academic-dishonesty-among-italian-nursing-students-a-longitudinal-study
#10
Loreana Macale, Valerio Ghezzi, Gennaro Rocco, Roberta Fida, Ercole Vellone, Rosaria Alvaro
Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students...
December 18, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907061/tracking-the-evolution-of-infrastructure-systems-and-mass-responses-using-publically-available-data
#11
Xiangyang Guan, Cynthia Chen, Dan Work
Networks can evolve even on a short-term basis. This phenomenon is well understood by network scientists, but receive little attention in empirical literature involving real-world networks. On one hand, this is due to the deceitfully fixed topology of some networks such as many physical infrastructures, whose evolution is often deemed unlikely to occur in short term; on the other hand, the lack of data prohibits scientists from studying subjects such as social networks that seem likely to evolve on a short-term basis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683227/psychopathic-personality-traits-in-5%C3%A2-year-old-twins-the-importance-of-genetic-and-shared-environmental-influences
#12
Catherine Tuvblad, Kostas A Fanti, Henrik Andershed, Olivier F Colins, Henrik Larsson
There is limited research on the genetic and environmental bases of psychopathic personality traits in children. In this study, psychopathic personality traits were assessed in a total of 1189 5-year-old boys and girls drawn from the Preschool Twin Study in Sweden. Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Problematic Traits Inventory, a teacher-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in children ranging from 3 to 12 years old. Univariate results showed that genetic influences accounted for 57, 25, and 74 % of the variance in the grandiose-deceitful, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-need for stimulation dimensions, while the shared environment accounted for 17, 48 and 9 % (n...
April 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500987/extensive-necrotic-purpura-in-levamisole-adulterated-cocaine-abuse-a-case-report
#13
Erwan Le Garff, Gilles Tournel, Coralie Becquart, Olivier Cottencin, Nicolas Dupin, Emmanuel Delaporte, Valéry Hedouin
Levamisole, which is used as an adulterated compound of cocaine, is currently being seen year after year in cocaine intoxication. For a few cases in the last decade, necrotic purpura and neutropenia after levamisole/cocaine intoxication have been described in the medical community. Herein, we present an original case of levamisole intoxication of a 40-year-old woman who smoked heroin and cocaine few during a month. She rapidly presented an extensive necrotic purpura of the nose, cheeks and extremities (lower and upper), and immunologic reactions (positive anti-MPO and anti-HNE)...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476247/-low-risk-pregnancy-fact-or-deceit
#14
K Samuel Karchmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445957/detecting-deception-within-small-groups-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Zarah Vernham, Pär-Anders Granhag, Erik M Giolla
Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427845/pseudocide-a-case-report
#16
M Justin Coffey, Brian K Ahmedani
The authors describe a case of "pseudocide" in which the patient appears to have feigned his own suicide. This case was identified as a result of a routine reconciliation of internally collected suicide data with government-collected mortality data. The authors discuss the evolution of the concept of pseudocide in the clinical literature and consider issues related to deceitful and factitious behaviors and suicide surveillance and measurement.
July 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350097/genetic-influences-on-conduct-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Jessica E Salvatore, Danielle M Dick
Conduct disorder (CD) is a moderately heritable psychiatric disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by aggression toward people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules. Genome-wide scans using linkage and association methods have identified a number of suggestive genomic regions that are pending replication. A small number of candidate genes (e.g., GABRA2, MAOA, SLC6A4, AVPR1A) are associated with CD related phenotypes across independent studies; however, failures to replicate also exist...
June 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302723/a-comparative-study-with-depressed-patients-on-the-acceptability-of-placebo-use
#18
Kfir Feffer, Pesach Lichtenberg, Gideon Becker, Yuval Bloch, Roni Netzer, Uri Nitzan
OBJECTIVE: High rates of placebo responses are consistently reported in patients with major depressive disorder. Nonetheless, treating depression with placebo is still ethically controversial and generally prohibited in the clinical setting. In the present study, we assess the acceptability of placebo usage among depressed patients. METHOD: Ninety-six outpatients with major depressive disorder were matched to 114 healthy controls. After a thorough explanation of the placebo effect, its efficacy and limitations in the treatment of depression, the study participants completed a 32-item self-report questionnaire...
July 2016: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281797/the-unethical-use-of-ethical-rhetoric-the-case-of-flibanserin-and-pharmacologisation-of-female-sexual-desire
#19
Weronika Chańska, Katarzyna Grunt-Mejer
The current debate around sexual dysfunctions focuses mostly on the pharmacological regulation of lowered sexual desire in women. The Food and Drug Administration approval of the first drug-Addyi-to treat this condition was preceded by a campaign, in which ethically saturated arguments were used to lobby policy makers. This article provides a critical evaluation of these arguments. In particular, we focus our attention on deceitful and unethical use of moral arguments and concepts. First, we present the context in which hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined as a serious medical condition, showing how non-medical and non-scientific influences shaped the understanding of the problem...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229306/facilitators-and-barriers-of-herbal-medicine-use-in-accra-ghana-an-inductive-exploratory-study
#20
Lydia Aziato, Hannah Ohemeng Antwi
BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. METHODS: The study employed an inductive exploratory qualitative approach...
May 26, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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