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Monika Dargis, Richard C Wolf, Michael Koenigs
Impairments in processing fearful faces have been documented in both children and adults with psychopathic traits, suggesting a potential mechanism by which psychopathic individuals develop callous and manipulative interpersonal and affective traits. Recently, research has demonstrated that psychopathic traits are associated with reduced fixations to the eye regions of faces in samples of children and community-dwelling adults, however this relationship has not yet been established in an offender sample with high levels of psychopathy...
January 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Soyeon Cheon, Hi-Joon Park, Younbyoung Chae, Hyangsook Lee
BACKGROUND: While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs) in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such complete disclosures may increase unnecessary nocebo responses, breach double-blind designs, and/or affect direction of trial outcomes. Taking an example of acupuncture studies, we aimed to examine what participants are told about placebo controls in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and how it may affect blinding and trial outcomes...
January 18, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Kay O Kulason, Julia R Schneider, Ralph Rahme, Bidyut Pramanik, Derek Chong, John A Boockvar
BACKGROUND: Ganglioglioma is a rare, benign, intraaxial glioneuronal tumor, but a relatively common cause of pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Given its often nonspecific neuropsychiatric manifestations and frequently negative electroencephalographic workup, TLE can be easily misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder, particularly panic attacks. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of a 17-year old boy who was found to have lesional TLE secondary to a left temporal ganglioglioma, 5 years after having been misdiagnosed with panic disorder and undergone ineffective and unnecessary psychotherapy...
December 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Szabolcs Számadó
BACKGROUND: The reliability of signals is a key issue in the study of animal communication. Both empirical work and theoretical models show that communication need not be entirely honest, and thus signals can be deceitful. Aggressive communication appears to be a prime candidate for such deceitful communication, because bluffing has been described in several species. Bluffing in these situations are supposed to be maintained by frequency dependent selection where the fitness of a given type depends on the frequencies of the other types in the population...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Carmen Almendros, Esther Calvete, Patricia De Santisteban
Online sexual grooming and exploitation of adolescents is receiving increasing social attention. Drawing on a social influence framework, the aim of this study was to test a model of the direct and mediated relationships between an adult's use of persuasion strategies and online sexual grooming of early adolescents. The initial sample of the study consisted of 2731 early Spanish adolescents between 12 and 15 years old (50.6% female). Of these, 196 adolescents (7.17% of the total; 53% girls) were involved in online grooming (mean age = 14...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
Diana Borza, Radu Danescu, Razvan Itu, Adrian Darabant
Micro-expressions play an essential part in understanding non-verbal communication and deceit detection. They are involuntary, brief facial movements that are shown when a person is trying to conceal something. Automatic analysis of micro-expression is challenging due to their low amplitude and to their short duration (they occur as fast as 1/15 to 1/25 of a second). We propose a fully micro-expression analysis system consisting of a high-speed image acquisition setup and a software framework which can detect the frames when the micro-expressions occurred as well as determine the type of the emerged expression...
December 14, 2017: Sensors
Katie Whale, Helen Cramer, Carol Joinson
OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of the secondary school environment on young people with continence problems. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. METHODS: We interviewed 20 young people aged 11-19 years (11 female and nine male) with continence problems (daytime wetting, bedwetting, and/or soiling). Interviews were conducted by Skype (n = 11) and telephone (n = 9). Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
Matthew Gingo, Alona D Roded, Elliot Turiel
This research examined adolescents' judgments about lying to avoid parental control over different types of activities. Participants (N = 66, Mage  = 16.38, 73% European American) were interviewed about hypothetical situations describing adolescents who defied parental directives and lied about their defiance. Judgments about the legitimacy of parents' directives and protagonists' deception differed by types of parent relationship with adolescents (mutual or unilateral). Directives were least accepted, and deception was most accepted, in the context of unilateral relationships...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Eunyoe Ro, Hallie Nuzum, Lee Anna Clark
It is widely known that personality traits collectively discussed as the Dark Triad are antagonistic and associated with poor interpersonal relationships, but few studies have examined how specific facets of antagonism are associated with psychosocial adjustment or how antagonism relates to psychosocial adjustment other than interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine how 6 antagonism facets-manipulativeness, grandiosity, attention-seeking, hostility, callousness, and deceitfulness-relate to comprehensive psychosocial functional domains (i...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Arvind Nishtala, Nora Goldschlager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
Carlos E P Nunes, Marina Wolowski, Emerson Ricardo Pansarin, Günter Gerlach, Izar Aximoff, Nicolas J Vereecken, Marcos José Salvador, Marlies Sazima
Floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in plant-pollinator interactions. We investigated the reproductive ecology and floral VOCs of Zygopetalinae orchids to understand the relationship between floral scents and pollinators. We performed focal observations, phenological censuses and breeding system experiments in eight species in southeast Brazil. Floral scents were collected and analysed using SPME/GC-MS. We performed multivariate analyses to group species according to affinities of their VOCs and define compounds associated to each plant...
October 13, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Piotr Szawarski
Uncertainty, although inherent in medicine, is rarely discussed in spite of being ubiquitous. Communication of uncertainty is poor due to anxiety associated with it, yet one could argue that lack of such disclosure could undermine trust, lead to perception of deceit, alter decision making and in some cases could invalidate the consent process. Predictions concerning end of life are particularly difficult and may lead to excessive or insufficient medical interventions. Acknowledging uncertainty when prognosticating outcomes, and in particular death, may help in facilitating patient-centred care in context of a critical illness...
November 2016: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Małgorzata Stpiczyńska, Bartosz J Płachno, Kevin L Davies
Although many Orchidaceae have deceit flowers that produce no reward, the most common reward, when present, is nectar. Bulbophyllum, however, is unusual in that the labellar secretions of most species investigated to date lack sugars, and, therefore, cannot be considered true nectar. The African species Bulbophyllum saltatorium is an exception in that it produces not only nectar but also possesses specialized, capitate oleiferous trichomes. The nectary of B. saltatorium is borne on the labellum and is represented by a deep, narrow, median longitudinal groove, having a small aperture, and flanked by trichomes...
September 24, 2017: Protoplasma
Roxane Delle-Vedove, Bertrand Schatz, Mathilde Dufay
Background and Aims: Among the various floral traits involved in pollinator attraction and potentially under selection mediated by pollinators, floral scent/fragrance has been less investigated than other components of floral phenotype. Whether or not pollinator-mediated selection impacts floral scents depends on the heritability of scent/fragrance and the occurrence of some variation within species. Although most studies have investigated how scent varies among species, growing amounts of data are available on variation at the intraspecific level...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
Katarzyna Cantarero, Piotr Szarota, Eftychia Stamkou, Marisol Navas, Alejandra Del Carmen Dominguez Espinosa
In this article we show that when analyzing attitude towards lying in a cross-cultural setting, both the beneficiary of the lie (self vs other) and the context (private life vs. professional domain) should be considered. In a study conducted in Estonia, Ireland, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden (N = 1345), in which participants evaluated stories presenting various types of lies, we found usefulness of relying on the dimensions. Results showed that in the joint sample the most acceptable were other-oriented lies concerning private life, then other-oriented lies in the professional domain, followed by egoistic lies in the professional domain; and the least acceptance was shown for egoistic lies regarding one's private life...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
Francesca M Bosco, Alberto Parola, Maria C Valentini, Rosalba Morese
Neuroimaging studies have shown that a left fronto-temporo-parietal cerebral network is recruited in the comprehension of both deceitful and ironic speech acts. However, no studies to date have directly compared neural activation during the comprehension of these pragmatic phenomena. We used fMRI to investigate the existence of common and specific neural circuits underlying the comprehension of the same speech act, uttered with different communicative intentions, i.e., of being sincere, deceitful or ironic...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Monique Wesselink, Stijn Desmyter, Irene Kuiper
Typing of different portions of the feline mitochondrial control region has illustrated pronounced differences in haplotype distributions between cats from the Netherlands and other parts of the world. To gain a better understanding of the haplotype distribution of North West Continental Europe, 605bp of mitochondrial DNA was typed from randomly selected cats from the Netherlands (N=146), Belgium (N=64) and South West Germany (N=128). The genetic differences between these randomly sampled European populations correlate to the geographical distances, with the Dutch and the South West German populations furthest apart and the Belgian population as an intermediate (Fst values 0...
September 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Mini Tandon, Andrea Giedinghagen
Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), specifically oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, are common, serious, and treatable conditions among preschoolers. DBDs are marked by frequent aggression, deceitfulness, and defiance, and often persist through the lifespan. Exposure to harsh or inconsistent parenting, as frequently seen with parental depression and stress, increases DBD risk. Candidate genes that may increase DBD risk in the presence of childhood adversity have also been identified, but more research is needed...
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Nicholas R Casewell, Jeroen C Visser, Kate Baumann, James Dobson, Han Han, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Michael Morgan, Anthony Romilio, Vera Weisbecker, Syed A Ali, Jordan Debono, Ivan Koludarov, Ivo Que, Gregory C Bird, Gavan M Cooke, Amanda Nouwens, Wayne C Hodgson, Simon C Wagstaff, Karen L Cheney, Irina Vetter, Louise van der Weerd, Michael K Richardson, Bryan G Fry
Venom systems have evolved on multiple occasions across the animal kingdom, and they can act as key adaptations to protect animals from predators [1]. Consequently, venomous animals serve as models for a rich source of mimicry types, as non-venomous species benefit from reductions in predation risk by mimicking the coloration, body shape, and/or movement of toxic counterparts [2-5]. The frequent evolution of such deceitful imitations provides notable examples of phenotypic convergence and are often invoked as classic exemplars of evolution by natural selection...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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