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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106274/antagonism-trait-facets-and-comprehensive-psychosocial-disability-comparing-information-across-self-informant-and-interviewer-reports
#1
Eunyoe Ro, Hallie Nuzum, Lee Anna Clark
It is widely known that personality traits collectively discussed as the Dark Triad are antagonistic and associated with poor interpersonal relationships, but few studies have examined how specific facets of antagonism are associated with psychosocial adjustment or how antagonism relates to psychosocial adjustment other than interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine how 6 antagonism facets-manipulativeness, grandiosity, attention-seeking, hostility, callousness, and deceitfulness-relate to comprehensive psychosocial functional domains (i...
October 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052705/pitfalls-of-single-electrocardiogram-lead-monitoring-a-lead-of-deceit
#2
Arvind Nishtala, Nora Goldschlager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028068/more-than-euglossines-the-diverse-pollinators-and-floral-scents-of-zygopetalinae-orchids
#3
Carlos E P Nunes, Marina Wolowski, Emerson Ricardo Pansarin, Günter Gerlach, Izar Aximoff, Nicolas J Vereecken, Marcos José Salvador, Marlies Sazima
Floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in plant-pollinator interactions. We investigated the reproductive ecology and floral VOCs of Zygopetalinae orchids to understand the relationship between floral scents and pollinators. We performed focal observations, phenological censuses and breeding system experiments in eight species in southeast Brazil. Floral scents were collected and analysed using SPME/GC-MS. We performed multivariate analyses to group species according to affinities of their VOCs and define compounds associated to each plant...
October 13, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979519/classic-cases-revisited-oscar-the-cat-and-predicting-death
#4
Piotr Szawarski
Uncertainty, although inherent in medicine, is rarely discussed in spite of being ubiquitous. Communication of uncertainty is poor due to anxiety associated with it, yet one could argue that lack of such disclosure could undermine trust, lead to perception of deceit, alter decision making and in some cases could invalidate the consent process. Predictions concerning end of life are particularly difficult and may lead to excessive or insufficient medical interventions. Acknowledging uncertainty when prognosticating outcomes, and in particular death, may help in facilitating patient-centred care in context of a critical illness...
November 2016: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944415/nectar-and-oleiferous-trichomes-as-floral-attractants-in-bulbophyllum-saltatorium-lindl-orchidaceae
#5
Małgorzata Stpiczyńska, Bartosz J Płachno, Kevin L Davies
Although many Orchidaceae have deceit flowers that produce no reward, the most common reward, when present, is nectar. Bulbophyllum, however, is unusual in that the labellar secretions of most species investigated to date lack sugars, and, therefore, cannot be considered true nectar. The African species Bulbophyllum saltatorium is an exception in that it produces not only nectar but also possesses specialized, capitate oleiferous trichomes. The nectary of B. saltatorium is borne on the labellum and is represented by a deep, narrow, median longitudinal groove, having a small aperture, and flanked by trichomes...
September 24, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873948/understanding-intraspecific-variation-of-floral-scent-in-light-of-evolutionary-ecology
#6
Roxane Delle-Vedove, Bertrand Schatz, Mathilde Dufay
Background and Aims: Among the various floral traits involved in pollinator attraction and potentially under selection mediated by pollinators, floral scent/fragrance has been less investigated than other components of floral phenotype. Whether or not pollinator-mediated selection impacts floral scents depends on the heritability of scent/fragrance and the occurrence of some variation within species. Although most studies have investigated how scent varies among species, growing amounts of data are available on variation at the intraspecific level...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805548/when-is-a-lie-acceptable-work-and-private-life-lying-acceptance-depends-on-its-beneficiary
#7
Katarzyna Cantarero, Piotr Szarota, Eftychia Stamkou, Marisol Navas, Alejandra Del Carmen Dominguez Espinosa
In this article we show that when analyzing attitude towards lying in a cross-cultural setting, both the beneficiary of the lie (self vs other) and the context (private life vs. professional domain) should be considered. In a study conducted in Estonia, Ireland, Mexico, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, and Sweden (N = 1345), in which participants evaluated stories presenting various types of lies, we found usefulness of relying on the dimensions. Results showed that in the joint sample the most acceptable were other-oriented lies concerning private life, then other-oriented lies in the professional domain, followed by egoistic lies in the professional domain; and the least acceptance was shown for egoistic lies regarding one's private life...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728080/neural-correlates-underlying-the-comprehension-of-deceitful-and-ironic-communicative-intentions
#8
Francesca M Bosco, Alberto Parola, Maria C Valentini, Rosalba Morese
Neuroimaging studies have shown that a left fronto-temporo-parietal cerebral network is recruited in the comprehension of both deceitful and ironic speech acts. However, no studies to date have directly compared neural activation during the comprehension of these pragmatic phenomena. We used fMRI to investigate the existence of common and specific neural circuits underlying the comprehension of the same speech act, uttered with different communicative intentions, i.e., of being sincere, deceitful or ironic...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645082/local-populations-and-inaccuracies-determining-the-relevant-mitochondrial-haplotype-distributions-for-north-west-european-cats
#9
Monique Wesselink, Stijn Desmyter, Irene Kuiper
Typing of different portions of the feline mitochondrial control region has illustrated pronounced differences in haplotype distributions between cats from the Netherlands and other parts of the world. To gain a better understanding of the haplotype distribution of North West Continental Europe, 605bp of mitochondrial DNA was typed from randomly selected cats from the Netherlands (N=146), Belgium (N=64) and South West Germany (N=128). The genetic differences between these randomly sampled European populations correlate to the geographical distances, with the Dutch and the South West German populations furthest apart and the Belgian population as an intermediate (Fst values 0...
September 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577605/disruptive-behavior-disorders-in-children-0-to-6%C3%A2-years-old
#10
REVIEW
Mini Tandon, Andrea Giedinghagen
Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), specifically oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, are common, serious, and treatable conditions among preschoolers. DBDs are marked by frequent aggression, deceitfulness, and defiance, and often persist through the lifespan. Exposure to harsh or inconsistent parenting, as frequently seen with parental depression and stress, increases DBD risk. Candidate genes that may increase DBD risk in the presence of childhood adversity have also been identified, but more research is needed...
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366739/the-evolution-of-fangs-venom-and-mimicry-systems-in-blenny-fishes
#11
Nicholas R Casewell, Jeroen C Visser, Kate Baumann, James Dobson, Han Han, Sanjaya Kuruppu, Michael Morgan, Anthony Romilio, Vera Weisbecker, Syed A Ali, Jordan Debono, Ivan Koludarov, Ivo Que, Gregory C Bird, Gavan M Cooke, Amanda Nouwens, Wayne C Hodgson, Simon C Wagstaff, Karen L Cheney, Irina Vetter, Louise van der Weerd, Michael K Richardson, Bryan G Fry
Venom systems have evolved on multiple occasions across the animal kingdom, and they can act as key adaptations to protect animals from predators [1]. Consequently, venomous animals serve as models for a rich source of mimicry types, as non-venomous species benefit from reductions in predation risk by mimicking the coloration, body shape, and/or movement of toxic counterparts [2-5]. The frequent evolution of such deceitful imitations provides notable examples of phenotypic convergence and are often invoked as classic exemplars of evolution by natural selection...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335712/exploring-the-evolutionary-origin-of-floral-organs-of-erycina-pusilla-an-emerging-orchid-model-system
#12
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286410/how-private-is-private-information-the-ability-to-spot-deception-in-an-economic-game
#13
Michèle Belot, Jeroen van de Ven
We provide experimental evidence on the ability to detect deceit in a buyer-seller game with asymmetric information. Sellers have private information about the value of a good and sometimes have incentives to mislead buyers. We examine if buyers can spot deception in face-to-face encounters. We vary whether buyers can interrogate the seller and the contextual richness. The buyers' prediction accuracy is above chance, and is substantial for confident buyers. There is no evidence that the option to interrogate is important and only weak support that contextual richness matters...
2017: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253006/duplicity-among-the-dark-triad-three-faces-of-deceit
#14
Daniel N Jones, Delroy L Paulhus
Although all 3 of the Dark Triad members are predisposed to engage in exploitative interpersonal behavior, their motivations and tactics vary. Here we explore their distinctive dynamics with 5 behavioral studies of dishonesty (total N = 1,750). All 3 traits predicted cheating on a coin-flipping task when there was little risk of being caught (Study 1). Only psychopathy predicted cheating when punishment was a serious risk (Study 2). Machiavellian individuals also cheated under high risk-but only if they were ego-depleted (Study 3)...
August 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243500/deceitful-clustered-papules-on-the-scalp-of-a-middle-aged-woman
#15
Massimo Mascolo, Francesca Pagliuca, Claudia Costa, Massimiliano Scalvenzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194120/sincere-deceitful-and-ironic-communicative-acts-and-the-role-of-the-theory-of-mind-in-childhood
#16
Francesca M Bosco, Ilaria Gabbatore
The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship among age, first- and second-order Theory of Mind and the increasing ability of children to understand and produce different kinds of communicative acts - sincere, ironic, and deceitful communicative acts - expressed through linguistic and extralinguistic expressive means. To communicate means to modify an interlocutor's mental states (Grice, 1989), and pragmatics studies the inferential processes that are necessary to fill the gap, which often exists in human communication, between the literal meaning of a speaker's utterance and what the speaker intends to communicate to the interlocutor...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168103/in-situ-morphometric-survey-elucidates-the-evolutionary-systematics-of-the-eurasian-himantoglossum-clade-orchidaceae-orchidinae
#17
Richard M Bateman, Attila Molnár V, Gábor Sramkó
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141838/when-it-pays-to-cheat-examining-how-generalized-food-deception-increases-male-and-female-fitness-in-a-terrestrial-orchid
#18
Ryan P Walsh, Helen J Michaels
BACKGROUND: Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108912/the-concepts-of-hope-and-fear-in-the-islamic-thought-implications-for-spiritual-health
#19
Fatemeh Bahmani, Mitra Amini, Seyed Ziaeddin Tabei, Mohamad Bagher Abbasi
The Holy Qur'ān and medieval Islamic writings have many references to "hope" (rajā) and "fear" (khawf) as both single and paired concepts. However, a comprehensive analytical study on these two notions from an Islamic point of view still seems lacking. Both paper and electronic documents related to Islamic and Qur'ānic literature are being used in this study. Also Web resources are searched for keywords of fear, hope and Islam in three languages of Arabic, English and Persian, including Tanzil.net, Almaany...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012980/academic-dishonesty-among-italian-nursing-students-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Loreana Macale, Valerio Ghezzi, Gennaro Rocco, Roberta Fida, Ercole Vellone, Rosaria Alvaro
Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students...
March 2017: Nurse Education Today
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