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Epigenetics and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933097/molecular-mechanisms-of-hpv-mediated-neoplastic-progression
#1
REVIEW
Rashmirani Senapati, Nihar Nalini Senapati, Bhagirathi Dwibedi
Human Papillomavirus is the major etiological agent in the development of cervical cancer but not a sufficient cause. Despite significant research, the underlying mechanisms of progression from a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion are yet to be understood. Deregulation of viral gene expression and host genomic instability play a central role in virus-mediated carcinogenesis. Key events such as viral integration and epigenetic modifications may lead to the deregulation of viral and host gene expression...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932423/integrated-genomic-analysis-of-survival-outliers-in-glioblastoma
#2
Sen Peng, Harshil Dhurv, Brock Armstrong, Bodour Salhia, Christophe Legendre, Jeffrey Kiefer, Julianna Parks, Selene Virk, Andrew E Sloan, Quinn T Ostrom, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Nhan L Tran, Michael E Berens
BACKGROUND: To elucidate molecular features associated with disproportionate survival of glioblastoma (GB) patients, we conducted deep genomic comparative analysis of a cohort of patients receiving standard therapy (surgery plus concurrent radiation and temozolomide); "GB outliers" were identified: long-term survivor of 33 months (LTS; n = 8) versus short-term survivor of 7 months (STS; n = 10). METHODS: We implemented exome, RNA, whole genome sequencing, and DNA methylation for collection of deep genomic data from STS and LTS GB patients...
December 8, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932399/novel-hybrid-phenotype-revealed-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-a-transcription-factor-network-model-that-can-explain-tumor-heterogeneity
#3
Akshata R Udyavar, David J Wooten, Megan D Hoeksema, Mukesh Bansal, Andrea Califano, Lourdes Estrada, Santiago Schnell, Jonathan M Irish, Pierre P Massion, Vito Quaranta
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating disease due to its propensity for early invasion and refractory relapse after initial treatment response. Although these aggressive traits have been associated with phenotypic heterogeneity, our understanding of this association remains incomplete. To fill this knowledge gap, we inferred a set of 33 transcription factors (TF) associated with gene signatures of the known neuroendocrine/epithelial (NE) and non-neuroendocrine/mesenchymal-like (ML) SCLC phenotypes...
December 8, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932276/the-why-and-how-of-amino-acid-analytics-in-cancer-diagnostics-and-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Friederike Manig, Konstantin Kuhne, Cläre von Neubeck, Uwe Schwarzenbolz, Zhanru Yu, Benedikt M Kessler, Jens Pietzsch, Leoni A Kunz-Schughart
Pathological alterations in cell functions are frequently accompanied by metabolic reprogramming including modifications in amino acid metabolism. Amino acid detection is thus integral to the diagnosis of many hereditary metabolic diseases. The development of malignant diseases as metabolic disorders comes along with a complex dysregulation of genetic and epigenetic factors affecting metabolic enzymes. Cancer cells might transiently or permanently become auxotrophic for non-essential or semi-essential amino acids such as asparagine or arginine...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930986/plant-derived-flavone-apigenin-the-small-molecule-with-promising-activity-against-therapeutically-resistant-prostate-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Shabir Ahmad Ganai
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in men in the United States. Mounting evidences suggest that in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer epigenetic modifications play a considerable role. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have strong crosstalk with prostate cancer progression as they regulate various genes meant for tumour suppression. HDACs are emerging as striking molecular targets for anticancer drugs and therapy as their aberrant expression has been implicated in several cancers...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930094/cancer-stem-cell-hypothesis-for-therapeutic-innovation-in-clinical-oncology-taking-the-root-out-not-chopping-the-leaf
#6
Kevin Dzobo, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Arielle Rowe, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Lamech M Mwapagha, Nasir Al-Awwad, Collet Dandara, M Iqbal Parker
Clinical oncology is in need of therapeutic innovation. New hypotheses and concepts for translation of basic research to novel diagnostics and therapeutics are called for. In this context, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis rests on the premise that tumors comprise tumor cells and a subset of tumor-initiating cells, CSCs, in a quiescent state characterized by slow cell cycling and expression of specific stem cell surface markers with the capability to maintain a tumor in vivo. The CSCs have unlimited self-renewal abilities and propagate tumors through division into asymmetric daughter cells...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928946/exploring-mechanisms-of-microrna-downregulation-in-cancer
#7
Marissa Williams, Glen Reid, Yuen Yee Cheng, Cherie Blenkiron
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Each miRNA controls the expression of multiple messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and their dysregulation has been implicated in multiple cancer phenotypes. While some miRNAs are upregulated, global downregulation of miRNA expression is often the rule in cancer. A multitude of potential mechanisms drive aberrant miRNA expression in cancer; miRNA coding regions can harbour genomic defects including mutations, amplifications or deletions, and some miRNAs are broadly repressed by transcription factors such as Myc or have epigenetic modifications to their promoter regions such as hypermethylation of CpG islands...
December 8, 2016: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927793/tumour-biomarkers-homeostasis-as-a-novel-prognostic-indicator
#8
REVIEW
Michela Falco, Giuseppe Palma, Domenica Rea, Davide De Biase, Stefania Scala, Massimiliano D'Aiuto, Gaetano Facchini, Sisto Perdonà, Antonio Barbieri, Claudio Arra
The term 'personalized medicine' refers to a medical procedure that consists in the grouping of patients based on their predicted individual response to therapy or risk of disease. In oncologic patients, a 'tailored' therapeutic approach may potentially improve their survival and well-being by not only reducing the tumour, but also enhancing therapeutic response and minimizing the adverse effects. Diagnostic tests are often used to select appropriate and optimal therapies that rely both on patient genome and other molecular/cellular analysis...
December 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927666/epigenetic-biomarkers-in-progression-from-non-dysplastic-barrett-s-oesophagus-to-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-systematic-review-protocol
#9
T Nieto, C L Tomlinson, J Dretzke, S Bayliss, M Dilworth, A D Beggs, O Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Barrett's oesophagus (BO), a metaplastic condition affecting the lower oesophagus due to long-standing gastro-oesophageal reflux and chronic inflammation, is a precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OADC). There is no clinical test to predict which patients with BO will progress to OADC. The British Society of Gastroenterology recommends endoscopic surveillance of patients with BO. Epigenetic changes have been well characterised in the neoplastic progression of ulcerative colitis to colonic carcinoma, another gastrointestinal cancer associated with chronic inflammation...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926866/inflammation-induced-oxidative-stress-mediates-gene-fusion-formation-in-prostate-cancer
#10
Ram S Mani, Mohammad A Amin, Xiangyi Li, Shanker Kalyana-Sundaram, Brendan A Veeneman, Lei Wang, Aparna Ghosh, Adam Aslam, Susmita G Ramanand, Bradley J Rabquer, Wataru Kimura, Maxwell Tran, Xuhong Cao, Sameek Roychowdhury, Saravana M Dhanasekaran, Nallasivam Palanisamy, Hesham A Sadek, Payal Kapur, Alisa E Koch, Arul M Chinnaiyan
Approximately 50% of prostate cancers are associated with gene fusions of the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 to the oncogenic erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factor ERG. The three-dimensional proximity of TMPRSS2 and ERG genes, in combination with DNA breaks, facilitates the formation of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions. However, the origins of DNA breaks that underlie gene fusion formation in prostate cancers are far from clear. We demonstrate a role for inflammation-induced oxidative stress in the formation of DNA breaks leading to recurrent TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926531/an-annotated-list-of-bivalent-chromatin-regions-in-human-es-cells-a-new-tool-for-cancer-epigenetic-research
#11
Franck Court, Philippe Arnaud
CpG islands (CGI) marked by bivalent chromatin in stem cells are believed to be more prone to aberrant DNA methylation in tumor cells. The robustness and genome-wide extent of this instructive program in different cancer types remain to be determined. To address this issue we developed a user-friendly approach to integrate the stem cell chromatin signature in customized DNA methylation analyses. We used publicly available ChIP-sequencing datasets of several human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines to determine the extent of bivalent chromatin genome-wide...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926517/suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-induced-specific-epigenetic-regulation-controls-leptin-induced-proliferation-of-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#12
Xiuyan Feng, Han Han, Dan Zou, Jiaming Zhou, Weiqiang Zhou
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in the world, investigating the characteristics and special transduction pathways is important for better understanding breast development and tumorigenesis. Leptin, a peptide hormone secreted from white adipocytes, may be an independent risk factor for breast cancer.Here, we treated suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) on Leptin-induced cell proliferation and invasion in the estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926516/frequent-silencing-of-the-candidate-tumor-suppressor-trim58-by-promoter-methylation-in-early-stage-lung-adenocarcinoma
#13
Koichiro Kajiura, Kiyoshi Masuda, Takuya Naruto, Tomohiro Kohmoto, Miki Watabnabe, Mitsuhiro Tsuboi, Hiromitsu Takizawa, Kazuya Kondo, Akira Tangoku, Issei Imoto
In this study, we aimed to identify novel drivers that would be epigenetically altered through aberrant methylation in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), regardless of the presence or absence of tobacco smoking-induced epigenetic field defects. Through genome-wide screening for aberrantly methylated CpG islands (CGIs) in 12 clinically uniform, stage-I LADC cases affecting six non-smokers and six smokers, we identified candidate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) inactivated by hypermethylation. Through systematic expression analyses of those candidates in panels of additional tumor samples and cell lines treated or not treated with 5-aza-deoxycitidine followed by validation analyses of cancer-specific silencing by CGI hypermethylation using a public database, we identified TRIM58 as the most prominent candidate for TSG...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926510/genetic-and-epigenetic-characterization-of-the-brca1-gene-in-brazilian-women-at-risk-for-hereditary-breast-cancer
#14
Paula Silva Felicio, Matias Eliseo Melendez, Lidia Maria Rebolho Batista Arantes, Ligia Maria Kerr, Dirce Maria Carraro, Rebeca Silveira Grasel, Natalia Campacci, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Gabriela Carvalho Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Carvalho, Edenir Inêz Palmero
This study aimed to characterize women at-risk for hereditary BC regarding their clinical and molecular characteristics (mutation and methylation in the BRCA1 gene) and correlate the gene expression levels with histopathological, clinical and family history information. BRCA1 real time qPCR was performed to evaluate methylation status and gene expression. The study included 88 women grouped according to the BRCA1 mutational status: 23 BRCA1 mutated, 22 with a Variant of Unknown Significance (VUS) in BRCA1 and 43 BRCA1 WT...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926488/blocking-ezh2-methylation-transferase-activity-by-gsk126-decreases-stem-cell-like-myeloma-cells
#15
Delong Zeng, Maoxing Liu, Jingxuan Pan
EZH2 is a critical epigenetic regulator that is deregulated in various types of cancers including multiple myeloma (MM). In the present study, we hypothesized that targeting EZH2 might induce apoptosis in myeloma cells including stem cell-like cells (CSCs). We investigated the effect of EZH2 inhibition on MM cells using a potent inhibitor (GSK126). The results showed that GSK126 effectively abrogated the methylated histone 3 (H3K27me3) level in MM.1S and LP1 cells, and inhibited the number of live cells and colony formation in soft agar of six MM cell lines...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924730/congenital-malformations-attributed-to-prenatal-exposure-to-cyclophosphamide
#16
Padmanabhan Rengasamy
Cyclophosphamide (CPA) remains one of the most widely prescribed anticancer drugs. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, childhood nephrotic syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. It is a potent immunosuppressive agent. It is commonly used in blood and bone marrow transplantation. With the growing trend among women postponing childbearing, the number of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer is also increasing thus escalating the chances of exposure of the unborn child to antineoplastic drugs...
December 6, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924065/the-more-the-messier-centrosome-amplification-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-personalized-treatment-of-colorectal-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Monica M Mahathre, Padmashree Cg Rida, Ritu Aneja
Colon cancer is currently the third most common cancer and second most fatal cancer in the United States, resulting in approximately 600,000 deaths annually. Though colorectal cancer death rates are decreasing by about 3% every year, disease outcomes could be substantially improved with more research into the drivers of colon carcinogenesis, the determinants of aggressiveness in colorectal cancer and the identification of biomarkers that could enable choice of more optimal treatments. Colon carcinogenesis is notably a slow process that can take decades...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923712/regulation-of-microrna-1-mir-1-expression-in-human-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Chao Han, Jacson K Shen, Francis J Hornicek, Quancheng Kan, Zhenfeng Duan
MicroRNAs (miRs) have been found to play important roles in tumorigenesis, apoptosis, metastasis, and drug resistance in cancer. Among a number of miRs, miR-1 was shown to be predominantly downregulated in almost all examined human cancers. As a tumor suppressor miR involved in post-transcriptional regulation of crucial tumor associated gene expression, miR-1 represents a promising target for anticancer therapy. Re-expression of miR-1 can suppress cancer cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and reverse drug resistance in cancers both in vitro and in vivo...
December 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923508/surfacing-role-of-probiotics-in-cancer-prophylaxis-and-therapy-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Subramanyam Dasari, Chandrasekhar Kathera, Avilala Janardhan, Arthala Praveen Kumar, Buddolla Viswanath
Cancers figure among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cancer and its associated infections are always complicated even when specific cancer regimens are available. It is well proved that Lactobacillus and other probiotic bacteria can modulate-ameliorate specific mechanisms against various infections including cancers. The present systematic review is intended to focus on the 'cellular and molecular mechanisms' of probiotic bacteria in the prevention and treatment of various cancers...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922854/identification-of-hiv-infection-related-dna-methylation-sites-and-advanced-epigenetic-aging-in-hiv-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-u-s-veterans
#20
Kristin N Nelson, Qin Hui, David Rimland, Ke Xu, Matthew S Freiberg, Amy C Justice, Vincent C Marconi, Yan V Sun
OBJECTIVE: HIV-positive individuals are at higher risk than healthy persons for aging-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and non-AIDS defining cancers. Recent evidence suggests that HIV infection may modulate changes in the host cell epigenome, and these changes represent a potential mechanism through which HIV infection accelerates aging. We assessed the difference in DNAm age, an aging marker involving multiple age-related CpG sites, among antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in a cohort of veterans from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS)...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
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