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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894935/tissue-compartmentalization-of-t-cell-responses-during-early-life
#1
REVIEW
Kyra D Zens, Thomas Connors, Donna L Farber
The immune system in early life is tasked with transitioning from a relatively protected environment to one in which it encounters a wide variety of innocuous antigens and dangerous pathogens. The immaturity of the developing immune system, and particularly the distinct functionality of T lymphocytes in early life, has been implicated in increased susceptibility to infection. Previous work has demonstrated that immune responses in early life are skewed toward limited inflammation and atopy; however, there is mounting evidence that such responses are context- and tissue-dependent...
September 11, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894006/structural-and-hydrodynamic-properties-of-an-intrinsically-disordered-region-of-a-germ-cell-specific-protein-on-phase-separation
#2
Jacob P Brady, Patrick J Farber, Ashok Sekhar, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Rui Huang, Alaji Bah, Timothy J Nott, Hue Sun Chan, Andrew J Baldwin, Julie D Forman-Kay, Lewis E Kay
Membrane encapsulation is frequently used by the cell to sequester biomolecules and compartmentalize their function. Cells also concentrate molecules into phase-separated protein or protein/nucleic acid "membraneless organelles" that regulate a host of biochemical processes. Here, we use solution NMR spectroscopy to study phase-separated droplets formed from the intrinsically disordered N-terminal 236 residues of the germ-granule protein Ddx4. We show that the protein within the concentrated phase of phase-separated Ddx4, [Formula: see text], diffuses as a particle of 600-nm hydrodynamic radius dissolved in water...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890901/performing-all-major-surgical-procedures-robotically-will-prolong-wait-times-for-surgery
#3
Brian M Shinder, Nicholas J Farber, Robert E Weiss, Thomas L Jang, Isaac Y Kim, Eric A Singer, Sammy E Elsamra
This article aimed to assess the burden of scheduling major urologic oncology procedures if all cases were performed robotically and to determine whether this would increase the time a patient would have to wait for surgery. We retrospectively determined the number of prostatectomies, radical nephrectomies, partial nephrectomies, and cystectomies at a single institution for one calendar year. A hypothetical situation was then constructed where all procedures were performed robotically. Using the allotted number of days that each surgeon was able to schedule robotic procedures, we analyzed the amount of time it would take to schedule and complete all cases...
2017: Robot Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882512/epidemiology-of-babesia-anaplasma-and-trypanosoma-species-using-a-new-expanded-reverse-line-blot-hybridization-assay
#4
Martina Soledad Paoletta, Ludmila López Arias, Sofía de la Fournière, Eliana Carolina Guillemi, Carlos Luciani, Néstor Fabián Sarmiento, Juan Mosqueda, Marisa Diana Farber, Silvina Elizabeth Wilkowsky
Vector-borne hemoparasitic infections are a major problem that affects livestock industries worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. In this work, a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma, Babesia and bovine trypanosomes, encompassing in this way the most relevant hemoparasites that affect cattle. A total of 186 bovine blood samples collected from two different ecoepidemiological regions of northeast Argentina, with and without tick control, were analyzed with this new RLB...
September 1, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873224/disparities-in-prognosis-communication-among-parents-of-children-with-cancer-the-impact-of-race-and-ethnicity
#5
Maya F Ilowite, Angel M Cronin, Tammy I Kang, Jennifer W Mack
BACKGROUND: Most parents of children with cancer say they want detailed information about their child's prognosis. However, prior work has been conducted in populations of limited diversity. The authors sought to evaluate the impact of parental race/ethnicity on prognosis communication experiences among parents of children with cancer. METHODS: In total, 357 parents of children with cancer and the children's physicians were surveyed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Boston Children's Hospital and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia...
September 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869965/the-neuropeptide-neuromedin-u-stimulates-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-type-2-inflammation
#6
Christoph S N Klose, Tanel Mahlakõiv, Jesper B Moeller, Lucille C Rankin, Anne-Laure Flamar, Hiroki Kabata, Laurel A Monticelli, Saya Moriyama, Gregory Garbès Putzel, Nikolai Rakhilin, Xiling Shen, Evi Kostenis, Gabriele M König, Takashi Senda, Dustin Carpenter, Donna L Farber, David Artis
The type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 have important roles in stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses that are required for resistance to helminth infection, promotion of allergic inflammation, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce type 2 cytokines, and although advances have been made in understanding the cytokine milieu that promotes ILC2 responses, how ILC2 responses are regulated by other stimuli remains poorly understood...
September 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864222/upper-tract-urothelial-carcinomas-prognostic-factors-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-non-lymph-node-distant-metastasis
#7
Elena Sevillano, Lillian Werner, Dominick Bossé, Aly-Khan A Lalani, Stephanie A M Wankowicz, Guillermo de Velasco, Matthew Farina, Kevin Lundgren, Toni K Choueiri, Aranzazu González Del Alba, Joaquim Bellmunt
BACKGROUND: Upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs) are increasingly recognized as separate malignancies. Additional insight into clinical outcomes and key prognostic factors are needed. OBJECTIVES: To detail outcomes of patients with UTUCs recurring after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) and to determine a risk score that predicts outcomes of patients with non-lymph node distant metastasis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Chart review of all patients who had an extraurothelial recurrence after RNU for UTUC at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2009 and 2014...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856632/impact-of-perioperative-liver-dysfunction-on-in-hospital-mortality-and-long-term-survival-in-infective-endocarditis-patients
#8
M Diab, C Sponholz, C von Loeffelholz, P Scheffel, M Bauer, A Kortgen, T Lehmann, G Färber, M W Pletz, T Doenst
PURPOSE: Infective endocarditis (IE) is often associated with multiorgan dysfunction and mortality. The impact of perioperative liver dysfunction (LD) on outcome remains unclear and little is known about factors leading to postoperative LD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis on 285 patients with left-sided IE without pre-existing chronic liver disease referred to our center between 2007 and 2013 for valve surgery. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was used to evaluate organ dysfunction...
August 30, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855242/reduced-generation-of-lung-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-during-infancy
#9
Kyra D Zens, Jun Kui Chen, Rebecca S Guyer, Felix L Wu, Filip Cvetkovski, Michelle Miron, Donna L Farber
Infants suffer disproportionately from respiratory infections and generate reduced vaccine responses compared with adults, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In adult mice, lung-localized, tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) mediate optimal protection to respiratory pathogens, and we hypothesized that reduced protection in infancy could be due to impaired establishment of lung TRM. Using an infant mouse model, we demonstrate generation of lung-homing, virus-specific T effectors after influenza infection or live-attenuated vaccination, similar to adults...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851592/smoking-and-disease-outcomes-in-patients-with-malignant-germ-cell-tumors
#10
Elizabeth O'Donnell, Sarah C Markt, Rowan Miller, Brandon Bernard, Laurence Albiges, Clair Beard, Christopher Sweeney
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the association between smoking and stage at diagnosis or survival among men with germ cell tumors (GCTs). We therefore evaluated the association between smoking and GCT presentation and outcomes. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 1161 patients with GCT treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 1997 and 2013 were reviewed. Outcomes of interest were stage at diagnosis, relapse from clinical stage I (CSI) disease, relapse after first-line chemotherapy, and death from disease...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841109/one-hundred-consecutive-endoscopic-repairs-of-sagittal-craniosynostosis-an-evolution-in-care
#11
Dennis C Nguyen, Scott J Farber, Gary B Skolnick, Sybill D Naidoo, Matthew D Smyth, Alex A Kane, Kamlesh B Patel, Albert S Woo
OBJECTIVE Endoscope-assisted repair of sagittal craniosynostosis was adopted at St. Louis Children's Hospital in 2006. This study examines the first 100 cases and reviews the outcomes and evolution of patient care protocols at our institution. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective chart review of the first 100 consecutive endoscopic repairs of sagittal craniosynostosis between 2006 and 2014. The data associated with length of hospital stay, blood loss, transfusion rates, operative times, cephalic indices (CIs), complications, and cranial remolding orthosis were reviewed...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838592/review-of-article-feasibility-and-pilot-efficacy-of-a-brief-smoking-cessation-intervention-delivered-by-vascular-surgeons-in-the-vascular-physician-offer-and-report-vapor-trial-goodney-pp-spangler-el-newhall-k-brooke-bs-schanzer-a-tan-t-w-beck-aw-hallett-jh
#12
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837456/temporal-healing-of-achilles-tendons-after-injury-in-rodents-depends-on-surgical-treatment-and-activity
#13
Benjamin R Freedman, Nabeel S Salka, Tyler R Morris, Pankti R Bhatt, Adam M Pardes, Joshua A Gordon, Courtney A Nuss, Corinne N Riggin, George W Fryhofer, Daniel C Farber, Louis Soslowsky
INTRODUCTION: Achilles tendon ruptures affect 15 of 100,000 women and 55 of 100,000 men each year. Controversy continues to exist regarding optimal treatment and rehabilitation protocols. The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal effects of surgical repair and immobilization or activity on Achilles tendon healing and limb function after complete transection in rodents. METHODS: Injured tendons were repaired (n = 64) or left nonrepaired (n = 64)...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837377/economic-evaluation-of-rituximab-in-addition-to-standard-of-care-chemotherapy-for-adult-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#14
Julian Nam, Robert Milenkovski, Simon Yunger, Marc Geirnaert, Kristjan Paulson, Matthew Seftel
AIMS: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an aggressive form of leukemia with a poor prognosis in adult patients. The addition of the monoclonal antibody rituximab to standard chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival in adults with ALL. However, it is unknown whether the addition of rituximab is cost-effective. The objective was to determine the economic impact of rituximab in addition to standard of care (SOC) chemotherapy vs SOC alone in newly-diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-negative, CD20-positive, B-cell precursor ALL...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830709/early-carotid-endarterectomy-performed-2-to-5-days-after-the-onset-of-neurologic-symptoms-leads-to-comparable-results-to-carotid-endarterectomy-performed-at-later-time-points
#15
Efthymios D Avgerinos, Alik Farber, Adham N Abou Ali, Denis Rybin, Gheorghe Doros, Mohammad H Eslami
BACKGROUND: Timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) after onset of neurologic symptoms remains controversial. We assessed the association of CEA timing with postoperative outcomes. METHODS: The Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database (2003-2014) was queried to identify CEA performed for symptomatic carotid stenosis during the same hospitalization. Cases were divided into four groups based on the time from onset of neurologic symptoms to CEA: group I, <2 days; group II, 2 to 5 days; group III, ≥6 days; and group IV, same-day CEA...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829438/an-atlas-of-b-cell-clonal-distribution-in-the-human-body
#16
Wenzhao Meng, Bochao Zhang, Gregory W Schwartz, Aaron M Rosenfeld, Daqiu Ren, Joseph J C Thome, Dustin J Carpenter, Nobuhide Matsuoka, Harvey Lerner, Amy L Friedman, Tomer Granot, Donna L Farber, Mark J Shlomchik, Uri Hershberg, Eline T Luning Prak
B-cell responses result in clonal expansion, and can occur in a variety of tissues. To define how B-cell clones are distributed in the body, we sequenced 933,427 B-cell clonal lineages and mapped them to eight different anatomic compartments in six human organ donors. We show that large B-cell clones partition into two broad networks-one spans the blood, bone marrow, spleen and lung, while the other is restricted to tissues within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (jejunum, ileum and colon). Notably, GI tract clones display extensive sharing of sequence variants among different portions of the tract and have higher frequencies of somatic hypermutation, suggesting extensive and serial rounds of clonal expansion and selection...
September 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815116/reducing-clinical-noise-for-body-mass-index-measures-due-to-unit-and-transcription-errors-in-the-electronic-health-record
#17
Robert Goodloe, Eric Farber-Eger, Jonathan Boston, Dana C Crawford, William S Bush
Body mass index (BMI) is an important outcome and covariate adjustment for many clinical association studies. Accurate assessment of BMI, therefore, is a critical part of many study designs. Electronic health records (EHRs) are a growing source of clinical data for research purposes, and have proven useful for identifying and replicating genetic associations. EHR-based data collected for clinical and billing purposes have several unique properties, including a high degree of heterogeneity or "clinical noise...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815105/extracting-country-of-origin-from-electronic-health-records-for-gene-environment-studies-as-part-of-the-epidemiologic-architecture-for-genes-linked-to-environment-eagle-study
#18
Eric Farber-Eger, Robert Goodloe, Jonathan Boston, William S Bush, Dana C Crawford
We describe here the extraction of country-of-origin, an acculturation variable relevant for gene-environment studies, in a biorepository linked to de-identified electronic health records (EHRs) assessed by the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE), a study site of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study. We extracted country-of-origin from the unstructured clinical free text using regular expressions within the MySQL relational database system in a cohort of 15,863 subjects of mostly non-European descent (including 11,519 African Americans, 1,702 Hispanics, and 1,118 Asians)...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807384/external-validation-of-vascular-study-group-of-new-england-risk-predictive-model-of-mortality-after-elective-abdominal-aorta-aneurysm-repair-in-the-vascular-quality-initiative-and-comparison-against-established-models
#19
Mohammad H Eslami, Denis V Rybin, Gheorghe Doros, Jeffrey J Siracuse, Alik Farber
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to externally validate a recently reported Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) risk predictive model of postoperative mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to compare its predictive ability across different patients' risk categories and against the established risk predictive models using the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) AAA sample. METHODS: The VQI AAA database (2010-2015) was queried for patients who underwent elective AAA repair...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803654/temporal-pattern-and-prognostic-significance-of-hypokalemia-in-patients-undergoing-targeted-temperature-management-following-cardiac-arrest
#20
Arash Nayeri, Hannah Gluck, Eric Farber-Eger, Srikanth Krishnan, Kamran Shamsa, Michael Lee, Quinn S Wells, John A McPherson
Hypokalemia has been consistently reported as a common occurrence during targeted temperature management (TTM) in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. We sought to better describe changes in serum potassium throughout the different stages of TTM and to assess for any prognostic significance. We analyzed a prospectively collected cohort of 240 patients treated with TTM following cardiac arrest at a tertiary care hospital between 2007 and 2014. The primary outcome was poor neurologic outcome at hospital discharge, defined as a Cerebral Performance Category score >2...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
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