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Paulo Roberto Cavalcante de Vasconcelos, André Brito Bastos Guimarães, Marcio Wilker Soares Campelo, Paulo Roberto Leitão de Vasconcelos, Sergio Botelho Guimaraes
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the dipeptide L-alanyl-glutamine (L-Ala-Gln) as a preconditioning agent to potentially promote reduction in the intensity of lesion or induction of resilience in rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats weighing 280-300 g were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 6). Groups Sham 1h and 24h were treated with saline and spared of further interventions. The remaining groups were submitted to clamping of the common carotid arteries for 30 minutes (ischemia) and treated with saline (SS) or L-Ala-Gln...
March 2015: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
O S Sotnikov, L E Frumkina, A A Lactionova, N M Paramonova, S A Novakovskaia
In the review the history of research two-nuclear neurons is stated and two hypotheses about mechanisms of their formation are analysed: by sincitial fusion or amytotic divisions. The facts of discrepancy of the former orthodox cellular theory categorically denying possibility sincitial of communications in nervous system and of sincitial fusion neurons are mentioned. As an example results of ultrastructural researches of occurrence sincitium in a cortex of the big brain of rats, in autonomic ganglions, in hypocampus and a cerebellum of adult animals are presented...
October 2011: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
Ilkay Aksu, Ayca Topcu, Ulas Mehmet Camsari, Osman Acikgoz
Although regular physical exercise is beneficial to the body, it is well known that exhaustive exercise causes oxidative stress in muscle. Recent studies suggest that regular moderate physical exercise has the beneficial effects on brain. There is a little information regarding whether or not exercise could generate oxidative stress in the brain and the findings are conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, in the hippocampus, which has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors, and prefrontal cortex and striatum, which have high dopamine content...
March 20, 2009: Neuroscience Letters
C Ariznavarreta, C Castillo, G Segovia, F Mora, I Azcoitia, J A Tresguerres
In elderly people, vascular alterations and degenerative alterations of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are two of the most common reasons for illness and death. Lipid pattern modifications and menopause in women are some of the causes for the appearance of these alterations. Vascular endothelium is in part responsible for vascular homeostasis, through the production of several vasoactive factors. Growth hormone (GH) exerts effects on the CNS and on the vascular endothelium, since GH deficient subjects exhibit endothelium-dependent alterations, which recover under substitutive GH treatment...
2003: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
S V Krapivin, A Iu Malyshev, A V Kharitonov, O S Ermishina, S N Shubin, L D Luk'ianova
The Fourie EEG spectral analysis of thr sensomotor cortex and dorsal hypocampus in freely moving rats could reveal the common pharmacological EEG effects of different antihypoxic agents (gutimin, amtizole, emoxipine, and 3-OPK). All the agents decreased the total EEG power (they all reduced the absolute power in all frequency bands) and simultaneously enhanced (2 relative power. The former suggests that there was a decrease in the energetic level of bioelectric fluctuations, which may indicate that the brain reduces its energetic functioning level...
2002: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
S V Savel'ev, L V Serova, N V Besova, A M Nosovskiĭ
The histological structure of the brain and spinal cord, visual, olfactory, auditory and vestibular analysers, and endocrine organs (epiphysis, hypophysis, thyroid and parathyroid glands) were investigated in newborn rats delivered by females who had been exposed to weightlessness a half of the pregnancy period. Analysers of the flight animals did not have any marked deviations from the norm. Loci of neurone degeneration resembling porencephaly but less massive were revealed in various brain portions (cortex, hypocampus, metencephalon, spinal cord) of the infant rats developed in space flight...
1998: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
S I Wikinski, G B Acosta
Excitatory amino acids (EAA) became known as neurotransmitters of the central nervous system (CNS) in the last decade. The most studied EAA are glutamate and aspartate. Both are synthetized by the same mechanism as gamaaminobutyric acid. (Fig. 1). Glutamate is widely distributed in the CNS and the spinal cord, being the areas of higher concentration the cerebral cortex, the hypocampus and the cerebellum. There have been identified two type of receptors for glutamate: ionotropic and metabotropic. The former includes three different types: NMDA, AMPA and KA...
1995: Medicina
A Robles, R M Rodríguez, J M Aldrey, J Vadillo, P Suárez Gil, M Lema, M Noya
8 cases of dementia associated with cortical Lewy bodies are dealt with, that were diagnosed in 1993 in examinations for dementia, using the Nottingham's clinical criteria. They make up 15.4% of primary degenerative dementias diagnosed in this examination. All developed a predominantly cortical dementia with variable bradiphrenia and a parkinsonian syndrome which was predominantly of the rigid-bradikinetic type. The dementia established itself rapidly -between 1 and 3 weeks- in 3 cases (37.5%). 50% of patients (4 cases) showed marked psychiatric symptoms...
January 1995: Revista de Neurologia
R M Rodríguez, J M Aldrey, J M Pumar, M Lema, M Noya
The estimation of the size of the structures of the temporal lobe using magnetic resonance (MR) can be of assistance when diagnosing early degenerative dementia. We have carried out a survey on 17 patients with Alzheimer type dementia (ATD). They were classified in clinical stages according to the Reisberg global deterioration scale. As diagnostic criteria for ATD we used those developed by DSM-III-R and NINCDS-ADRDA. We carried out axial sequences of 10 mm thickness in protonic density and in T2, and crown sequences of 5mm in T1 perpendicular to the axis of the hypofield...
January 1995: Revista de Neurologia
K Okamoto, M Wakamiya, S Noji, E Koyama, S Taniguchi, R Takemura, N G Copeland, D J Gilbert, N A Jenkins, M Muramatsu
A mouse gene (referred to as Emb) encoding a novel class of POU domain is described. The Emb POU domain shares only 40-50% homology to that of any other POU proteins. Nonetheless, the Emb POU domain can bind to the octamer sequence like other POU domains. Emb is a single-copy gene, located on the distal region of mouse chromosome 15. It is expressed in embryo throughout post-implantation stages, where the most prominent expression is seen in developing central nervous system. In the adult, it is highly expressed in brain, whereas weaker expression can be detected in other organs such as testis, skeletal muscle, and kidney...
April 5, 1993: Journal of Biological Chemistry
D Filipović, V Ivetić, K Bozić, V Nikolić, N Naumović
We investigated effects of homocarnosine (gamma-aminobutyric-histidine) dipeptid on neuron nucleus caudatus and hypocampus activity in small and hungry experimental animals--awake grown-up rabbits. In the given conditions, through glass microelectrodes having several channels, an extracellular registration of impulse discharge was performed as well as the microapplication of homocarnosine (HC) in the immediate surroundings of registered neurons. The obtained results show that the investigated different functional conditions of the organism are manifested in the neurons' activity of the investigated brain structures...
1993: Medicinski Pregled
B Ribas, N Lobato-Rodrígues, M I Sánchez-Reus, M C Sáinz-Vadillo, M C García-Martín, A M De la Torre, S Bondía, J Tamarit, R Cadórniga
Pharmacokinetics of nickel chloride (63Ni) in blood and cerebral structures in male Wistar Rats is studied. After intravenous administration of 100 microCi 63 Ni, the trace element is distributed after an open bicompartmental model with a high alfa deposition constant, and the point obtained at 20 min. is considered in phase alfa. The kinetics of 63Ni in cerebral structures after the intracerebroventricular administration shows that hypocampus is the structure that most quickly reaches its maximal concentration...
1982: Revista Española de Fisiología
A V Iprus-Shotter
In 16 rabbits with chronic implanted electrodes the authors convened an electrostimulation of the hypocampus, the amygdale body and new cortex which brought to emotional-affective and EEG convulsive reactions. These reactions were inhibited by karbamazepine (150 mg/kg) and methindion (100 and 200 mg/kg) introduced into the gastrum. Karbamazepine possessed most inhibiting effect. The tranquillizing effect of methindion exceedes its anticonvulsive action, due to which it can be used both as an anticonvulsant and tranquilizing preparation...
1976: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
V A Gusel', S N Olenev, L M Sorokina, V I Chursin
By the aid of histochemical methods the authors sutdied the activity and distribution of acetylcholinesterase, monoamineoxidase, glutamatedehydrogynase and gammaaminobutyric acid -- transferase in the dorsal hypocampus of rats. It was shown that the activity of all the studied enzymes are significantly changed following 0.5 and 1.5 hours and are restituted following 48 hours after the formation of a pathological focus. It is concluded that a drop in the activity of glutamatedehydrogenase and gammaaminobutyric acid may be directed toward an accumulation of gammaaminobutyric acid in the epileptogenic focus and an inhibition of its activity...
1975: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
V A Madorskiĭ, T B Shestakova
The authors demonstrate the results of experimental psychological examination of memory in 57 patients with epilepsy in psychomotor temporal seizures. It was possible to show that in such cases there was a total decline of short-time memory. In bilateral foci and a long-term development of the disease there was a formation of an amnestic syndrome. The most distinct changes were seen in a delayed reproduction. In an electrostimulation of the structures of the temporal lobe by means of implanted electrodes the experiments displayed an intactness of direct reproduction during a stimulation of the neocortex, a moderate decrease in a stimulation of the hypocampus and a grave -- when stimulating the amygdalar complex...
1975: Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
I V Emel'ianenko, V S Raĭtses
Chronic experiments were conducted on rabbits; electrodes were implanted into the deep structures of the brain. Stimulation of gastric receptors led to modulation of the emotional-behavioristic reactions induced by electric stimulation of the hypothalamus, the amygdala and the hypocampus. The effect depended on the intensity of interoceptive stimulation and peculiarities of the emotional reaction with own cerebral control systems.
March 1976: Biulleten' Eksperimental'noĭ Biologii i Meditsiny
Iu V Zarzhetskiĭ, A M Gurvich
Previous experiments on dogs showed that in several cases, along with the development of hypoxia, polymorphous delta-waves changed into synchronous oscillations, also of delta range, the so-called standard slow complexes (SSC). The new experimental data showed discharges of neuronal pool during SSC to be present in the caudate nucleus, lateral and medial thalamus, hypothalamus, hypocampus, n. amygdale, and mesencephalic reticular formation. The most frequent neuronal pulse activity was connected with the second half of the SSC negative phase (P is less than 0...
June 1978: Biulleten' Eksperimental'noĭ Biologii i Meditsiny
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