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Henrik D Møller, Lance Parsons, Tue S Jørgensen, David Botstein, Birgitte Regenberg
Examples of extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are found in many organisms, but their impact on genetic variation at the genome scale has not been investigated. We mapped 1,756 eccDNAs in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using Circle-Seq, a highly sensitive eccDNA purification method. Yeast eccDNAs ranged from an arbitrary lower limit of 1 kb up to 38 kb and covered 23% of the genome, representing thousands of genes. EccDNA arose both from genomic regions with repetitive sequences ≥ 15 bases long and from regions with short or no repetitive sequences...
June 16, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Silvia Petrezselyova, Angel Dominguez, Pavla Herynkova, Juan F Macias, Hana Sychrova
Cation–chloride co-transporters serve to transport Cl– and alkali metal cations. Whereas a large family of these exists in higher eukaryotes, yeasts only possess one cation–chloride co-transporter, Vhc1, localized to the vacuolar membrane. In this study, the human cation–chloride co-transporter NKCC2 complemented the phenotype of VHC1 deletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its activity controlled the growth of salt-sensitive yeast cells in the presence of high KCl, NaCl and LiCl. A S. cerevisiae mutant lacking plasma-membrane alkali–metal cation exporters Nha1 and Ena1-5 and the vacuolar cation–chloride co-transporter Vhc1 is highly sensitive to increased concentrations of alkali–metal cations, and it proved to be a suitable model for characterizing the substrate specificity and transport activity of human wild-type and mutated cation–chloride co-transporters...
October 2013: Yeast
Cristina Juan, Jordi Mañes, Assunta Raiola, Alberto Ritieni
In this study, 48 multicereal baby foods samples including 25 of pasta and 23 of multicereal baby foods from supermarkets of Campania region (Italy) were analysed for evaluating the presence of beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENs) A, A1, B, B1 and B4. Subsequently to evaluate the risk exposure of Italian population and infant population over the consumption of pasta or multicereal baby food, was, respectively, evaluated. For the above mentioned evaluation, a method developed in our laboratory by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used...
October 15, 2013: Food Chemistry
Kwang-Woo Jung, Anna K Strain, Kirsten Nielsen, Kwang-Hwan Jung, Yong-Sun Bahn
Maintenance of cation homeostasis is essential for survival of all living organisms in their biological niches. It is also important for the survival of human pathogenic fungi in the host, where cation concentrations and pH will vary depending on different anatomical sites. However, the exact role of diverse cation transporters and ion channels in virulence of fungal pathogens remains elusive. In this study we functionally characterized ENA1 and NHA1, encoding a putative Na(+)/ATPase and Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, respectively, in Cryptococcus neoformans, a basidiomycete fungal pathogen which causes fatal meningoencephalitis...
April 2012: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Alan Gilbert, Dipen P Sangurdekar, Friedrich Srienc
Acetate is present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates at growth inhibiting concentrations. Industrial processes based on such feedstock require strains that are tolerant of this and other inhibitors present. We investigated the effect of acetate on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that elevated acetate concentrations result in a decreased specific growth rate, an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increased cell size. With the cytostat cultivation technology under previously derived optimal operating conditions, several acetate resistant mutants were enriched and isolated in the shortest possible time...
June 15, 2009: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Nancy Arroyo Gonzalez, Adrinel Vázquez, Humberto G Ortiz Zuazaga, Arup Sen, Hugo Luna Olvera, Sandra Peña de Ortiz, N S Govind
The euryhaline marine yeast Debaromyces hansenii is a model system for the study of processes related to osmoadaptation. In this study, microarray-based gene expression analyses of the entire genome of D. hansenii was used to study its response to osmotic stress. Differential gene expression, compared to control, was examined at three time points (0.5, 3 and 6 h) after exposure of D. hansenii cultures to high salt concentration. Among the 1.72% of genes showing statistically significant differences in expression, only 65 genes displayed at least three-fold increases in mRNA levels after treatment with 2 M NaCl...
February 2009: Yeast
Veena S Anil, Premraj Rajkumar, Pavan Kumar, M K Mathew
Stress responses in both plants and yeast utilize calcium-mediated signaling. A yeast strain, K616, which lacks Ca(2+) pumps, requires micromolar Ca(2+) for growth. In medium containing 100 microM Ca(2+), K616 can withstand osmotic stress (750 mM sorbitol) and ionic stress (300 mM KCl) but not hypersodic stress (300 mM NaCl). Heterologous expression of the endoplasmic reticulum-located Arabidopsis thaliana Ca(2+)-ATPase, ACA2, permits K616 to grow under NaCl stress even in Ca(2+)-depleted medium. All stresses tested generated transient elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) in wild type yeast, K601, whereas NaCl alone induced prolonged elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) in K616...
February 8, 2008: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Maria Platara, Amparo Ruiz, Raquel Serrano, Aarón Palomino, Fernando Moreno, Joaquín Ariño
Adaptive response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental alkalinization results in remodeling of gene expression. A key target is the gene ENA1, encoding a Na(+)-ATPase, whose induction by alkaline pH has been shown to involve calcineurin and the Rim101/Nrg1 pathway. Previous functional analysis of the ENA1 promoter revealed a calcineurin-independent pH responsive region (ARR2, 83 nucleotides). We restrict here this response to a small (42 nucleotides) ARR2 5.-region, named MCIR (minimum calcineurin independent response), which contains a MIG element, able to bind Mig1,2 repressors...
December 1, 2006: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Christian Betz, Dirk Zajonc, Matthias Moll, Eckhart Schweizer
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, toxic concentrations of Na+ orLi+ ions induce the expression of the cation-extrusion ATPase gene, ENA1. Several well-studied signal transduction pathways are known correlating high salinity to the transcriptional activation of ENA1. Nevertheless, information on the actual sensing mechanism initiating these pathways is limited. Here, we report that the ISC1-encoded phosphosphingolipid-specific phospholipase C appears to be involved in stimulation of ENA1 expression and, consequently, in mediating Na+ and Li+ tolerance in yeast...
August 2002: European Journal of Biochemistry
Tracie K Matsumoto, Amanda J Ellsmore, Stephen G Cessna, Philip S Low, José M Pardo, Ray A Bressan, Paul M Hasegawa
Hyperosmotic stress caused by NaCl, LiCl, or sorbitol induces an immediate and short duration ( approximately 1 min) transient cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) increase (Ca(2+)-dependent aequorin luminescence) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The amplitude of the osmotically induced [Ca(2+)](cyt) transient was attenuated by the addition of chelating agents EGTA or BAPTA, cation channel pore blockers, competitive inhibitors of Ca(2+) transport, or mutations (cch1Delta or mid1Delta) that reduce Ca(2+) influx, indicating that Ca(ext)(2+) is a source for the transient...
September 6, 2002: Journal of Biological Chemistry
M A Bañuelos, H Sychrová, C Bleykasten-Grosshans, J L Souciet, S Potier
The NHA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcribed into a 3.5 kb mRNA, encodes a protein mediating Na+ and K+ efflux through the plasma membrane that is required for alkali cation tolerance at acidic pH. Deletion of the gene in a wild-type strain resulted in higher sensitivity to both K+ and Na+ at acidic pH. Measurements of cation loss in strains carrying deleted or overexpressed alleles of NHA1 demonstrated its role in K+ and Na+ efflux. In addition, high K+ and Na+ efflux observed upon alkalinization of the cytoplasm implies a role of Nha1p in the regulation of intracellular pH...
October 1998: Microbiology
B W Hazell, S Kletsas, H Nevalainen, P V Attfield
The transcriptional responses of the osmotically induced genes ALD2, CTT1, ENA1, GPD1, HSP12 and HSP104, were studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains differing in CIF1 gene function following application of osmotic stress. The CIF1 gene (allelic to GGS1 and TPS1) encodes a subunit of the trehalose synthase complex that affects trehalose synthesis. Recent work has implicated this gene in various signalling events in the cell, including transcriptional response to heat-shock treatment. Because many genetic factors can influence S...
September 8, 1997: FEBS Letters
B Benito, F J Quintero, A Rodríguez-Navarro
The ENA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a putative ATPase necessary for Na+ efflux. Plasma membranes and intracellular membranes of a yeast strain overexpressing the ENA1 gene contain significant amounts of ENA1 protein. Consequences of the overexpression with reference to the wild-type strain are: (1) a 5-fold higher content of the ENA1-protein in plasma membranes; (2) lower Na+ and Li+ effluxes; (3) slightly higher Na+ tolerance; and (4) much higher Li+ tolerance. The ENA1-specific ATPase activity in plasma membrane preparations of the overexpressing strain was low, but an ENA1 phosphoprotein was clearly detected when the plasma membranes were exposed to ATP in the presence of Na+ or to Pi in the absence of Na+...
September 4, 1997: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
J F Leeuwenberg, T M Jeunhomme, W A Buurman
This study describes the expression characteristics of a cell membrane protein recognized by a monoclonal antibody ENA1, which was obtained by immunizing mice with human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells cultured with a mixture of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The expression of this ENA1 antigen could also be induced by lipopolysaccharide and phorbol esters. Expression was only demonstrated on HUVE cells and human umbilical arterial endothelial cells, pretreated with one or with a mixture of these reagents...
April 1989: European Journal of Immunology
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