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Jessica M Mayeux, Gabriela M Escalante, Joseph M Christy, Rahul D Pawar, Dwight H Kono, Kenneth M Pollard
Epidemiological studies have confidently linked occupational crystalline silica exposure to autoimmunity, but pathogenic mechanisms and role of genetic predisposition remain poorly defined. Although studies of single inbred strains have yielded insights, understanding the relationships between lung pathology, silica-induced autoimmunity, and genetic predisposition will require examination of a broad spectrum of responses and susceptibilities. We defined the characteristics of silicosis and autoimmunity and their relationships using the genetically heterogeneous diversity outbred (DO) mouse population and determined the suitability of this model for investigating silica-induced autoimmunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Akaraphol Watcharawipas, Daisuke Watanabe, Hiroshi Takagi
Sodium and acetate inhibit cell growth and ethanol fermentation by different mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified the substitution of a conserved Thr255 to Ala (T255A) in the essential Nedd4-family ubiquitin ligase Rsp5, which enhances cellular sodium acetate tolerance. The T255A mutation selectively increased the resistance of cells against sodium acetate, suggesting that S. cerevisiae cells possess an Rsp5-mediated mechanism to cope with the composite stress of sodium and acetate. The sodium acetate tolerance was dependent on the extrusion of intracellular sodium ions by the plasma membrane-localized sodium pumps Ena1, Ena2, and Ena5 (Ena1/2/5) and two known upstream regulators: the Rim101 pH signaling pathway and the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase...
December 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Hokyoung Son, Ae Ran Park, Jae Yun Lim, Yin-Won Lee
Sodium is an abundant cation required for protein function and maintenance of cellular osmotic homeostasis. High concentrations of sodium are toxic, and fungi have evolved efficient sodium efflux systems. In this study, we characterized a novel sodium tolerance mechanism in the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Fusarium graminearum sodium sensitive 1 (Fss1) is a nuclear transcription factor with a Zn(II)2 Cys6 fungal-type DNA-binding domain required for sodium tolerance. RNA-seq and genetic studies revealed that a P-type ATPase pump, exitus natru (Latin: exit sodium) 1 (FgEna5), mediates the phenotypic defects of FSS1 mutants...
June 2015: Environmental Microbiology
Alan Gilbert, Dipen P Sangurdekar, Friedrich Srienc
Acetate is present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates at growth inhibiting concentrations. Industrial processes based on such feedstock require strains that are tolerant of this and other inhibitors present. We investigated the effect of acetate on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and show that elevated acetate concentrations result in a decreased specific growth rate, an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increased cell size. With the cytostat cultivation technology under previously derived optimal operating conditions, several acetate resistant mutants were enriched and isolated in the shortest possible time...
June 15, 2009: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Mariko Yagi, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Agus Surono, Miho Takagi, Makoto Koizumi, Masafumi Matsuo
Antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides against exon 19 of the dystrophin gene have been shown to induce exon 19 skipping and promote the expression of internally deleted dystrophin by correcting the translational reading frame. Because phosphorothioate oligonucleotides are associated with a variety of toxic nonantisense effects, several modifications of nucleic acid have been introduced to alleviate this toxicity. Recently, a 2'-O, 4'-C-ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA trade mark, Sankyo Lifetech Co...
2004: Oligonucleotides
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