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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911490/what-does-it-take-to-learn-a-word
#1
REVIEW
Larissa K Samuelson, Bob McMurray
Vocabulary learning is deceptively hard, but toddlers often make it look easy. Prior theories proposed that children's rapid acquisition of words is based on language-specific knowledge and constraints. In contrast, more recent work converges on the view that word learning proceeds via domain-general processes that are tuned to richly structured-not impoverished-input. We argue that new theoretical insights, coupled with methodological tools, have pushed the field toward an appreciation of simple, content-free processes working together as a system to support the acquisition of words...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895609/to-fake-or-not-to-fake-antecedents-to-interview-faking-warning-instructions-and-its-impact-on-applicant-reactions
#2
Stephanie J Law, Joshua Bourdage, Thomas A O'Neill
In the present study, we examined the antecedents and processes that impact job interviewees' decisions to engage in deceptive impression management (i.e., interview faking). Willingness and capacity to engage in faking were found to be the processes underlying the decision to use deceptive impression management in the interview. We also examined a personality antecedent to this behavior, Honesty-Humility, which was negatively related to the use of deceptive impression management through increased willingness to engage in these behaviors...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891098/deceptive-manipulation-of-competitive-starting-strategies-influences-subsequent-pacing-physiological-status-and-perceptual-responses-during-cycling-time-trials
#3
Emily L Williams, Hollie S Jones, S Andy Sparks, David C Marchant, Adrian W Midgley, Craig A Bridge, Lars R McNaughton
Little is currently known regarding competitor influence on pacing at the start of an event and in particular the subsequent effect on the remaining distance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of starting pace on the physiological and psychological responses during cycling time trials (TT) utilizing an innovative approach allowing pace to be accurately and dynamically replicated, as well as deceptively manipulated. Ten competitive male cyclists completed five 16.1 km TT, two baseline trials performed alone (BLs), and three with a simulated, dynamic avatar of which they were to match the pace of for the initial 4 km...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889921/chimpanzee-uses-manipulative-gaze-cues-to-conceal-and-reveal-information-to-foraging-competitor
#4
Katie Hall, Mike W Oram, Matthew W Campbell, Timothy M Eppley, Richard W Byrne, Frans B M de Waal
: Tactical deception has been widely reported in primates on a functional basis, but details of behavioral mechanisms are usually unspecified. We tested a pair of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the informed forager paradigm, in which the subordinate saw the location of hidden food and the dominant did not. We employed cross-correlations to examine temporal contingencies between chimpanzees' behavior: specifically how the direction of the subordinate's gaze and movement functioned to manipulate the dominant's searching behavior through two tactics, withholding, and misleading information...
November 27, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886144/cuticular-lipids-as-a-cross-talk-among-ants-plants-and-butterflies
#5
REVIEW
Francesca Barbero
Even though insects and plants are distantly related organisms, they developed an integument which is functionally and structurally similar. Besides functioning as a physical barrier to cope with abiotic and biotic stress, this interface, called cuticle, is also a source of chemical signaling. Crucial compounds with this respect are surface lipids and especially cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). This review is focused on the role of CHCs in fostering multilevel relationships among ants, plants and Lepidoptera (primarily butterflies)...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882847/fakes-hoaxes-counterfeits-and-deception-in-early-modern-science
#6
Robert G W Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882654/digital-technologies-as-truth-bearers-in-health-care
#7
Ruth Bartlett, Andrew Balmer, Petula Brannelly
In this study, we explore the idea of digital technologies as truth-bearers in health care and argue that devices like SenseCam, which facilitate reflection and memory recall, have a potentially vital role in healthcare situations when questions of veracity are at stake (e.g., when best interest decisions are being made). We discuss the role of digital technologies as truth-bearers in the context of nursing people with dementia, as this is one area of health care in which the topic of truth-telling has been hotly debated...
November 23, 2016: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873522/extremely-well-differentiated-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-resembling-adenomatous-hyperplasia-can-metastasize-to-the-skull-a-case-report
#8
Ju Yeon Pyo, Jisup Kim, Sung Eun Choi, Eunah Shin, Seok Woo Yang, Cheong Soo Park, Seok Mo Kim, Soonwon Hong
We describe herein histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings and clinical manifestations of a rare case of an extremely well differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (EWD-PTC). Similarly, it is also difficult to diagnose follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), whose diagnosis is still met with controversy. A recently reported entity of well-differentiated tumor of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) is added to the diagnostic spectrum harboring EWD-PTC and FVPTC. We report this case, because EWD-PTC is different from FVPTC in its papillary architecture, and also from WDT-UMP in its recurrence and metastatic pattern...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870942/altered-time-course-of-amygdala-activation-during-speech-anticipation-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#9
Carolyn D Davies, Katherine Young, Jared B Torre, Lisa J Burklund, Philippe R Goldin, Lily A Brown, Andrea N Niles, Matthew D Lieberman, Michelle G Craske
BACKGROUND: Exaggerated anticipatory anxiety is common in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Neuroimaging studies have revealed altered neural activity in response to social stimuli in SAD, but fewer studies have examined neural activity during anticipation of feared social stimuli in SAD. The current study examined the time course and magnitude of activity in threat processing brain regions during speech anticipation in socially anxious individuals and healthy controls (HC). METHOD: Participants (SAD n=58; HC n=16) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during which they completed a 90s control anticipation task and 90s speech anticipation task...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866908/biosynthetic-pathway-connects-cryptic-ribosomally-synthesized-posttranslationally-modified-peptide-genes-with-pyrroloquinoline-alkaloids
#10
Peter A Jordan, Bradley S Moore
In an era where natural product biosynthetic gene clusters can be rapidly identified from sequenced genomes, it is unusual for the biosynthesis of an entire natural product class to remain unknown. Yet, the genetic determinates for pyrroloquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis have remained obscure despite their abundance and deceptive structural simplicity. In this work, we have identified the biosynthetic gene cluster for ammosamides A-C, pyrroloquinoline alkaloids from Streptomyces sp. CNR-698. Through direct cloning, heterologous expression and gene deletions we have validated the ammosamide biosynthetic gene cluster and demonstrated that these seemingly simple molecules are derived from a surprisingly complex set of biosynthetic genes that are also found in the biosynthesis of lymphostin, a structurally related pyrroloquinoline alkaloid from Salinispora and Streptomyces...
November 9, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865584/cooperation-and-deception-in-primates
#11
Katie Hall, Sarah F Brosnan
Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates...
November 16, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863847/parental-attitudes-about-placebo-use-in-children
#12
Vanda Faria, Joe Kossowsky, Mike P Petkov, Ted J Kaptchuk, Irving Kirsch, Alyssa Lebel, David Borsook
OBJECTIVE: To assess parental attitudes regarding placebo use in pediatric randomized controlled trials and clinical care. STUDY DESIGN: Parents with children under age 18 years living in the US completed and submitted an online survey between September and November 2014. RESULTS: Among all 1300 participants, 1000 (76.9%; 538 mothers and 462 fathers) met the study inclusion criteria. The majority of surveyed parents considered the use of placebos acceptable in some pediatric care situations (86%) and some pediatric trials (91...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857515/the-ethics-of-the-relation-between-the-convicted-patient-and-the-physician
#13
Cristian Gherman, Ovidiu Chiroban, Dan Perju-Dumbrava
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Approaching the convicted patient is a topical issue in terms of alignment with EU provisions and recommendations, more so in the context of year by year increase in the number of convicts and consequently, prison patients. The prison patient exhibits increased vulnerability in regard to the rest of the convicts due to his/her medical status overlapping personality changes induced, while coping with a new environment. This represents a challenge for the physicians involved in the expertise process, which must act objectively within the limits and by the principles of professional ethics, while confronting a patient influenced by the prison environment...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847493/strategic-interviewing-to-detect-deception-cues-to-deception-across-repeated-interviews
#14
Jaume Masip, Iris Blandón-Gitlin, Carmen Martínez, Carmen Herrero, Izaskun Ibabe
Previous deception research on repeated interviews found that liars are not less consistent than truth tellers, presumably because liars use a "repeat strategy" to be consistent across interviews. The goal of this study was to design an interview procedure to overcome this strategy. Innocent participants (truth tellers) and guilty participants (liars) had to convince an interviewer that they had performed several innocent activities rather than committing a mock crime. The interview focused on the innocent activities (alibi), contained specific central and peripheral questions, and was repeated after 1 week without forewarning...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836041/the-case-control-design-in-veterinary-sciences-a-survey
#15
Jonah N Cullen, Jan M Sargeant, Kelly M Makielski, Annette M O'Connor
The case-control study design is deceptively simple. However, many design considerations influence the estimated effect measure. An investigation of case-control studies in the human health literature suggested that some of these considerations are not described in reports of case-control studies. Our hypothesis was that the majority of veterinary studies labeled as case-controls would be incident density designs, and many would not interpret the effect measure obtained from those studies as the rate ratio rather than the odds ratio...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833159/exploring-time-and-frequency-dependent-functional-connectivity-and-brain-networks-during-deception-with-single-trial-event-related-potentials
#16
Jun-Feng Gao, Yong Yang, Wen-Tao Huang, Pan Lin, Sheng Ge, Hong-Mei Zheng, Ling-Yun Gu, Hui Zhou, Chen-Hong Li, Ni-Ni Rao
To better characterize the cognitive processes and mechanisms that are associated with deception, wavelet coherence was employed to evaluate functional connectivity between different brain regions. Two groups of subjects were evaluated for this purpose: 32 participants were required to either tell the truth or to lie when facing certain stimuli, and their electroencephalogram signals on 12 electrodes were recorded. The experimental results revealed that deceptive responses elicited greater connectivity strength than truthful responses, particularly in the θ band on specific electrode pairs primarily involving connections between the prefrontal/frontal and central regions and between the prefrontal/frontal and left parietal regions...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831718/expert-players-accurately-detect-an-opponent-s-movement-intentions-through-sound-alone
#17
Ivan Camponogara, Matthew Rodger, Cathy Craig, Paola Cesari
Sounds offer a rich source of information about events taking place in our physical and social environment. However, outside the domains of speech and music, little is known about whether humans can recognize and act upon the intentions of another agent's actions detected through auditory information alone. In this study we assessed whether intention can be inferred from the sound an action makes, and in turn, whether this information can be used to prospectively guide movement. In 2 experiments experienced and novice basketball players had to virtually intercept an attacker by listening to audio recordings of that player's movements...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818322/an-overview-of-herb-and-dietary-supplement-efficacy-safety-and-government-regulations-in-the-united-states-with-suggested-improvements-part-1-of-5-series
#18
REVIEW
Amy Christine Brown
This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (herbs; 20%), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs and zero deaths due to DS...
November 3, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812201/telipogon-peruvianus-orchidaceae-flowers-elicit-pre-mating-behaviour-in-eudejeania-tachinidae-males-for-pollination
#19
Carlos Martel, Lianka Cairampoma, Fred W Stauffer, Manfred Ayasse
Several neotropical orchid genera have been proposed as being sexually deceptive; however, this has been carefully tested in only a few cases. The genus Telipogon has long been assumed to be pollinated by male tachinid flies during pseudocopulatory events but no detailed confirmatory reports are available. Here, we have used an array of methods to elucidate the pollination mechanism in Telipogon peruvianus. The species presents flowers that have a mean floral longevity of 33 days and that are self-compatible, although spontaneous self-pollination does not occur...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811289/challenges-in-engaging-parents-in-the-drug-and-alcohol-treatment-the-professionals-perspective
#20
Evdokia Misouridou, Danai Papadatou
Addiction treatment centers often fail to involve families in treatment. The aim of the present study was to explore the challenges that Greek mental health professionals encounter in their work with parents of drug and alcohol abusers. A qualitative study design was adopted, and five focus group discussions were conducted with 27 drug and alcohol professionals. The thematic analysis of their accounts revealed the key difficulties that professionals encounter in their collaboration with parents that included parental lack of involvement or over-engagement in treatment, unrealistic expectations, ambivalence or opposition to change, ethical dilemmas, and alliance issues, as well as collaboration challenges among therapists...
November 2, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
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