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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107103/why-do-we-hate-hypocrites-evidence-for-a-theory-of-false-signaling
#1
Jillian J Jordan, Roseanna Sommers, Paul Bloom, David G Rand
Why do people judge hypocrites, who condemn immoral behaviors that they in fact engage in, so negatively? We propose that hypocrites are disliked because their condemnation sends a false signal about their personal conduct, deceptively suggesting that they behave morally. We show that verbal condemnation signals moral goodness (Study 1) and does so even more convincingly than directly stating that one behaves morally (Study 2). We then demonstrate that people judge hypocrites negatively-even more negatively than people who directly make false statements about their morality (Study 3)...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105498/destination-memory-and-deception-when-i-lie-to-barack-obama-about-the-moon
#2
Mohamad El Haj, Xavier Saloppé, Jean Louis Nandrino
This study investigates whether deceivers demonstrate high memory of the person to whom lies have been told (i.e., high destination memory). Participants were asked to tell true information (e.g., the heart is a vital organ) and false information (e.g., the moon is bigger than the sun) to pictures of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama) and, in a subsequent recognition test, they had to remember to whom each type of information had previously been told. Participants were also assessed on a deception scale to divide them into two populations (i...
January 20, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098463/absolute-configuration-of-native-oligomeric-proanthocyanidins-with-dentin-biomodification-potency
#3
Joo-Won Nam, Rasika S Phansalkar, David C Lankin, James B McAlpine, Ariene A Leme-Kraus, Cristina M P Vidal, Li-She Gan, Ana Bedran-Russo, Shao-Nong Chen, Guido F Pauli
The structurally complex oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPACs) are promising biomimetic agents, capable of strengthening the macromolecular backbone of teeth via intermolecular and intermicrofibrillar cross-linking. This study establishes analytical methods capable of determining the absolute configuration of the catechin-type monomeric units of underivatized OPACs. This preserves the capacity of their biological evaluation, aimed at understanding the inevitably stereospecific interactions between the OPACs and dentin collagen...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091764/isolation-of-campylobacter-spp-from-three-species-of-antarctic-penguins-in-different-geographic-locations
#4
F J García-Peña, M T Llorente, T Serrano, M J Ruano, J Belliure, J Benzal, S Herrera-León, V Vidal, V D'Amico, D Pérez-Boto, A Barbosa
The presence of Campylobacter species was studied in three Antarctic penguin species, Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua). A total of 390 penguins were captured in 12 different rookeries along the Antarctic Peninsula with differences in the amount of human visitation: six colonies were highly visited [Stranger Point, King George Island (P. papua and P. adeliae); Hannah Point, Livingston Island (P. papua and P. antarctica); Deception Island (P. antarctica); and Paradise Bay, Antarctic Peninsula (P...
January 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089046/deception-island-antarctica-harbors-a-diverse-assemblage-of-wood-decay-fungi
#5
Benjamin W Held, Robert A Blanchette
Very little is known about fungal diversity in Antarctica as compared to other biomes and how these important organisms function in this unusual ecosystem. Perhaps one of the most unusual ecosystems is that of Deception Island; an active volcanic island part of the South Shetland Islands of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here we describe the fungal diversity associated with historic wood from structures on the island, which reveals a diverse fungal assemblage of known wood decay fungi as well as the discovery of undescribed species...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080097/correction-to-elliott-and-leach-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "You must be lying because I don't understand you: Language proficiency and lie detection" by Elizabeth Elliott and Amy-May Leach (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2016[Dec], Vol 22[4], 488-499). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-59419-006.) We examined the impact of interviewees' language proficiencies on observers' lie detection performance. Observers (N = 132) were randomly assigned to make deception judgments about interviewees (N = 56) from Four proficiency groups (i...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079090/deceptive-curcumin-offers-cautionary-tale-for-chemists
#7
Monya Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075367/high-performance-anti-retransmission-deception-jamming-utilizing-range-direction-multiple-input-and-multiple-output-mimo-synthetic-aperture-radar-sar
#8
Ruijia Wang, Jie Chen, Xing Wang, Bing Sun
Retransmission deception jamming seriously degrades the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) detection efficiency and can mislead SAR image interpretation by forming false targets. In order to suppress retransmission deception jamming, this paper proposes a novel multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) SAR structure range direction MIMO SAR, whose multiple channel antennas are vertical to the azimuth. First, based on the multiple channels of range direction MIMO SAR, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal was adopted as the transmission signal of each channel, which is defined as a sub-band signal...
January 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074274/glioma-experimental-models-and-reality
#9
REVIEW
Krissie Lenting, Roel Verhaak, Mark Ter Laan, Pieter Wesseling, William Leenders
In theory, in vitro and in vivo models for human gliomas have great potential to not only enhance our understanding of glioma biology, but also to facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies for these tumors. For reliable prediction and validation of the effects of different therapeutic modalities, however, glioma models need to comply with specific and more strict demands than other models of cancer, and these demands are directly related to the combination of genetic aberrations and the specific brain micro-environment gliomas grow in...
January 10, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073085/effect-of-investigator-observation-on-gait-parameters-in-individuals-with-and-without-chronic-low-back-pain
#10
Joshua Vickers, Austin Reed, Robert Decker, Bryan P Conrad, Marissa Olegario-Nebel, Heather K Vincent
Despite the ubiquity of gait assessment in clinic and research, it is unclear how observation impacts gait, particularly in persons with chronic pain and psychological stress. We compared temporal spatial gait patterns in people with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP) when they were aware and unaware of being observed. This was a repeated-measures, deception study in 55 healthy persons (32.0±12.4 yr, 24.2±2.7kg/m(2)) and persons with CLBP (51.9±17.9 yr, 27.8±4.4kg/m(2)). Participants performed one condition in which they were unaware of observation (UNW), and three conditions under investigator observation: (1) aware of observation (AWA), (2) investigators watching cadence, (3) investigators watching step length...
January 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069343/the-unusual-presentation-of-a-burn-from-methyl-bromide-exposure-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Gloria R Sue, Yvonne L Karanas, Drew J Davis, Barry Press
Methyl bromide chemical burns are rare. Only two cases have been reported to date. The presentation of methyl bromide chemical burns is unusual. Patients with an acute exposure should be observed closely as the initial presentation can appear deceptively benign. The latency period lasts several hours prior to the development of chemical burn wounds. In this article, we review the literature on methyl bromide chemical burns and present our experience managing a patient with an extensive methyl bromide burn.
January 6, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060572/-believe-it-or-not-the-medical-framing-of-rectal-foreign-bodies
#12
William J Robertson
Medical and lay attention to and intervention for rectal foreign bodies, the presence of an object in the rectum most often via insertion through the anus, has long been a source of humour and suspicion in both medical and public discourses. How do the ways medical providers write and talk to each other about rectal foreign bodies shape and reflect understandings of gender, sexuality and the (im)proper use of the anus and rectum? This paper examines the medical literature on rectal foreign bodies to shed light on the ways in which medical providers frame rectal foreign bodies...
January 6, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059569/-playing-hooky-health-messages-apprehension-impression-management-and-deception
#13
Ashley Barrett, Melissa Murphy, Kate Blackburn
This study investigates playing hooky in higher education classrooms and associates this behavior with students' communicative dispositions, instructor perceptions, and language use. We define "playing hooky" as students skipping class and explaining their absence to their instructor with deceptive health messages. The purpose of Study 1, an online survey (N = 177), is to further understand the characteristics of students who engage in this type of deceptive health communication. Study 1 measures communication apprehension and perceived instructor credibility in students who had played hooky from class and those who had not...
January 6, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057833/cognitive-skills-and-the-evolution-of-social-systems
#14
REVIEW
Russell D Fernald
How do animal social skills influence evolution? Complex animal social behaviors require many cognitive skills including individual recognition and observational learning. For social systems to evolve, these abilities need to be transmitted genetically or culturally and supported by the evolution of underlying neural systems. Because animal skill sets are so varied, it seems best to describe animal cognitive behaviors as being a social calculus that can change with experience, which has evolved to match and facilitate the complexity of the social system where it arose...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054312/latent-inhibition-reduces-nocebo-nausea-even-without-deception
#15
V F Quinn, E J Livesey, B Colagiuri
BACKGROUND: Nocebo nausea is a debilitating and prevalent side effect that can develop after conditioning occurs between cues present in the treatment context and the experience of nausea. Interventions that retard conditioning may therefore be able to reduce nocebo nausea. PURPOSE: To test whether 'latent inhibition', where pre-exposing cues in the absence of an outcome retards subsequent learning about those cues, could reduce nocebo nausea in healthy adults. METHODS: We examined this possibility using a Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) model of nausea in healthy participants, with pre-exposure to the treatment cues achieved using a placebo version of GVS...
January 4, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049366/primary-thyroid-carcinoma-with-low-risk-histology-and-distant-metastases-clinico-pathologic-and-molecular-characteristics
#16
Bin Xu, R Michael Tuttle, Mona Sabra, Ian Ganly, Ronald Ghossein
BACKGROUND: Distant metastases (DM) are a rare occurrence in well differentiatedwell-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The aim of our study was to analyze the clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of primary thyroid carcinoma with low risk histology that develop DM. METHODS: Detailed clinico-pathologic review and targeted next generation sequencing were performed on a cohort of well-differentiatedwell-differentiated thyroid carcinoma lacking gross extrathyroidal extension, extensive vascular invasion or significant lymph node metastases but exhibiting distant metastases...
January 3, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042984/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-offline-visual-oscillatory-activity-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#17
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J McDermott, Mackenzie S Mills, Nathan M Coolidge, Tony W Wilson
Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive neuromodulatory method that involves delivering low amplitude, direct current to specific regions of the brain. While a wealth of literature shows changes in behavior and cognition following tDCS administration, the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain largely unknown. Neuroimaging studies have generally used fMRI and shown only limited consensus to date, while the few electrophysiological studies have reported mostly null or counterintuitive findings...
December 7, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040654/verification-of-the-authenticity-of-drugs-by-means-of-nmr-relaxometry-viagra-%C3%A2-as-an-example
#18
S Wilczyńki, M Petelenz, M Florek-Wojciechowska, S Kulesza, Sz Brym, B Błońska-Fajfrowska, D Kruk
(1)H spin-lattice Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry, vibrational spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) have been applied to differentiate between original and counterfeit Viagra(®). The relaxation studies have been performed in a frequency range covering four orders of magnitude, from 4kHz to 40MHz. It has been shown that for the counterfeit product the relaxation is bi-exponential in the whole frequency range, while for the original Viagra(®) the relaxation process is always single exponential...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030362/the-guilty-brain-the-utility-of-neuroimaging-and-neurostimulation-studies-in-forensic-field
#19
Francesca Mameli, Cristina Scarpazza, Emanuele Tomasini, Roberta Ferrucci, Fabiana Ruggiero, Giuseppe Sartori, Alberto Priori
Several studies have aimed to address the natural inability of humankind to detect deception and accurately discriminate lying from truth in the legal context. To date, it has been well established that telling a lie is a complex mental activity. During deception, many functions of higher cognition are involved: the decision to lie, withholding the truth, fabricating the lie, monitoring whether the receiver believes the lie, and, if necessary, adjusting the fabricated story and maintaining a consistent lie...
December 28, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018271/comparing-a-perceptual-and-an-automated-vision-based-method-for-lie-detection-in-younger-children
#20
Mariana Serras Pereira, Reinier Cozijn, Eric Postma, Suleman Shahid, Marc Swerts
The present study investigates how easily it can be detected whether a child is being truthful or not in a game situation, and it explores the cue validity of bodily movements for such type of classification. To achieve this, we introduce an innovative methodology - the combination of perception studies (in which eye-tracking technology is being used) and automated movement analysis. Film fragments from truthful and deceptive children were shown to human judges who were given the task to decide whether the recorded child was being truthful or not...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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