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Boris Maryasin, Dainis Kaldre, Renan Galaverna, Immo Klose, Stefan Ruider, Martina Drescher, Hanspeter Kählig, Leticia González, Marcos N Eberlin, Igor D Jurberg, Nuno Maulide
A mechanistic investigation of the acid-catalysed redox-neutral oxoarylation reaction of ynamides using electrospray ionisation mass-spectrometry (ESI-MS) and quantum chemical calculations (DFT and MP2) is presented. This study reveals the diversity of pathways and products available from an otherwise deceptively simple-looking, classical transformation: fragmentation, an unusual meta -arylation and competing α-carbonyl cation pathways are some of the alternatives unveiled by ESI-MS and mechanistic experiments...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Christina Mitteldorf, Mar Llamas-Velasco, Hans-Joachim Schulze, Kai-Martin Thoms, Thomas Mentzel, Michael Tronnier, Heinz Kutzner
BACKGROUND: We investigated two cases of deceptively bland cutaneous angiosarcoma, which showed a uniform clinical presentation with a rapidly growing tumor on the nose. It remains unclear whether this was a primary cutaneous manifestation or a metastasis. Both tumors initially presented a high histologic overlap with a benign vascular tumor. The diagnosis was primarily based on the rapidly progressing clinical course and on the results of the staging procedures. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stains were performed for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and MNF116), CD31, ERG, CD34(HPCA1/my10), D2-40/podoplanin, LYVE-1, Ki67, PHH3, αSMA(1A4), MYC, FOS-B, CAMTA-1, TFE-3, WT1, nestin, VEGFR-2(KDR), VEGFR-3(FLT4), HHV8...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Ashley P Schmidt, B Joel Tjarks, Douglas W Lynch
Cutaneous angiosarcoma is a rare but aggressive vascular malignancy that can present a diagnostic challenge due to a wide variety of clinical appearances and histologic features. Final diagnosis traditionally is yielded by corroborating the histologic and immunohistochemical findings with the clinical presentation; however, a histologic feature known as "fish in the creek," which consists of free-floating or tufted pleomorphic spindle cells within the vascular lumen, may be an additional diagnostic clue...
April 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Kristina Suchotzki, Matthias Gamer
Research on trustworthiness indicates that non-native speakers are perceived as less trustworthy than native speakers. Research investigating whether people do indeed lie less well in a non-native language is, however, scarce and yielded inconsistent results. Two opposing predictions are possible. Based on the idea that lying is more demanding than truth telling, the cognitive load account predicts that speaking a foreign language imposes additional cognitive load and thereby hampers lying. Based on the idea that lying is emotionally arousing and that communication in a non-native language is perceived as less emotional, the emotional distance account predicts that speaking a foreign language facilitates lying...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
María L Vecina
A moral model is proposed to understand how men convicted of violence against the partner can feel moral in spite of their past violent behavior and their current violent and sexist attitudes. Because of its appeal to the role of self-deception and its relationship to psychological well-being, it was hypothesized that a rigid conception about what is right and wrong (moral absolutism) is associated with ambivalent outcomes that keep their psychological system in homeostasis. The relationships were specified a priori and tested using path analysis...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Morgan Carpenter
Once described as hermaphrodites and later as intersex people, individuals born with intersex variations are routinely subject to so-called "normalizing" medical interventions, often in childhood. Opposition to such practices has been met by attempts to discredit critics and reasserted clinical authority over the bodies of women and men with "disorders of sex development." However, claims of clinical consensus have been selectively constructed and applied and lack evidence. Limited transparency and lack of access to justice have helped to perpetuate forced interventions...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Qunjian Wu, Bin Yan, Ying Zeng, Chi Zhang, Li Tong
BACKGROUND: The electroencephalogram (EEG) signal represents a subject's specific brain activity patterns and is considered as an ideal biometric given its superior invisibility, non-clonality, and non-coercion. In order to enhance its applicability in identity authentication, a novel EEG-based identity authentication method is proposed based on self- or non-self-face rapid serial visual presentation. RESULTS: In contrast to previous studies that extracted EEG features from rest state or motor imagery, the designed paradigm could obtain a distinct and stable biometric trait with a lower time cost...
May 3, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Marvin K H Law, Simon A Jackson, Eugene Aidman, Mattis Geiger, Sally Olderbak, Sabina Kleitman
Individual differences in lie detection remain poorly understood. Bond and DePaulo's meta-analysis examined judges (receivers) who were ascertaining lies from truths and senders (deceiver) who told these lies and truths. Bond and DePaulo found that the accuracy of detecting deception depended more on the characteristics of senders rather than the judges' ability to detect lies/truths. However, for many studies in this meta-analysis, judges could hear and understand senders. This made language comprehension a potential confound...
2018: PloS One
Robert T Thibault, Samuel Veissière, Jay A Olson, Amir Raz
OBJECTIVE: We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. METHODS: We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. RESULTS: The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Chris Millard
Concepts used by historians are as historical as the diagnoses or categories that are studied. The example of Munchausen syndrome (deceptive presentation of illness in order to adopt the 'sick role') is used to explore this. Like most psychiatric diagnoses, Munchausen syndrome is not thought applicable across time by social historians of medicine. It is historically specific, drawing upon twentieth-century anthropology and sociology to explain motivation through desire for the 'sick role'. Ian Hacking's concepts of 'making up people' and 'looping effects' are regularly utilised outside of the context in which they are formed...
August 2017: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
Stephen Seligman
Illusion can be viewed as a creative engagement with the world, and as a central psychic motivation and capacity, rather than as a form of self-deception. Winnicott and other Middle Group writers have understood integrative, imaginative illusion as an essential part of healthy living and psychosocial development. As such, it emerges and presents itself in a variety of ways, in transaction with the realities that support or degrade it. In its absence, varied difficulties in living ensue. To elaborate and illustrate this conceptualization, Freud's notion that the oedipus complex is resolved is reconsidered as a creative misreading of Sophocles' Oedipus trilogy, one based on the plausible illusion of a civilizing psychosocial development that would serve as a protective bastion against his experience of the political chaos and violence of the first decades of twentieth-century European history...
April 2018: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Michal Brichacek, Julian Diaz-Abele, Sarah Shiga, Christian Petropolis
Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of hand fractures can be a deceptively challenging procedure that requires significant hands-on time to teach and learn. We created a realistic three-dimensional simulator that can be used for teaching junior residents the CRPP. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software was used to create a three-dimensional hand model incorporating several common hand fractures: Bennett's fracture, transverse fifth metacarpal neck, and transverse second proximal phalanx...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
David M Williams, Toby Nicholson, Catherine Grainger, Sophie E Lind, Peter Carruthers
Detection of deception is of fundamental importance for everyday social life and might require "mindreading" (the ability to represent others' mental states). People with diminished mindreading, such as those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), might be at risk of manipulation because of lie detection difficulties. In Experiment 1, performance among 216 neurotypical adults on a realistic lie detection paradigm was significantly negatively associated with number of ASD traits, but not with mindreading ability...
April 27, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Qiang Jiang, Jiabi Chen, Liangcai Cao, Songlin Zhuang, Guofan Jin
The dual Doppler effect, in the simultaneous occurrence of both normal and inverse Doppler effect in one moving two-dimensional wedge-type photonic crystal, is proposed. An improved finite-different time-domain algorithm is used to verify this phenomenon. The spatial Fourier Transformation has been applied to complex electrical field data to reveal the mechanism. The harmonics with negative spatial frequencies show a lagging phase evolution, while those with positive spatial frequencies show a front phase evolution...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
R M Gaudio, E El Haddad, G El Haddad, D Lauritano, F Carinci
Mandibular implant placement (MIP) has been accepted and widely used for decades all over the world, and has reached a very high level of therapeutic reliability. MIP is used mostly in elderly edentulous patients who lost their teeth when dentistry was not oriented to fixed or removable prosthetic. Notwithstanding this, every year cases of severe complications during MIP due to haemorrhage causing life-threatening airway's obstruction are reported. These severe complications of MIP need immediate therapy, usually with hospitalization, and may be potentially fatal...
October 2017: Oral & Implantology
Luana Colloca, Jeremy Howick
Scientific research indicates that open-label and dose-extending placebos (that patients know are placebos) can elicit behavioral, biological, and clinical outcome changes. In this chapter, we present the state-of-the-art evidence and ethical considerations about open-label and dose-extending placebos, discussing the perspective of giving placebos with a rational, as dose extension of active drugs, or expectancy boosters. Previous comprehensive reviews of placebo use have considered how to harness placebo effects in medicine and the need to focus on elements of the clinical encounter as well as patient-clinician relations...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Sean R Zion, Alia J Crum
The clinical utility of the placebo effect has long hinged on physicians deceptively administering an objective placebo treatment to their patients. However, the power of the placebo does not reside in the sham treatment itself; rather, it comes from the psychosocial forces that surround the patient and the treatment. To this end, we propose a new framework for understanding and leveraging the placebo effect in clinical care. In outlining this framework, we first present the placebo effect as a neurobiological effect that is evoked by psychological processes...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Ingemar André, Sinisa Bjelic
The coiled coil structural motif consists of alpha helices supercoiling around each other to form staggered knobs-into-holes packing. Such structures are deceptively simple, especially as they often can be described with parametric equations, but are known to exist in various conformations. Even the simplest systems, consisting of two monomers, can assemble into a wide range of states. They can form canonical as well as noncanonical coiled coils, be parallel or antiparallel, where helices associate with different degrees of shift, tilt, and rotation...
April 20, 2018: Proteins
Richard M Bateman, Jessica J Guy, Paula J Rudall, Ilia J Leitch, Jaume Pellicer, Andrew R Leitch
Background and Aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals, relating size of nucleus to cell micromorphology and (more speculatively) to function. Methods: We compared the labella (specialized pollinator-attracting petals) of two European orchid genera: Dactylorhiza has a known predisposition to organismal polyploidy, whereas Ophrys exhibits exceptionally complex epidermal patterning that aids pseudocopulatory pollination...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Divya Sukumar, Kimberley A Wade, Jacqueline S Hodgson
When deceptive suspects are unaware of the evidence the police hold against them, they contradict that evidence more than truthful suspects do-a useful cue to deception. But given that, over time, truthful suspects might forget the past and also contradict the evidence, how effective are lie detection techniques that rely on such inconsistencies when suspects are questioned months after a crime? In Experiment 1, people committed a theft (liars) or a benign activity (truth-tellers) in a university bookshop. Shortly after or 2 months later, we questioned them about their bookshop visit without informing them of the evidence implicating them in the theft...
April 2018: Law and Human Behavior
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