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Deception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419611/well-being-therapy-in-depression-new-insights-into-the-role-of-psychological-well-being-in-the-clinical-process
#1
Giovanni A Fava, Fiammetta Cosci, Jenny Guidi, Elena Tomba
A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), has been developed and validated in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life, and a sense of self-determination...
April 18, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414970/understanding-deceptive-intentions-behind-pointing-gestures-in-12-15-month-old-infants
#2
Diána Á Varró-Horváth, Krisztina Dorn, Beatrix Lábadi
We examined the comprehension of deceptive intentions revealed in searching task in infancy, on the theoretical basis of natural pedagogy and epistemic trust. The main findings showed that 12-15-month-old infants are able to discriminate the reliable and the deceptive actions of adults, but they do not generalize their previous experience in connection with a novel person, who is treated as a new reliable source of information.
April 14, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413707/disrupting-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-by-rtms-reduces-the-p300-based-marker-of-deception
#3
Inga Karton, Talis Bachmann
OBJECTIVE: Quite many studies have revealed certain brain-process signatures indicative of subject's deceptive behavior. These signatures are neural correlates of deception. However, much less is known about whether these signatures can be modified by noninvasive brain stimulation techniques representing methods of causal intervention of brain processes and the corresponding behavior. Our purpose was to explore whether such methods have an effect on these signatures. METHODS: It is well known that electroencephalographic event-related potential component, P300, is sensitive to perception of critical items in a concealed information test, one of the central methods in deception studies...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407568/the-relation-between-anorexic-symptoms-in-women-and-their-reports-of-trustworthiness-in-interactions-with-close-persons
#4
Ken J Rotenberg, Kelley Edwards
The study examined the relation between women's anorexic symptoms and their reports of trustworthiness in interactions with close persons. Ninety-eight females (mean age=24years-10months) completed the anorexic symptom subscale of the SEDS and reported (ascribed) the extent to which they showed reliability, emotional, and honesty trustworthiness behaviors in interactions with their mother, father, and close friend. Negative linear relations were found between anorexic symptoms and ascribed: (a) trustworthiness with close friends; (b) reliability trustworthiness; and (c) at a trend level, honesty trustworthiness...
March 31, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406841/deception-in-medicine-hermes-or-asclepius
#5
Don R Lipsitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406674/randomization-to-randomization-probability-estimating-treatment-effects-under-actual-conditions-of-use
#6
Brandon J George, Peng Li, Harris R Lieberman, Greg Pavela, Andrew W Brown, Kevin R Fontaine, Madeline M Jeansonne, Gareth R Dutton, Adeniyi J Idigo, Mariel A Parman, Donald B Rubin, David B Allison
Blinded randomized controlled trials (RCT) require participants to be uncertain if they are receiving a treatment or placebo. Although uncertainty is ideal for isolating the treatment effect from all other potential effects, it is poorly suited for estimating the treatment effect under actual conditions of intended use-when individuals are certain that they are receiving a treatment. We propose an experimental design, randomization to randomization probabilities (R2R), which significantly improves estimates of treatment effects under actual conditions of use by manipulating participant expectations about receiving treatment...
April 13, 2017: Psychological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401382/first-application-of-newly-developed-ft-nir-spectroscopic-methodology-to-predict-authenticity-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-retail-products-in-the-usa
#7
Magdi M Mossoba, Hormoz Azizian, Ali Reza Fardin-Kia, Sanjeewa R Karunathilaka, John K G Kramer
Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) has been a worldwide problem and a concern for government regulators for a long time. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is mandated to protect the US public against intentional adulteration of foods and has jurisdiction over deceptive label declarations. To detect EMA of olive oil and address food safety vulnerabilities, we used a previously developed rapid screening methodology to authenticate EVOO. For the first time, a recently developed FT-NIR spectroscopic methodology in conjunction with partial least squares analysis was applied to commercial products labeled EVOO purchased in College Park, MD, USA to rapidly predict whether they are authentic, potentially mixed with refined olive oil (RO) or other vegetable oil(s), or are of lower quality...
April 11, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401324/testing-a-higher-order-model-of-internalizing-and-externalizing-behavior-the-role-of-aggression-subtypes
#8
Kristin J Perry, Jamie M Ostrov
This study assessed how the forms and functions of aggression fit into a higher order model of internalizing and externalizing behavior, for children in early childhood (N = 332, M age = 47.11 months, SD = 7.32). The lower order internalizing factors were depressed affect, anxious-fearfulness, and asocial behavior (i.e., social withdrawal) and the lower order externalizing factors were deception and hyperactivity. The forms and functions of aggression were crossed to create four factors: reactive relational, reactive physical, proactive relational, and proactive physical aggression...
April 11, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398353/past-penguin-colony-responses-to-explosive-volcanism-on-the-antarctic-peninsula
#9
Stephen J Roberts, Patrick Monien, Louise C Foster, Julia Loftfield, Emma P Hocking, Bernhard Schnetger, Emma J Pearson, Steve Juggins, Peter Fretwell, Louise Ireland, Ryszard Ochyra, Anna R Haworth, Claire S Allen, Steven G Moreton, Sarah J Davies, Hans-Jürgen Brumsack, Michael J Bentley, Dominic A Hodgson
Changes in penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula have been linked to several environmental factors, but the potentially devastating impact of volcanic activity has not been considered. Here we use detailed biogeochemical analyses to track past penguin colony change over the last 8,500 years on Ardley Island, home to one of the Antarctic Peninsula's largest breeding populations of gentoo penguins. The first sustained penguin colony was established on Ardley Island c. 6,700 years ago, pre-dating sub-fossil evidence of Peninsula-wide occupation by c...
April 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396735/clinical-proteomics-in-kidney-disease-as-an-exponential-technology-heading-towards-the-disruptive-phase
#10
Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Ana B Sanz, Adrian M Ramos, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Ortiz
Exponential technologies double in power or processing speed every year, whereas their cost halves. Deception and disruption are two key stages in the development of exponential technologies. Deception occurs when, after initial introduction, technologies are dismissed as irrelevant, while they continue to progress, perhaps not as fast or with so many immediate practical applications as initially thought. Twenty years after the first publications, clinical proteomics is still not available in most hospitals and some clinicians have felt deception at unfulfilled promises...
April 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391179/weak-coupling-between-magnetically-inequivalent-spins-the-deceptively-simple-complicated-spectrum-of-a-13-c-labeled-trimethylated-amine
#11
Ulric B le Paige, Bauke Smits, Peter 't Hart, Fons Lefeber, Nathaniel I Martin, Hugo van Ingen
Magnetic inequivalence of nuclear spins is well known to cause additional splittings that complicate spectral analysis. Here, we present an extraordinary case of magnetic inequivalence, manifested in the 13-spin system of a (13)C,(15)N-labeled trimethylated amine. All methyl group protons are chemically equivalent due to the molecular symmetry, but not all are magnetically equivalent as they have different (1)JCH and (3)JCH couplings. In general, spectra of such a large spin system can be expected to be extremely complicated by the presence of hundreds if not thousands of extra lines, caused by the strong coupling between inequivalent nuclei...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385268/macroinvertebrate-communities-from-the-shallow-soft-bottoms-of-deception-island-southern-ocean-a-paradise-for-opportunists
#12
Carlos Angulo-Preckler, Carlos Leiva, Conxita Avila, Sergi Taboada
Deception Island (South Shetland Islands) is an atypical spot in its Antarctic context, being a still active volcano with a submerged caldera. Although the sea-floor of its enclosed bay, Port Foster, has been extensively studied from 40 m down, little is known about the macrozoobenthic composition of its shallower areas. The aim of this study was to characterize the so far unexplored soft-bottom marine macroinvertebrate communities living within the first few meters depth in Port Foster. Eight sampling stations were selected, and three replicates per station and depth (5 and 15 m) were collected by SCUBA diving using 0...
March 29, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383989/fairness-overrides-group-bias-in-children-s-second-party-punishment
#13
Katherine McAuliffe, Yarrow Dunham
Adults and children show ingroup favoritism in their 3rd-party punishment of cooperative norm violations, suggesting that group loyalty importantly shapes enforcement of cooperation. Ingroup favoritism additionally influences punishment of unfairness in the 2-party ultimatum game, in which people are directly affected by unfair behavior. However, the directionality of this relationship is unclear: In some cases, people are more forgiving of ingroup unfairness, whereas in others they are less forgiving. Here we aim to disambiguate this relationship by studying its origins in development, asking whether ingroup favoritism influences children's offers to others and whether it affects their responses to being treated unfairly...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379608/neural-mechanisms-for-integrating-consecutive-and-interleaved-natural-events
#14
Juha M Lahnakoski, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
To understand temporally extended events, the human brain needs to accumulate information continuously across time. Interruptions that require switching of attention to other event sequences disrupt this process. To reveal neural mechanisms supporting integration of event information, we measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 18 participants while they viewed 6.5-minute excerpts from three movies (i) consecutively and (ii) as interleaved segments of approximately 50-s in duration...
April 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358556/measuring-emotional-and-cognitive-empathy-using-dynamic-naturalistic-and-spontaneous-emotion-displays
#15
Ross Buck, Stacie R Powers, Kyle S Hull
Most measures of nonverbal receiving ability use posed expressions as stimuli. As empathy measures, such stimuli lack ecological validity, as the participant is not actually experiencing emotion. An alternative approach uses natural and dynamic displays of spontaneous expressions. The Communication of Affect Receiving Ability Test (CARAT) uses as stimuli spontaneous facial expressions and gestures filmed by an unobtrusive camera of solitary participants responding to emotional images. This article reports the development and initial validation of the CARAT-Spontaneous, Posed, Regulated (CARAT-SPR), which measures both abilities to detect emotion from spontaneous displays (emotion communication accuracy) and to differentiate spontaneous, posed, and regulated displays (expression categorization ability)...
March 30, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356411/jewelled-spiders-manipulate-colour-lure-geometry-to-deceive-prey
#16
Thomas E White
Selection is expected to favour the evolution of efficacy in visual communication. This extends to deceptive systems, and predicts functional links between the structure of visual signals and their behavioural presentation. Work to date has primarily focused on colour, however, thereby understating the multicomponent nature of visual signals. Here I examined the relationship between signal structure, presentation behaviour, and efficacy in the context of colour-based prey luring. I used the polymorphic orb-web spider Gasteracantha fornicata, whose yellow- or white-and-black striped dorsal colours have been broadly implicated in prey attraction...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348164/undue-inducement-a-case-study-in-caprisa-008
#17
Kathryn T Mngadi, Jerome A Singh, Leila E Mansoor, Douglas R Wassenaar
: Participant safety and data integrity, critical in trials of new investigational drugs, are achieved through honest participant report and precision in the conduct of procedures. HIV prevention post-trial access studies in middle-income countries potentially offer participants many benefits including access to proven efficacious but unlicensed technologies, ancillary care that often exceeds local standards-of-care, financial reimbursement for participation and possibly unintended benefits if participants choose to share or sell investigational drugs...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342450/scientific-feuds-polemics-and-ad-hominem-arguments-in-basic-and-special-interest-genetics
#18
Elof Axel Carlson
Scientific disputes are commonly presented and settled in journal publications. Most are resolved by a weighing of evidence and new findings. In some cases the arguments are personal and in the form of ad hominem attacks on the personality or integrity of an author of a journal article. Many famous scientists (e.g., Galileo, Newton, and Hooke) used ad hominem arguments in responding to their critics. William Bateson, W.F.R. Weldon, William Castle, and H.J. Muller used ad hominem arguments in their publications until the end of World War I, when editorial policy of journals changed...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335712/exploring-the-evolutionary-origin-of-floral-organs-of-erycina-pusilla-an-emerging-orchid-model-system
#19
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332413/interlaboratory-validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-melamine-and-cyanuric-acid-in-animal-feed
#20
Hildburg Fry, Kerstin Mietle, Eileen Mähnert, Sebastian Zinke, Mandy Schwieters, Emanuele Pydde, Angelika Preiß-Weigert
Melamine and cyanuric acid have been mixed illegally into food and feed to increase the nitrogen content which results in deceptively high protein contents. As a consequence a maximum level for melamine of 2.5 mg kg(-1) feed was established by the European Union under directive 2002/32/EC. A method is required to quantify melamine and cyanuric acid for control of the maximum level. Therefore Technical Committee (TC) 327 of the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) commissioned the standardisation of a method for the analysis of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed...
March 23, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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