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Deception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166660/great-apes-are-sensitive-to-prior-reliability-of-an-informant-in-a-gaze-following-task
#1
Benjamin Schmid, Katja Karg, Josef Perner, Michael Tomasello
Social animals frequently rely on information from other individuals. This can be costly in case the other individual is mistaken or even deceptive. Human infants below 4 years of age show proficiency in their reliance on differently reliable informants. They can infer the reliability of an informant from few interactions and use that assessment in later interactions with the same informant in a different context. To explore whether great apes share that ability, in our study we confronted great apes with a reliable or unreliable informant in an object choice task, to see whether that would in a subsequent task affect their gaze following behaviour in response to the same informant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163095/the-functional-architecture-of-the-brain-underlies-strategic-deception-in-impression-management
#2
Qiang Luo, Yina Ma, Meghana A Bhatt, P Read Montague, Jianfeng Feng
Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent noise (SDN), which captured the directional connectivity underlying the impression management during the bargaining game...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160722/do-infection-patterns-of-human-papillomavirus-affect-the-cytologic-detection-of-high-grade-cervical-lesions-on-papanicolaou-tests
#3
Siavash Azadmanesh Samimi, Roxanne R Mody, Steven Goodman, Eric Luna, Donna Armylagos, Mary R Schwartz, Dina R Mody, Yimin Ge
CONTEXT: - Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. The effect of HPV infection patterns on cytologic detection of cervical lesions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: - To determine the effect of HPV infection patterns on the sensitivity of cytologic detection of high-grade cervical lesions. DESIGN: - Papanicolaou tests from 257 women with biopsy-confirmed, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were analyzed with respect to HPV infection patterns...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157084/effects-of-task-irrelevant-emotional-information-on-deception
#4
Jing Liang, Yu-Hsin Chen, Wen-Jing Yan, Fangbing Qu, Xiaolan Fu
Deception has been reported to be influenced by task-relevant emotional information from an external stimulus. However, it remains unclear how task-irrelevant emotional information would influence deception. In the present study, facial expressions of different valence and emotion intensity were presented to participants, where they were asked to make either truthful or deceptive gender judgments according to the preceding cues. We observed the influence of facial expression intensity upon individuals' cognitive cost of deceiving (mean difference of individuals' truthful and deceptive response times)...
November 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154374/microcystic-transitional-cell-carcinoma-a-rare-tumor-of-the-urinary-bladder
#5
M Triki, L Ayadi, R Kallel, S Charfi, I Saguem, N Mhiri, T S Boudawara, N Gouiaa
Microcystic urothelial carcinoma is a rare variant of invasive transitional cell carcinoma recognized by the WHO classification. It is characterized by its deceptively benign appearance. The clinical course of this uncommon variety of carcinoma is not well known and their histological and immunohistological features are not well defined. We report a case of a 37-year-old man with a microcystic transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. He was diagnosed 4 years ago with cystitis glandularis lesions and nephrogenic adenoma...
September 2017: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152872/authority-autonomy-and-deception-evaluating-the-legitimacy-of-parental-authority-and-adolescent-deceit
#6
Matthew Gingo, Alona D Roded, Elliot Turiel
This research examined adolescents' judgments about lying to avoid parental control over different types of activities. Participants (N = 66, Mage  = 16.38, 73% European American) were interviewed about hypothetical situations describing adolescents who defied parental directives and lied about their defiance. Judgments about the legitimacy of parents' directives and protagonists' deception differed by types of parent relationship with adolescents (mutual or unilateral). Directives were least accepted, and deception was most accepted, in the context of unilateral relationships...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149535/a-valence-delocalised-osmium-dimer-capable-of-dinitrogen-photocleavage-ab-initio-insights-into-its-electronic-structure
#7
Vera Krewald, Leticia Gonzalez
The search for molecular catalysts that efficiently activate or cleave the dinitrogen molecule is ongoing. While many thermal dinitrogen cleavage catalysts are known, the photochemical activation of N₂ has received considerably less attention. In this paper, we present the first computational study of the osmium dimer [Os(II,III)₂(µ-N₂)(NH₃)₁₀]5+, which was shown to be capable of dinitrogen photocleavage. Despite its deceptively simple geometry, it has a complex electronic structure with a valence-delocalized and electronically degenerate ground state...
November 17, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149322/altruistic-and-self-serving-goals-modulate-behavioral-and-neural-responses-in-deception
#8
Fang Cui, Song Wu, Haiyan Wu, Chengyao Wang, Can Jiao, Yuejia Luo
People tell lies not only for their own self-interests but sometimes also to help others. Little is known about the ways in which different types of goals modulate behaviors and neural responses in deception. The present study investigated the neural processes associated with spontaneous deception that occurs with altruistic reasons (i.e., the money would be donated to charity), self-serving reasons (i.e., the participant receives all of the money), and mixed goals (i.e., the money would be equally split between the participant and the charity)...
November 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131914/pediatric-orbital-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumors
#9
Tayyab Afghani, Hassan Mansoor, Syed Naeem Raza Hamdani
PURPOSE: To present the clinical, radiological, histopathological, immunohistochemical features and the follow-up of orbital primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) in pediatric patients along with a review of the literature. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all diagnosed cases of orbital PNET was done. Patients' ophthalmic findings, imaging, immunohistochemistry, metastatic work-up, treatment, globe salvation, and survival were documented and a mini literature review of orbital PNET was performed...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129333/pitfalls-in-the-interpretation-of-specimens-from-patients-with-testicular-tumours-with-an-emphasis-on-variant-morphologies
#10
REVIEW
Thomas M Ulbright
Accurate diagnosis of primary and metastatic tumours is essential in testicular cancer. While many cases are straightforward, some pose difficulties, especially when variant morphologies occur. Seminoma with 'atypical' features, including increased nuclear pleomorphism and crowding and greater cytoplasmic density with loss of membrane definition, mimics embryonal carcinoma, although ancillary features (fibrous septa, lymphocytes) and immunohistochemistry are of great help. Other deceptive seminoma features include prominent to exclusive intertubular growth, microcystic/tubular patterns, and signet-ring tumour cells...
November 9, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117071/deception-improves-tt-performance-in-well-trained-cyclists-without-augmented-fatigue
#11
Paul Ansdell, Kevin Thomas, Glyn Howatson, Markus Amann, Stuart Goodall
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of feedback, in the form of a virtual avatar paced at 100 and 102% of baseline performance, on neuromuscular fatigue following a 4 km cycling time trial (TT). We hypothesised that improved cycling performance would occur due to participants exceeding a previously established critical threshold, and experiencing greater neuromuscular fatigue. METHODS: Following familiarisation, ten well-trained cyclists performed a baseline 4 km TT without feedback (BASE), followed by two, 4 km TT where they raced against an avatar (set at 100% [accurate - ACC] and 102% [deception - DEC] of baseline power output), in a randomised and counterbalanced order...
November 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116847/deadly-filth-cartographic-deception-trail-of-victims-microscopic-godzillas
#12
Tim McGirk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116097/microscopy-as-a-statistical-r%C3%A3-nyi-ulam-half-lie-game-a-new-heuristic-search-strategy-to-accelerate-imaging
#13
Daniel W Drumm, Andrew D Greentree
Finding a fluorescent target in a biological environment is a common and pressing microscopy problem. This task is formally analogous to the canonical search problem. In ideal (noise-free, truthful) search problems, the well-known binary search is optimal. The case of half-lies, where one of two responses to a search query may be deceptive, introduces a richer, Rényi-Ulam problem and is particularly relevant to practical microscopy. We analyse microscopy in the contexts of Rényi-Ulam games and half-lies, developing a new family of heuristics...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111229/the-academic-industrial-complexity-failure-to-launch
#14
REVIEW
Leonard A Levin, Francine Behar-Cohen
The pharmaceutical industry has long known that ∼80% of the results of academic laboratories cannot be reproduced when repeated in industry laboratories. Yet academic investigators are typically unaware of this problem, which severely impedes the drug development process. This academic-industrial complication is not one of deception, but rather a complex issue related to how scientific research is carried out and translated in strikingly different enterprises. This Opinion describes the reasons for inconsistencies between academic and industrial laboratories and what can be done to repair this failure of translation...
December 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101825/epileptic-seizure-or-not-proportion-of-correct-judgement-based-only-on-a-video-recording-of-a-paroxysmal-event
#15
Eszter Nagy, Alexandra Major, Nelli Farkas, Katalin Hollódy
PURPOSE: Our study was intended to measure the proportion of correct seizure recognition among different medical and non-medical groups based on only a video recording. METHODS: Video recordings about paroxysmal movements of 15 very young infants (2days - 5 months of age) were displayed for six groups: 159 1st-year medical students, 65 4-5th-year medical students, 52 paediatric residents, 18 paediatric neurologists from different European countries, 43 adult neurologists and 37 parents whose children were treated at our Department...
September 6, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094962/the-surprising-costs-of-silence-asymmetric-preferences-for-prosocial-lies-of-commission-and-omission
#16
Emma Levine, Joanna Hart, Kendra Moore, Emily Rubin, Kuldeep Yadav, Scott Halpern
Across 7 experiments (N = 3883), we demonstrate that communicators and targets make egocentric moral judgments of deception. Specifically, communicators focus more on the costs of deception to them-for example, the guilt they feel when they break a moral rule-whereas targets focus more on whether deception helps or harms them. As a result, communicators and targets make asymmetric judgments of prosocial lies of commission and omission: Communicators often believe that omitting information is more ethical than telling a prosocial lie, whereas targets often believe the opposite...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081758/commentary-can-ordinary-people-detect-deception-after-all
#17
COMMENT
Chris N H Street, Miguel A Vadillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071383/involvement-of-ordinary-what-and-where-auditory-cortical-areas-during-illusory-perception
#18
Alfredo Brancucci, Caterina Padulo, Raffaella Franciotti, Luca Tommasi, Stefania Della Penna
The focus of the present study is on the relationships between illusory and non-illusory auditory perception analyzed at a biological level. To this aim, we investigate neural mechanisms underlying the Deutsch's illusion, a condition in which both sound identity ("what") and origin ("where") are deceptively perceived. We recorded magnetoencephalogram from healthy subjects in three conditions: (a) listening to the acoustic sequence eliciting the illusion (ILL), (b) listening to a monaural acoustic sequence mimicking the illusory percept (MON), and (c) listening to an acoustic sequence similar to (a) but not eliciting the illusion (NIL)...
October 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066226/cast-nephropathy-and-deceptively-low-absolute-serum-free-light-chain-levels-resolution-of-a-challenging-case-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#19
Michael P Rassner, Maximilian Seidl, Ulrich Salzer, S Vincent Rajkumar, Thomas Epting, Ralph Wäsch, Elke Neumann-Haefelin, Monika Engelhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048308/examining-police-officers-response-bias-in-judging-veracity
#20
Jaume Masip, Carmen Herrero
BACKGROUND: Deception detection research has shown that, in judging veracity, police officers are less truth biased than non-officers. However, previous researchers have normally used videotaped statements where an unknown (but presumably large) number of stereotypical or real deception cues are displayed by the senders. We examined non-officers, novice officers, and experienced officers’ response tendencies in a more controlled situation where cue availability was severely restricted...
November 2017: Psicothema
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