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Barbara Diana, Valentino Zurloni, Massimiliano Elia, Cesare Cavalera, Olivia Realdon, Gudberg K Jonsson, M Teresa Anguera
Deception has evolved to become a fundamental aspect of human interaction. Despite the prolonged efforts in many disciplines, there has been no definite finding of a univocally "deceptive" signal. This work proposes an approach to deception detection combining cognitive load manipulation and T-pattern methodology with the objective of: (a) testing the efficacy of dual task-procedure in enhancing differences between truth tellers and liars in a low-stakes situation; (b) exploring the efficacy of T-pattern methodology in discriminating truthful reports from deceitful ones in a low-stakes situation; (c) setting the experimental design and procedure for following research...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Bjorn Bohman, Amir Karton, Gavin R Flematti, Adrian Scaffidi, Rod Peakall
Sexually deceptive orchids attract specific pollinators by mimicking insect sex pheromones. Normally this mimicry is very specific and identical compounds have been identified from orchids and matching females of the pollinators. In this study, we conduct a detailed structure-activity investigation on isomers of the semiochemicals involved in the sexual attraction of the male pollinator of the spider orchid Caladenia plicata. This orchid employs an unusual blend of two biosynthetically unrelated compounds, (S)-β-citronellol and 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, to lure its Zeleboria sp...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Nicholas Y Tan, Omar Z Yasin, Alan Sugrue, Abdallah El Sabbagh, Thomas A Foley, Samuel J Asirvatham
The left atrial appendage has been implicated as a major nidus for thrombus formation, particularly in atrial fibrillation. This discovery has prompted substantial interest in the development of left atrial appendage exclusion devices aimed at decreasing systemic thromboembolism risk. Its deceptively simple appearance belies the remarkable complexity that characterizes its anatomy and physiology. We highlight the key anatomic features and variations of the left atrial appendage as well as its relationships with surrounding structures...
April 2018: Interventional Cardiology Clinics
Michael Schaefer, Tamay Sahin, Benjamin Berstecher
BACKGROUND: Several studies demonstrated that placebo treatment may have a significant impact on many different symptoms. While in the traditional view concealment of the placebo is essential, recent studies report intriguing evidence that placebos may work even without deception. For example, it has been demonstrated that open-label placebos can improve symptoms in allergic rhinitis. However, the mechanisms of how placebos without concealment work remain unknown. TRIAL DESIGN: In order to examine expectancy effects we conducted a randomized controlled trial (N = 46), in which patients with allergic symptoms received either placebos without deception or no pills at all...
2018: PloS One
Adam Lang, Louis P Dehner
INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is childhood neoplasm with its own distinctive pattern of metastasis and may appear after a disease free interval of 5 years or more. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were available from the radical nephrectomy and the later partial cystectomy, which was performed after a seven disease-free interval. RESULTS: The pathologic features of the primary tumor were those of a classic CCSK with a monotypic pattern of uniform rounded to ovoid tumor cells with a background network of delicate blood vessels...
March 6, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
Robert W Proctor, Aiping Xiong
Herbert S. Langfeld and Ludwig R. Geissler published insightful articles during the period of 1910-1913 using what they called the Method of Negative Instruction, which anticipated much current research on action control and the role of instructions. We review their studies and relate the findings to contemporary research and views concerning task-irrelevant congruency effects and deception, concluding that their work has not received the credit it warrants. We also call for contemporary researchers to revisit prior studies, especially ones conducted before the cognitive revolution in psychology, to enrich their knowledge of the field and improve the quality of their research...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Katrina Kimport, Rebecca Kriz, Sarah C M Roberts
OBJECTIVES: Investigations into Crisis Pregnancy Centers (CPCs) have documented the provision of deceptive information about abortion, but it is unclear how many pregnant women actually visit CPCs and what impact visits have on their pregnancy decision-making. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a mixed methods study. We surveyed patients at one of two local abortion clinics and three prenatal clinics in Southern Louisiana about whether they had visited a CPC for this pregnancy and conducted in-depth interviews with prenatal patients who reported a CPC visit about their experience...
March 2, 2018: Contraception
Anchal Chandraprakash Srivastava, Suresh R Barpande, Jyoti D Bhavthankar, Mandakini S Mandale
Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ADCCs) are uncommon tumors, comprising < 1% of all head-and-neck cancers and 20%-25% of all salivary cancers. The most common presenting symptom of the lesion is a slowly growing mass followed by pain due to the propensity of these tumors for perineural invasion. The tumor is most often clinically deceptive by its small size and slow growth, which actually overlies its extensive subclinical invasion and marked ability for early metastasis making the prognosis questionable, aptly referred as "wolf in sheep's clothing...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Georgi Tchernev, Ivan Pidakev, Anastasiya Atanasova Chokoeva, Uwe Wollina, Torello Lotti, Georgi Konstantinov Maximov, Ilia Lozev
BACKGROUND: Pigmented lesions represent a broad spectrum of clinical conditions, both benign and malignant. The precise diagnosis is often a challenge, while the clinical diagnostic criteria could be misleading, as a result of the frequently atypical presentation of otherwise completely benign in nature lesions. The variety of therapeutic options for benign pigmented lesions including shave curettage, local laser destruction, electrocoagulation removal could sound enticingly both for the physician and patient, but they destroy the possibility for histological examination and provide a deceptively feeling of calm, that the problem is solved...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Gerard Saucier
Major routes to identifying individual differences (in diverse species) include studies of behaviour patterns as represented in language and neurophysiology. But results from these approaches appear not to converge on some major dimensions. Identifying dimensions of human variation least applicable to non-human species may help to partition human-specific individual differences of recent evolutionary origin from those shared across species. Human culture includes learned, enforced social-norm systems that are symbolically reinforced and referenced in displays signalling adherence...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Derrick Lonsdale
Starting with a brief history of beriberi and the discovery that thiamin deficiency is its cause, the symptoms and signs are reviewed. None are pathognomonic. The disease has a low mortality and a long morbidity. The appearance of the patient can be deceptive, often being mistaken for psychosomatic disease in the early stages. The chemistry of thiamin and the laboratory methodology for depicting its deficiency are outlined. The diseases associated with thiamin deficiency, apart from malnutrition, include a number of genetically determined conditions where mutations, either in the cofactor relationship or a transporter, provide the etiology...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
John F Rauthmann, Ryne A Sherman
Using the most comprehensive lexical approach with English adjectives to date, Parrigon et al. (2017) found 7 major dimensions of psychological situation characteristics (CAPTION: Complexity, Adversity, Positive Valence, Typicality, Importance, humOr, Negative Valence). Researchers using or studying situations may be interested in how well these dimensions empirically overlap with dimensions from other taxonomies, such as the DIAMONDS (Duty, Intellect, Adversity, Mating, pOsitivity, Negativity, Deception, Sociality)...
March 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Victoria Talwar, Kyle Hubbard, Christine Saykaly, Kang Lee, R C L Lindsay, Nicholas Bala
The present study examined differences in children's true and false narratives as a function of parental coaching by comparing the verbal markers associated with deception. Children (N = 65, 4-7 years old) played the same game with an adult stranger over three consecutive days. Parents coached their children to falsely allege that they had played a second game and to generate details for the fabricated event. One week after the last play session, children were interviewed about their experiences. For children with the least amount of parental coaching, true and false reports could be distinguished by multiple verbal markers of deception (e...
January 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Honghong Tang, Peixia Ye, Shun Wang, Ruida Zhu, Song Su, Luqiong Tong, Chao Liu
[This corrects the article on p. 2033 in vol. 8, PMID: 29218025.].
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Caroline McGraw, Stephen Abbott, Judy Brook
OBJECTIVES: Values based recruitment emerges from the premise that a high degree of value congruence, or the extent to which an individual's values are similar to those of the health organization in which they work, leads to organizational effectiveness. The aim of this evaluation was to explore how candidates and selection panel members experienced and perceived innovative methods of values based public health nursing student selection. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: The evaluation was framed by a qualitative exploratory design involving semi-structured interviews and a group exercise...
February 19, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Rich Masters, Catherine Capio, Jamie Poolton, Liis Uiga
BACKGROUND: Re-engineering the built environment to influence behaviors associated with physical activity potentially provides an opportunity to promote healthier lifestyles at a population level. Here we present evidence from two quasi-experimental field studies in which we tested a novel, yet deceptively simple, intervention designed to alter perception of, and walking behavior associated with, stairs in an urban area. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to examine whether adjusting a stair banister has an influence on perceptions of stair steepness or on walking behavior when approaching the stairs...
February 15, 2018: Sports Medicine
Zheng Yu, Rongchang Wang, Fan Chen, Jianru Wang, Xiaohui Huang
BACKGROUND: Alpha-fetal protein (AFP) is an important conventional clinical diagnostic indicator of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the utilization of AFP alone might yield deceptive results due to its limited sensitivity and accuracy. AIMS: Our study was designed to investigate latent diagnostic biomarkers that could function as auxiliary clinical indicators of HCC and enhance the accuracy of joint diagnosis with AFP. METHODS: We analyzed gene expression profiles and clinical data from HCC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas database...
February 13, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Maho Morita, Eric W Schmidt
Covering: up to 2018Symbiotic microbes interact with animals, often by producing natural products (specialized metabolites; secondary metabolites) that exert a biological role. A major goal is to determine which microbes produce biologically important compounds, a deceptively challenging task that often rests on correlative results, rather than hypothesis testing. Here, we examine the challenges and successes from the perspective of marine animal-bacterial mutualisms. These animals have historically provided a useful model because of their technical accessibility...
February 14, 2018: Natural Product Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Anesthesiology
Madeleine H Redlick, Anita L Vangelisti
This study explored how partner mate value (PMV) and factors indicative of the relational climate (i.e., commitment and satisfaction) might affect individuals' tendency to use deceptive affectionate messages (DAMs). Participants ( N = 203) responded to a survey including measures regarding these variables. Contrary to predictions, PMV and the tendency to engage in DAMs were significantly and negatively associated with one another. Analyses further indicated that commitment significantly moderated the negative association between PMV and DAMs...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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