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Long-chain omega-3 PUFA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752697/biofortification-of-safflower-an-oil-seed-crop-engineered-for-ala-targeting-better-sustainability-and-plant-based-omega-3-fatty-acids
#1
Arti Rani, Asha Panwar, Manjary Sathe, Karunakara Alageri Chandrashekhara, Anil Kush
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed n6:n3 fatty acid ratio in the diet is a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is mounting evidence of the health benefits associated with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA's). Although present in abundance in fish, a number of factors limit our consumption of fish based omega-3 PUFA's. To name a few, overexploitation of wild fish stocks has reduced their sustainability due to increased demand of aquaculture for fish oil and meal; the pollution of marine food webs has raised concerns over the ingestion of toxic substances such as heavy metals and dioxins; vegetarians do not consider fish-based sources for supplemental nutrition...
May 11, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732410/genes-for-de-novo-biosynthesis-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-are-widespread-in-animals
#2
Naoki Kabeya, Miguel M Fonseca, David E K Ferrier, Juan C Navarro, Line K Bay, David S Francis, Douglas R Tocher, L Filipe C Castro, Óscar Monroig
Marine ecosystems are responsible for virtually all production of omega-3 (ω3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which are essential nutrients for vertebrates. Current consensus is that marine microbes account for this production, given their possession of key enzymes including methyl-end (or "ωx") desaturases. ωx desaturases have also been described in a small number of invertebrate animals, but their precise distribution has not been systematically explored. This study identifies 121 ωx desaturase sequences from 80 species within the Cnidaria, Rotifera, Mollusca, Annelida, and Arthropoda...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720078/genetic-effects-of-fatty-acid-composition-in-muscle-of-atlantic-salmon
#3
Siri S Horn, Bente Ruyter, Theo H E Meuwissen, Borghild Hillestad, Anna K Sonesson
BACKGROUND: The replacement of fish oil (FO) and fishmeal with plant ingredients in the diet of farmed Atlantic salmon has resulted in reduced levels of the health-promoting long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in their filets. Previous studies showed the potential of selective breeding to increase n-3 LC-PUFA levels in salmon tissues, but knowledge on the genetic parameters for individual muscle fatty acids (FA) and their relationships with other traits is still lacking...
May 2, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715470/omega-3-and-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-dietary-sources-metabolism-and-significance-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Young-Soo Keum
Linoleic acid (LA) (n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) (n-3) are essential fatty acids (EFAs) as they cannot be synthesized by humans or other higher animals. In the human body, these fatty acids (FAs) give rise to arachidonic acid (ARA, n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, n-3) that play key roles in regulating body homeostasis. Locally acting bioactive signaling lipids called eicosanoids derived from these FAs also regulate diverse homeostatic processes. In general, ARA gives rise to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids whereas EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory eicosanoids...
April 28, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698923/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-in-m1-like-macrophages-are-associated-with-enhanced-production-of-oxylipins-from-%C3%AE-linolenic-and-linoleic-acid
#5
Samantha D Pauls, Lisa A Rodway, Tanja Winter, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Harold M Aukema
Chronic inflammation, mediated in large part by proinflammatory macrophage populations, contributes directly to the induction and perpetuation of metabolic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can have profound effects on inflammation through the formation of bioactive oxygenated metabolites called oxylipins. The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to the dietary omega-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) can dampen the inflammatory properties of classically activated (M1-like) macrophages derived from the human THP-1 cell line and to examine the accompanying alterations in oxylipin secretion...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696337/impact-of-temperature-on-fatty-acid-composition-and-nutritional-value-in-eight-species-of-microalgae
#6
Justine Aussant, Freddy Guihéneuf, Dagmar B Stengel
Microalgae are considered a sustainable source of high-value products with health benefits. Marine algae-derived omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are considered dietary elements with effects on mental health, cognition enhancement, and cardiovascular protection. This study investigated the temperature effect on omega-3 LC-PUFA production in eight species of microalgae from various taxonomic groups, with a focus on achieving an optimal balance between omega-3 accumulation and efficient growth performance...
April 25, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695082/marine-omega-3-fatty-acids-complications-of-pregnancy-and-maternal-risk-factors-for-offspring-cardio-metabolic-disease
#7
REVIEW
Melinda Phang, Michael R Skilton
Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are important nutrients during periods of rapid growth and development in utero and infancy. Maternal health and risk factors play a crucial role in birth outcomes and subsequently offspring cardio-metabolic health. Evidence from observational studies and randomized trials have suggested a potential association of maternal intake of marine n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, there is inconsistency in the literature on whether marine n-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy can prevent maternal complications of pregnancy...
April 24, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679557/acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-is-attenuated-in-transgenic-fat-1-mice-endogenously-synthesizing-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acids
#8
Ruibing Feng, Yang Wang, Conghui Liu, Chunyan Yan, Hang Zhang, Huanxing Su, Jing X Kang, Chang-Zhen Shang, Jian-Bo Wan
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose-caused hepatotoxicity is the most commonly cause of drugs-induced liver failurecharacterized by oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell damage. Therapeutic efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in several models of liver disease is well documented. However, the impacts of n-3 PUFA on APAP hepatotoxicity are not adequately addressed. In this study, the fat-1 transgenic mice that synthesize endogenous n-3 PUFA and wild type (WT) littermates were injected intraperitoneally with APAP at the dose of 400 mg/kg to induce liver injury, and euthanized at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h post APAP injection for sampling...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621669/omega-3-fatty-acids-in-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-mechanistic-update
#9
REVIEW
Kembra Albracht-Schulte, Nishan Sudheera Kalupahana, Latha Ramalingam, Shu Wang, Shaikh Mizanoor Rahman, Jacalyn Robert-McComb, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Strategies to reduce obesity have become public health priorities as the prevalence of obesity has risen in the United States and around the world. While the anti-inflammatory and hypotriglyceridemic properties of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are well known, their antiobesity effects and efficacy against metabolic syndrome, especially in humans, are still under debate. In animal models, evidence consistently suggests a role for n-3 PUFAs in reducing fat mass, particularly in the retroperitoneal and epididymal regions...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590160/tissue-specific-impact-of-fads-cluster-variants-on-fads1-and-fads2-gene-expression
#10
Lindsay M Reynolds, Timothy D Howard, Ingo Ruczinski, Kanika Kanchan, Michael C Seeds, Rasika A Mathias, Floyd H Chilton
Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) long (≥ 20 carbon) chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) play a critical role in human health and disease. Biosynthesis of LC-PUFAs from dietary 18 carbon PUFAs in tissues such as the liver is highly associated with genetic variation within the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster, containing FADS1 and FADS2 that encode the rate-limiting desaturation enzymes in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which FADS genetic variants affect LC-PUFA biosynthesis, and in which tissues, are unclear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574638/long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-modulate-mammary-gland-composition-and-inflammation
#11
Saraswoti Khadge, Geoffrey M Thiele, John Graham Sharp, Timothy R McGuire, Lynell W Klassen, Paul N Black, Concetta C DiRusso, James E Talmadge
Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554278/synthesis-of-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-rich-triacylglycerols-in-an-endemic-goby-gymnogobius-isaza-from-lake-biwa-japan
#12
Takuto Suito, Kohjiro Nagao, Masataka Hatano, Kenichi Kohashi, Aiko Tanabe, Hiromichi Ozaki, Jun Kawamoto, Tatsuo Kurihara, Tetsuo Mioka, Kazuma Tanaka, Yuji Hara, Masato Umeda
It is commonly observed that freshwater fish contain lower amounts of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3), than marine fish species. In this study, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of phospholipids (PLs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) from Gymnogobius isaza, a freshwater goby endemic to Lake Biwa inhabiting the lake bottom, and Gymnogobius urotaenia, a related goby that inhabits the shore of Lake Biwa...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546292/fish-oil-supplementation-does-not-affect-cognitive-outcomes-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-in-the-omega-3-fatty-acids-for-prevention-of-post-operative-atrial-fibrillation-opera-trial
#13
James C Jackson, Dariush Mozaffarian, Amy J Graves, Nancy J Brown, Roberto Marchioli, Amy L Kiehl, E Wesley Ely
Background: Cognitive decline has been reported following cardiac surgery, leading to great interest in interventions to minimize its occurrence. Long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with less cognitive decline in observational studies, yet no trials have tested the effects of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive decline after surgery. Objective: We sought to determine whether perioperative n-3 PUFA supplementation reduces postoperative cognitive decline in patients postcardiac surgery...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438460/practical-dietary-recommendations-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults
#14
Elena S George, Adrienne Forsyth, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Amanda J Nicoll, Marno Ryan, Siddharth Sood, Stuart K Roberts, Audrey C Tierney
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapies, clinical guidelines focus primarily on weight loss to treat this condition. Established consensus, evidence-based, and clinical dietary recommendations for NAFLD are currently lacking. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence-based practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of NAFLD in adults. A literature review focusing on established principles for the development of clinical practice recommendations was employed using the following criteria: based on substantial evidence, ensures risk minimization, is flexible for an individual patient approach, and is open to further modification as evidence emerges...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425187/the-differential-effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Jacqueline K Innes, Philip C Calder
A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340233/crustacean-amphipods-from-marsh-ponds-a-nutritious-feed-resource-with-potential-for-application-in-integrated-multi-trophic-aquaculture
#16
Pablo Jiménez-Prada, Ismael Hachero-Cruzado, Inmaculada Giráldez, Catalina Fernández-Diaz, César Vilas, José Pedro Cañavate, José Manuel Guerra-García
Coastal protection, nutrient cycling, erosion control, water purification, and carbon sequestration are ecosystem services provided by salt marshes. Additionally, salt ponds offer coastal breeding and a nursery habitat for fishes and they provide abundant invertebrates, such as amphipods, which are potentially useful as a resource in aquaculture. Fishmeal and fish oil are necessary food resources to support aquaculture of carnivorous species due to their omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304057/long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-dietary-intake-is-positively-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-in-normal-and-osteopenic-spanish-women
#17
Jesus Lavado-García, Raul Roncero-Martin, Jose M Moran, Maria Pedrera-Canal, Ignacio Aliaga, Olga Leal-Hernandez, Sergio Rico-Martin, Maria L Canal-Macias
The regular consumption of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCO3-PUFAs) results in general health benefits. The intake of LCO3-PUFAs has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. We aimed to investigate the relationships between dietary intakes of LCO3-PUFAs and bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish women aged 20-79 years old. A total of 1865 female subjects (20-79 years old) were enrolled, and lumbar (L2, L3, L3 and total spine), hip (femoral neck (FN), femoral trochanter (FT) and Ward's triangle (WT)) bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287405/direct-infusion-mass-spectrometric-identification-of-molecular-species-of-glycerophospholipid-in-three-species-of-edible-whelk-from-yellow-sea
#18
Kai-Qi Gang, Da-Yong Zhou, Ting Lu, Zhong-Yuan Liu, Qi Zhao, Hong-Kai Xie, Liang Song, Fereidoon Shahidi
Whelk has been exploited commercially as a delicacy for a long time. Although previous studies have suggested that whelk might serve as a potential rich source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) enriched phospholipid (PL), the molecular species profile of the PL have not been reported yet. In this study, more than 220 molecular species of glycerophospholipid (GP) belonging to eight classes including glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, glycerophosphoserine, glycerophosphoinositol, lysoglycerophosphocholine, lysoglycerophosphoethanolamine, lysoglycerophosphoserine and lysoglycerophosphoinositol in three species of edible whelks (Buccinium yokomaruae, Neptunea arthritica cumingi Cosse and Volutharpa ampullaceal) were identified for the first time by using direct infusion tandem mass spectrometric method...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284786/effect-of-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-heart-rate-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
REVIEW
Khemayanto Hidayat, Jing Yang, Zheng Zhang, Guo-Chong Chen, Li-Qiang Qin, Manfred Eggersdorfer, Weiguo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (HR) has emerged as a new risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The effect of marine-derived omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFAs) supplementation on HR was investigated as an outcome in many clinical trials. The present study was to provide an updated meta-analysis on the HR-slowing effect of n-3 LCPUFAs, and to differentiate the chronotropic effect between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278384/marine-cryptophytes-are-great-sources-of-epa-and-dha
#20
Elina Peltomaa, Matthew D Johnson, Sami J Taipale
Microalgae have the ability to synthetize many compounds, some of which have been recognized as a source of functional ingredients for nutraceuticals with positive health effects. One well-known example is the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are essential for human nutrition. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the two most important long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) PUFAs involved in human physiology, and both industries are almost exclusively based on microalgae. In addition, algae produce phytosterols that reduce serum cholesterol...
December 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
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