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Long-chain omega-3 PUFA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625107/associations-between-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-25-oh-d-and-psychological-distress-among-inuit-in-canada
#1
Hans-Ragnar Skogli, Dominique Geoffroy, Hope A Weiler, Grethe S Tell, Laurence J Kirmayer, Grace M Egeland
BACKGROUND: Inuit in Canada have experienced dietary changes over recent generations, but how this relates to psychological distress has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how nutritional biomarkers are related to psychological distress. DESIGN: A total of 36 communities in northern Canada participated in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Of 2796 households, 1901 (68%) participated; 1699 Inuit adults gave blood samples for biomarker analysis and answered the Kessler 6-item psychological distress questionnaire (K6)...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558948/ultrasonic-assisted-incorporation-of-nano-encapsulated-omega-3-fatty-acids-to-enhance-the-fatty-acid-profile-of-pork-meat
#2
K Shikha Ojha, Camila A Perussello, Carlos Álvarez García, Joseph P Kerry, Daniel Pando, Brijesh K Tiwari
In this study, ultrasound was employed to enhance the diffusion of microencapsulated fatty acids into pork meat. Nanovesicles of fish oil composed of 42% EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and 16% DHA (docosahexanoic acid) were prepared using two different commercial Pronanosome preparations (Lipo-N and Lipo-CAT; which yield cationic and non-cationic nanovesicles, respectively). The thin film hydration (TFH) methodology was employed for encapsulation. Pork meat (Musculus semitendinosus) was submerged in the nanovesicles suspension and subjected to ultrasound (US) treatment at 25kHz for either 30 or 60min...
May 5, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552045/erythrocyte-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-composition-is-associated-with-depression-and-fads-genotype-in-caucasians
#3
Lachlan Cribb, Jenifer Murphy, Amy Froud, Georgina Oliver, Chad A Bousman, Chee H Ng, Jerome Sarris
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD), related, in part, to their role in inflammatory systems. The enzymes δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase are the rate-limiting steps in the metabolism of PUFAs and are encoded in the genes fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1 and 2, respectively. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes within the FADS gene cluster have been shown to influence PUFA composition...
May 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506517/fish-oil-supplementation-benefits-the-murine-host-during-the-acute-phase-of-a-parasitic-infection-from-trypanosoma-cruzi
#4
Maria I Lovo-Martins, Aparecida D Malvezi, Rosiane V da Silva, Nágela G Zanluqui, Vera L H Tatakihara, Niels O S Câmara, Ana Paula L de Oliveira, Jean P S Peron, Marli C Martins-Pinge, Kevin L Fritsche, Phileno Pinge-Filho
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) are known to modulate a variety of immune cell functions. On occasion, this has led to diminished host resistance to certain viral and bacterial infections. Little is known about the impact of n-3 PUFA on host resistance to parasitic infection, however, based on results from a small study conducted more than two decades ago, we hypothesized that providing mice LC n-3 PUFA will diminish host resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic pathogen responsible for Chagas disease...
May 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498345/effects-of-long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-endothelial-vasodilator-function-and-cognition-are-they-interrelated
#5
REVIEW
Julia C Kuszewski, Rachel H X Wong, Peter R C Howe
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) may improve brain functions by acting on endothelial cells in the cerebrovasculature to facilitate vasodilatation and perfusion. The aim of this review is to explore this hypothesis by analyzing the effect of LCn-3 PUFA supplementation on systemic vasodilator and cognitive function and finding evidence to link LCn-3 PUFA intake, vasodilator function and cognition. Forty randomized controlled trials examining the effect of LCn-3 PUFA supplementation in humans on either endothelial vasodilator function or cognition were identified and pooled effects measured with a weighted analysis...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467602/cross-sectional-associations-of-cortical-%C3%AE-amyloid-with-erythrocyte-membrane-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#6
Claudie Hooper, Philipe De Souto Barreto, Pierre Payoux, Anne Sophie Salabert, Sophie Guyonnet, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
Omega-3 (n-3) and 6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with reduced cognitive decline in observational studies. Hence, we examined the cross-sectional associations between cortical β-amyloid (Aβ) and erythrocyte membrane PUFAs in 61 non-demented elderly individuals reporting subjective memory complaints from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) placebo arm. Cortical-to-cerebellar standard uptake value ratios were obtained using [(18) F] florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457318/predictors-of-change-in-omega-3-index-with-fish-oil-supplementation-in-peripheral-artery-disease
#7
Laura M Drudi, Melinda S Schaller, Jade Hiramoto, Warren Gasper, William S Harris, Nancy K Hills, S Marlene Grenon
BACKGROUND: The omega-3 index represents the red blood cell (RBC) content of two major long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. We sought to determine factors associated with a favorable response to fish oil treatment and to characterize changes in RBC PUFAs associated with fish oil supplementation. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of the OMEGA-PAD I trial, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial investigating short-duration, high-dose n-3 PUFA oral supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in subjects with peripheral arterial disease...
April 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427779/fish-oil-lc-pufas-do-not-affect-blood-coagulation-parameters-and-bleeding-manifestations-analysis-of-8-clinical-studies-with-selected-patient-groups-on-omega-3-enriched-medical-nutrition
#8
Stephanie Jeansen, Renger F Witkamp, Jossie A Garthoff, Ardy van Helvoort, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. METHODS: This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT])...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420147/intake-levels-of-fish-in-the-uk-paediatric-population
#9
Sibylle Kranz, Nicholas R V Jones, Pablo Monsivais
The United Kingdom (UK) is an island and its culture, including diet, is heavily influenced by the maritime resources. Dietary guidance in the UK recommends intake of fish, which provides important nutrients, such as long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). This study was designed to describe the fish intake habits of UK children using a nationally representative sample. Dietary and socio-demographic data of children 2-18 (N = 2096) in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (NDNS) Years 1-4 (2008-2012) were extracted...
April 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418808/effects-of-maternal-supplementation-with-omega-3-precursors-on-human-milk-composition
#10
Evelyne Mazurier, Virginie Rigourd, Paul Perez, Rachel Buffin, Leslie Couedelo, Carole Vaysse, Wafae Belcadi, Rémi Sitta, Fabienne Nacka, Delphine Lamireau, Gilles Cambonie, Jean-Charles Picaud, Claude Billeaud
BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are important for newborn neurosensory development. Supplementation of breastfeeding mothers' diets with omega-3 PUFAs, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), may increase their concentration in human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess human milk composition after 15-day supplementation regimens containing either omega-3 PUFAs or olive oil, which does not provide ALA. METHODS: A multicenter factorial randomized trial was conducted with four groups of breastfeeding women, with each group containing 19 to 22 women...
May 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410669/curcumin-and-linseed-oil-co-delivered-in-phospholipid-nanoemulsions-enhances-the-levels-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-serum-and-tissue-lipids-of-rats
#11
D Sugasini, B R Lokesh
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) primarily found in marine fishes. The diets of vegetarian population do not contain preformed DHA, but they can derive it from shorter chain α-linolenic acid (ALA) found in plant oils. However, the conversion efficiency of ALA to DHA is minimal in human adults. This may cause insufficiency of DHA in the vegetarian population. Curcumin, diferuloyl methane found in the spice turmeric, has the potential to increase the formation of DHA from ALA by activating the enzymes FADS2 and elongase 2...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403232/an-oil-containing-epa-and-dha-from-transgenic-camelina-sativa-to-replace-marine-fish-oil-in-feeds-for-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-effects-on-intestinal-transcriptome-histology-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-and-plasma-biochemistry
#12
Mónica B Betancor, Keshuai Li, Matthew Sprague, Tora Bardal, Olga Sayanova, Sarah Usher, Lihua Han, Kjell Måsøval, Ole Torrissen, Johnathan A Napier, Douglas R Tocher, Rolf Erik Olsen
New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35%) and fish oil (10%), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399949/in-ovo-exposure-to-omega-3-fatty-acids-does-not-enhance-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-broiler-chickens
#13
K Kanakri, J Carragher, B Muhlhausler, R Hughes, R Gibson
The content of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) in chicken meat can be boosted by feeding broilers a diet containing α-linolenic acid (ALA, from flaxseed oil), some of which is converted by hepatic enzymes to n-3 LCPUFA. However, most of the accumulated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in meat tissues is still in the form of ALA. Despite this, the levels of chicken diets are being enhanced by the inclusion of vegetable and marine sources of omega-3 fats. This study investigated whether the capacity of chicken for n-3 LCPUFA accumulation could be enhanced or inhibited by exposure to an increased supply of ALA or n-3 LCPUFA in ovo...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371860/feeding-steam-pelleted-rapeseed-affects-expression-of-genes-involved-in-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-chicken-meat
#14
S Li, A Schiller Vestergren, H Wall, S Trattner, J Pickova, E Ivarsson
This study investigated the dietary effect of steam-pelleted rapeseed (RS) diets with different inclusion levels on the fatty acid composition of chicken meat and the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver. Experimental diets included 6 different wheat-soybean meal based diets either in nonpelleted or steam-pelleted form supplemented with 80, 160, and 240 g RS/kg feed and one nonpelleted wheat-soybean meal based diet without RS supplementation as the control. These diets were fed to newly hatched broiler chickens (Ross 308) for 34 days...
March 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288701/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-and-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-mechanisms-animal-models-and-potential-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Lara T Meital, Shaun L Sandow, Philip C Calder, Fraser D Russell
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with macrophage accumulation in the adventitia, oxidative stress, medial elastin degradation and aortic dilation. Progression of AAA is linked to increased risk of rupture, which carries a high mortality rate. Drug therapies trialled to date lack efficacy and although aneurysm repair is available for patients with large aneurysm, peri-surgical morbidity and mortality have been widely reported. Recent studies using rodent models of AAA suggest that long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) and their metabolites can moderate inflammation and oxidative stress perpetuated by infiltrating macrophages and intervene in the destruction of medial elastin...
March 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276564/dietary-fatty-acids-on-aortic-root-calcification-in-mice-with-metabolic-syndrome
#16
Maria C Naranjo, Beatriz Bermudez, Indara Garcia, Sergio Lopez, Rocio Abia, Francisco J G Muriana, Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and chronic low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of high-fat low-cholesterol diets (HFLCDs) rich in SFAs (HFLCD-SFAs), MUFAs (HFLCD-MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain PUFAs (HFLCD-PUFAs) on vascular calcification by the modulation of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in the aortic roots of Lep(ob/ob)LDLR(-/-) mice. Animals fed with HFLCD-SFAs had increased weight and a greater atheroma plaque size, calcification, and RANKL/CATHK expression in the aortic root than mice on MUFA-enriched diets, with an increasing OPG expression in the aortic roots of the latter...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271618/plasma-long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-macular-pigment-in-subjects-with-family-history-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-the-limpia-study
#17
Bénédicte M J Merle, Benjamin Buaud, Jean-François Korobelnik, Alain Bron, Marie-Noëlle Delyfer, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier, Hélène Savel, Carole Vaysse, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher, Cécile Delcourt
PURPOSE: In numerous epidemiological studies, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Beyond their structural, functional and neuroprotective roles, omega-3 PUFAs may favour the retinal accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD). We examined the associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs in subjects with family history of AMD. METHODS: The Limpia study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized clinical trial performed in 120 subjects...
March 8, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237088/low-long-chain-omega-3-fatty-acid-status-in-middle-aged-women
#18
Sandra Gellert, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn
INTRODUCTION: Long-chain (LC) omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and cognitive decline. Several studies have shown that the LC n-3 PUFA status in women in western countries is low. The aim of this study was to assess the LC n-3 PUFA status in middle-aged German women and to identify variables that might affect the status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the nationwide and cross-sectional German VitaMinFemin study, fatty acid levels in the erythrocyte membrane (% of total erythrocyte fatty acids) were ascertained for 446 women (40-60 years)...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192538/pattern-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-intake-and-fish-consumption-and-retinal-vascular-caliber-in-children-and-adolescents-a-cohort-study
#19
Bamini Gopinath, Hanieh Moshtaghian, Victoria M Flood, Jimmy C Y Louie, Gerald Liew, George Burlutsky, Paul Mitchell
We aimed to investigate whether fish and long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3 PUFA) consumption changed appreciably during adolescence. We also assessed whether these dietary variables are associated with retinal microvascular signs (possible markers of future cardiovascular disease risk). 633 children had dietary data at ages 12 and 17. Fish and LCn-3 PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125622/expression-of-calgranulin-genes-s100a8-s100a9-and-s100a12-is-modulated-by-n-3-pufa-during-inflammation-in-adipose-tissue-and-mononuclear-cells
#20
Rachana D Shah, Chenyi Xue, Hanrui Zhang, Sony Tuteja, Mingyao Li, Muredach P Reilly, Jane F Ferguson
Calgranulin genes (S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12) play key immune response roles in inflammatory disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may have systemic and adipose tissue-specific anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective action. Interactions between calgranulins and the unsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) have been reported, yet little is known about the relationship between calgranulins and the LC n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
2017: PloS One
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