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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331084/structural-insights-into-emerging-pediatric-pathogens-human-bocaparvoviruses
#1
Mario Mietzsch, Shweta Kailasan, Jamie Garrison, Maria Ilyas, Paul Chipman, Kalle Kantola, Mandy E Janssen, John Spear, Duncan Sousa, Robert McKenna, Kevin Brown, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Timothy Baker, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna
Bocaparvoviruses are emerging pathogens of the Parvoviridae family. Human bocaviruses 1 (HBoV1) causes severe respiratory infections and HBoV2-4 gastrointestinal infections in young children. Recent reports of life threatening cases, lack of direct treatment or vaccination, and a limited understanding of their disease mechanisms demand the need to study these pathogens on a molecular and structural level for the development of therapeutics. Towards this end, the capsid structures of HBoV1, HBoV3, and HBoV4 were determined to 2...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328674/the-value-of-the-injury-severity-score-in-pediatric-trauma-time-for-a-new-definition-of-severe-injury
#2
Joshua B Brown, Mark L Gestring, Christine M Leeper, Jason L Sperry, Andrew B Peitzman, Timothy R Billiar, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND: The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is the most commonly used injury scoring system in trauma research and benchmarking. An ISS>15 conventionally defines severe injury; however, no studies evaluate whether ISS performs similarly between adults and children. Our objective was to evaluate ISS and AIS to predict mortality and define optimal thresholds of severe injury in pediatric trauma. METHODS: Patients from the Pennsylvania trauma registry 2000-2013 were included...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328672/pediatric-trauma-under-triage-in-ohio
#3
Juan P Gurria, Lynn Haas, Md Monir Hossain, Mohammad Alfrad Nobel Bhuiyan, Misty Troutt, Suzanne Moody, Richard A Falcone
BACKGROUND: Appropriate and timely triage is an essential component of a trauma system. In the state of Ohio there are 6 verified pediatric trauma centers (PTC) across 8 state regions. The purpose of this study was to better understand the pediatric under-triage rates in the state. METHODS: We utilized the Ohio Trauma Registry from 2007 - 2012, consisting of 14,045 records of children < 16 years admitted to a hospital for greater than 48 hours or who sustained a traumatic death...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322026/objective-3d-surface-evaluation-of-intracranial-electrophysiologic-correlates-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-abnormalities-in-children-with-focal-epilepsy
#4
Jeong-Won Jeong, Eishi Asano, Vinod Kumar Pilli, Yasuo Nakai, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
To determine the spatial relationship between 2-deoxy-2[(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) metabolic and intracranial electrophysiological abnormalities in children undergoing two-stage epilepsy surgery, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to correlate hypo- and hypermetabolic cortical regions with ictal and interictal electrocorticography (ECoG) changes mapped onto the brain surface. Preoperative FDG-PET scans of 37 children with intractable epilepsy (31 with non-localizing MRI) were compared with age-matched pseudo-normal pediatric control PET data...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319819/childhood-cancer-in-small-geographical-areas-and-proximity-to-air-polluting-industries
#5
Juan A Ortega-García, Fernando A López-Hernández, Alberto Cárceles-Álvarez, José L Fuster-Soler, Diana I Sotomayor, Rebeca Ramis
AIM: Pediatric cancer has been associated with exposure to certain environmental carcinogens. The purpose of this work is to analyse the relationship between environmental pollution and pediatric cancer risk. METHOD: We analysed all incidences of pediatric cancer (<15) diagnosed in a Spanish region during the period 1998-2015. The place of residence of each patient and the exact geographical coordinates of main industrial facilities was codified in order to analyse the spatial distribution of cases of cancer in relation to industrial areas...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319559/pediatric-solid-tumors-in-africa-different-biology
#6
John K M Nyagetuba, Erik N Hansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature regarding biologic characteristics of pediatric solid tumors in African children. RECENT FINDINGS: Data regarding pediatric solid tumors in Africa, while increasing, remain sparse when considering the ethnic and geographic diversity of the continent. Recent work, especially regarding nephroblastoma in Kenya, has identified some biologic variability among local tribes but also when compared with North American tumors...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318178/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-insulin-resistance-as-risk-factors-for-dyslipidemia-in-obese-children
#7
Meltem Erol, Özlem Bostan Gayret, Şahin Hamilçıkan, Emrah Can, Özgu L Yiğit
INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia is one of the major complications of obesity; vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are attending metabolic complications in dyslipidemic obese children. Objective. To determine if vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between 2014 and 2015...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306716/localization-and-diagnosis-framework-for-pediatric-cataracts-based-on-slit-lamp-images-using-deep-features-of-a-convolutional-neural-network
#8
Xiyang Liu, Jiewei Jiang, Kai Zhang, Erping Long, Jiangtao Cui, Mingmin Zhu, Yingying An, Jia Zhang, Zhenzhen Liu, Zhuoling Lin, Xiaoyan Li, Jingjing Chen, Qianzhong Cao, Jing Li, Xiaohang Wu, Dongni Wang, Haotian Lin
Slit-lamp images play an essential role for diagnosis of pediatric cataracts. We present a computer vision-based framework for the automatic localization and diagnosis of slit-lamp images by identifying the lens region of interest (ROI) and employing a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN). First, three grading degrees for slit-lamp images are proposed in conjunction with three leading ophthalmologists. The lens ROI is located in an automated manner in the original image using two successive applications of Candy detection and the Hough transform, which are cropped, resized to a fixed size and used to form pediatric cataract datasets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306197/pediatric-upper-airway-dimensions-using-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-imaging
#9
Tariq M Wani, Mahmood Rafiq, Salman Talpur, Lahbib Soualmi, Joseph D Tobias
INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography- (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurements have recently suggested that the narrowest dimension of the pediatric airway is the subglottic region. These data are contrary to the previously held tenets of a funnel- or conical-shaped airway. The current study evaluates airway volumes and shapes using three-dimensional CT images of the air way column in spontaneously breathing children. METHODS: The study included CT-based radiological images of the neck in children who required imaging unrelated to airway symptomatology...
March 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306183/flavivirus-cross-reactivity-in-serological-tests-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-a-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patient-a-case-report
#10
Sonia M Raboni, Carmem Bonfim, Bernardo M Almeida, Camila Zanluca, Andrea C Koishi, Paula R V P Rodrigues, Claudia K Kay, Lisandro L Ribeiro, Rosana H Scola, Claudia N Duarte Dos Santos
Serological diagnosis of flavivirus infection is a challenge, particularly in the context of a disease associated with immune response enhancement in a transplant patient, where aspects such as previous flavivirus infections may be involved with the outcome. We report a case of a pediatric patient who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after matched-unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The patient lives in a Brazilian region that is experiencing an epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV)...
March 17, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304320/optimal-radiologic-position-of-an-umbilical-venous-catheter-tip-as-determined-by-echocardiography-in-very-low-birth-weight-newborns
#11
B C F Karber, J Nielsen, D Balsam, C Messina, D Davidson
OBJECTIVE: To compare chest X-ray with echocardiogram (ECHO) in the localization of an umbilical venous catheter (UVC) tip in very low birth weight infants (VLBW). Secondary objectives determined the association between techniques for tip placement by the vertebral body level on X-ray, as well as the length of the thoracic inferior vena cava-right atrial (TIVC-RA) junction by ECHO. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, sequentially enrolled, masked, single regional perinatal center study...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304232/a-systematic-evaluation-of-intraoperative-white-matter-tract-shift-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery-using-high-field-mri-and-probabilistic-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging-tractography
#12
Joseph Yuan-Mou Yang, Richard Beare, Marc L Seal, A Simon Harvey, Vicki A Anderson, Wirginia J Maixner
OBJECTIVE Characterization of intraoperative white matter tract (WMT) shift has the potential to compensate for neuronavigation inaccuracies using preoperative brain imaging. This study aimed to quantify and characterize intraoperative WMT shift from the global hemispheric to the regional tract-based scale and to investigate the impact of intraoperative factors (IOFs). METHODS High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) diffusion-weighted data were acquired over 5 consecutive perioperative time points (MR1 to MR5) in 16 epilepsy patients (8 male; mean age 9...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303917/reduced-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#13
Mona F Philby, Paul M Macey, Richard A Ma, Rajesh Kumar, David Gozal, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal
Pediatric OSA is associated with cognitive risk. Since adult OSA manifests MRI evidence of brain injury, and animal models lead to regional neuronal losses, pediatric OSA patients may also be affected. We assessed the presence of neuronal injury, measured as regional grey matter volume, in 16 OSA children (8 male, 8.1 ± 2.2 years, AHI:11.1 ± 5.9 events/hr), and 200 control subjects (84 male, 8.2 ± 2.0 years), 191 of whom were from the NIH-Pediatric MRI database. High resolution T1-weighted whole-brain images were assessed between groups with voxel-based morphometry, using ANCOVA (covariates, age and gender; family-wise error correction, P < 0...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302372/experiences-during-newborn-screening-for-glutaric-aciduria-type-1-diagnosis-treatment-genotype-phenotype-and-outcomes
#14
Fang-Chih Tsai, Han-Jui Lee, An-Guor Wang, Shu-Chen Hsieh, Yung-Hsiu Lu, Ming-Che Lee, Ju-Shan Pai, Tzu-Hung Chu, Chia-Feng Yang, Ting-Rong Hsu, Chih-Jou Lai, Ming-Tzu Tsai, Ping-Hsun Ho, Min-Chieh Lin, Ling-Yee Cheng, Ya-Chin Chuang, Dau-Ming Niu
BACKGROUND: Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) is an organic acidemia with potentially severe neurological sequelae. In Taiwan, newborn screening (NBS) for GA-1 began in 2001, but large-scale reporting is lacking. This study describes Taiwan's largest newborn screening population to date. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2015, 1,490,636 newborns were screened for GA-1. Confirmatory examinations included the carnitine loading test. Confirmed patients were treated with a low lysine diet, carnitine, and high-energy intake during illness...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302192/-surgery-for-pediatric-intractable-epilepsy-due-to-posterior-quadrantic-cortical-dysplasia
#15
Qing-Zhu Liu, Li-Xin Cai, Xiao-Yan Liu, Yu-Wu Jiang, Shuang Wang, Tao-Yun Ji, Wen Wang, Wei-Ke Cheng, Ruo-Fan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and surgical strategy for pediatric intractable epilepsy due to posterior quadrantic cortical dysplasia and to assess the surgical outcomes. METHODS: The clinical features and preoperative evaluation results of 14 children with intractable epilepsy due to posterior quadrantic cortical dysplasia were retrospectively analyzed. The localization values of video-electroencephalography and intraoperative monitoring and the indications, advantages and disadvantages of temporoparietooccipital disconnection were evaluated...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302143/altered-aortic-3d-hemodynamics-and-geometry-in-pediatric-marfan-syndrome-patients
#16
Roel L F van der Palen, Alex J Barker, Emilie Bollache, Julio Garcia, Michael J Rose, Pim van Ooij, Luciana T Young, Arno A W Roest, Michael Markl, Joshua D Robinson, Cynthia K Rigsby
BACKGROUND: Blood flow dynamics make it possible to better understand the development of aortopathy and cardiovascular events in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Aortic 3D blood flow characteristics were investigated in relation to aortic geometry in children and adolescents with MFS. METHODS: Twenty-five MFS patients (age 15.6 ± 4.0 years; 11 females) and 21 healthy controls (age 16.0 ± 2.6 years; 12 females) underwent magnetic resonance angiography and 4D flow CMR for assessment of thoracic aortic size and 3D blood flow velocities...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301468/recessive-coding-and-regulatory-mutations-in-fblim1-underlie-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-crmo
#17
Allison J Cox, Benjamin W Darbro, Ronald M Laxer, Gabriel Velez, Xinyu Bing, Alexis L Finer, Albert Erives, Vinit B Mahajan, Alexander G Bassuk, Polly J Ferguson
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a rare, pediatric, autoinflammatory disease characterized by bone pain due to sterile osteomyelitis, and is often accompanied by psoriasis or inflammatory bowel disease. There are two syndromic forms of CRMO, Majeed syndrome and DIRA, for which the genetic cause is known. However, for the majority of cases of CRMO, the genetic basis is unknown. Via whole-exome sequencing, we detected a homozygous mutation in the filamin-binding domain of FBLIM1 in an affected child with consanguineous parents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298787/caudal-levobupivacaine-supplemented-with-caudal-or-intravenous-clonidine-in-children-undergoing-infraumbilical-surgery-a-randomized-prospective-double-blind-study
#18
Laxmi Ramya Potti, Yatish Bevinaguddaiah, S Archana, Vinayak Seenappa Pujari, C Manjunath Abloodu
BACKGROUND: Caudal analgesia is the most popular regional anesthesia technique in pediatric population for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. Clonidine, an α2 agonist, prolongs analgesia without causing significant respiratory depression after systemic or neuraxial administration. However, the most beneficial route of its administration is still controversial. Thus, we compared the effects of caudal and intravenous (i.v) clonidine on postoperative analgesia produced by caudal levobupivacaine in children undergoing infraumbilical surgery...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298206/burden-and-spectrum-of-bacterial-infections-among-sickle-cell-disease-children-living-in-cameroon
#19
Anastasie Nicole Alima Yanda, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Hubert Désiré Mbassi Awa, Sandra A Tatah, Judith Seungue, Charlotte Eposse, Paul Olivier N Koki
BACKGROUND: Although sickle cell disease (SCD) children are highly susceptible to bacterial infections (BIs), there is a dreadful lack of data related to the burden and spectrum of BIs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highest affected region with SCD. This study aimed to determine the burden and spectrum of BIs among SCD children hospitalized in a pediatric reference hospital in Cameroon, a SSA country. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of records of children hospitalized from November 2012 to August 2015 in the SCD unit of the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Cameroon...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296796/updates-to-the-spectrum-estimations-and-projections-package-model-for-estimating-trends-and-current-values-for-key-hiv-indicators
#20
John Stover, Tim Brown, Robert Puckett, Wiwat Peerapatanapokin
BACKGROUND: The Spectrum model is used by national programs and UNAIDS to prepare annual estimates of the status of the HIV epidemic in 160 countries. The model and assumptions are updated regularly under the guidance of the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections in response to new data, studies, and program needs. This study describes the most recent updates for the 2016 round of estimates. METHODS: Meetings of the UNAIDS Reference Group include individuals with extensive knowledge of HIV programs, research, statistics, and public policy...
April 2017: AIDS
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