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Embryonic stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453447/embryonic-stem-cell-transplants-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-a-rodent-model-of-autism
#1
Jennifer J Donegan, Angela M Boley, Daniel J Lodge
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disruptions in three core behavioral domains: deficits in social interaction, impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior or thought. There are currently no drugs available for the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD and drugs that target comorbid symptoms often have serious adverse side effects, suggesting an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. The neurobiology of autism is complex, but converging evidence suggests that ASD involves disruptions in the inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmitter system...
February 7, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451874/a-stochastic-and-dynamical-view-of-pluripotency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Yen Ting Lin, Peter G Hufton, Esther J Lee, Davit A Potoyan
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are of paramount importance for biomedical sciences because of their innate ability for self-renewal and differentiation into all major cell lines. The fateful decision to exit or remain in the pluripotent state is regulated by complex genetic regulatory networks. The rapid growth of single-cell sequencing data has greatly stimulated applications of statistical and machine learning methods for inferring topologies of pluripotency regulating genetic networks. The inferred network topologies, however, often only encode Boolean information while remaining silent about the roles of dynamics and molecular stochasticity inherent in gene expression...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451559/linking-chromatin-dynamics-cell-fate-plasticity-and-tissue-homeostasis-in-adult-mouse-hair-follicle-stem-cells
#3
Jayhun Lee, Tudorita Tumbar
Cellular plasticity for fate acquisition is associated with distinct chromatin states, which include histone modifications, dynamic association of chromatin factors with the DNA, and global chromatin compaction and nuclear organization. While embryonic stem cell (ESC) plasticity in vitro and its link with chromatin states have been characterized in depth, little is known about tissue stem cell plasticity in vivo , during adult tissue homeostasis. Recently, we reported a distinct globally low level of histone H3 K4/9/27me3 in mouse hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) during quiescence...
July 2017: Mol Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451202/stem-cells-for-spinal-cord-injuries-bearing-translational-potential
#4
REVIEW
Kyriakos Dalamagkas, Magdalini Tsintou, Alexander M Seifalian
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a highly debilitating neurological disease, which still lacks effective treatment strategies, causing significant financial burden and distress to the affected families. Nevertheless, nanotechnology and regenerative medicine strategies holding promise for the development of novel therapies that would reach from bench to bedside to serve the SCI patients. There has already been significant progress in the field of cell-based therapies, with the clinical application for SCI, currently in phase II of the clinical trial...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450981/nurr1-promotes-neurogenesis-of-dopaminergic-neuron-and-represses-inflammatory-factors-in-the-transwell-coculture-system-of-neural-stem-cells-and-microglia
#5
Xiaoxiang Chen, Yuan Qian, Xiangpeng Wang, Zhiwei Tang, Jiaotian Xu, Hai Lin, Zhiyong Yang, Xiaobin Song, Di Lu, Jiazhi Guo, Ligong Bian, Yu Li, Lei Zhou, Xingli Deng
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSCs) are the most promising cells for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, a majority of the transplanted NSCs differentiated into glial cells, thereby limiting the clinical application. Previous studies indicated that chronic neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the degeneration of midbrain DA (mDA) neurons, which suggested the developing potential of therapies for PD by targeting the inflammatory processes. Thus, Nurr1 (nuclear receptor-related factor 1), a transcription factor, has been referred to play a pivotal role in both the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in embryonic stages and the maintenance of the dopaminergic phenotype throughout life...
February 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449428/a-novel-piperidine-identified-by-stem-cell-based-screening-attenuates-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-via-regulating-bmp2-and-ptgs2-levels
#6
Yanjiang Xing, Shuang Zhao, Qingxia Wei, Shiqiang Gong, Xin Zhao, Fang Zhou, Rafia Ai-Lamki, Daniel Ortmann, Mingxia Du, Roger Pedersen, Guangdong Shang, Shuyi Si, Nicholas W Morrell, Jun Yang
Genetic defects in bone morphogenetic protein type-II receptor (BMPRII) signalling and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The receptor is activated by BMP ligands, which also enhance BMPR2 transcription. A small molecule BMP upregulator with selectivity on vascular endothelium would represent a desirable therapeutic intervention for PAH.We assayed compounds identified in the screening of BMP2 upregulators for their ability to increase expression of Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1), using a dual reporter driven specifically in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived endothelial cells (ECs)...
February 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449377/haploid-embryonic-stem-cells-can-be-enriched-and-maintained-by-simple-filtration
#7
Chao Qu, Meng Yan, Suming Yang, Lingbo Wang, Qi Yin, Yuan Liu, Yeguang Chen, Jinsong Li
Haploid mammalian embryonic stem cells (haESCs) serve as a powerful tool for genetic analyses at both cellular and organismal levels. However, spontaneous diploidization of haESCs limits their use in these analyses. Addition of small molecules to culture medium to control the cell cycle can slow down diploidization, but cell-sorting methods such as FACS are still required to enrich haploid cells for long-term maintenance in vitro. Here, acting on our observation that haploid and diploidized cells differ in diameter, we developed a simplified filtration method to enrich haploid cells from cultured haESCs...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449089/characterization-of-the-lncrna-transcriptome-in-mesc-derived-motor-neurons-implications-for-fus-als
#8
Silvia Biscarini, Davide Capauto, Giovanna Peruzzi, Lei Lu, Alessio Colantoni, Tiziana Santini, Neil A Shneider, Elisa Caffarelli, Pietro Laneve, Irene Bozzoni
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are currently recognized as crucial players in nervous system development, function and pathology. In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), identification of causative mutations in FUS and TDP-43 or hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 point to the essential role of aberrant RNA metabolism in neurodegeneration. In this study, by taking advantage of an in vitro differentiation system generating mouse motor neurons (MNs) from embryonic stem cells, we identified and characterized the long non-coding transcriptome of MNs...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447390/pold3-is-required-for-genomic-stability-and-telomere-integrity-in-embryonic-stem-cells-and-meiosis
#9
Zhongcheng Zhou, Lingling Wang, Feixiang Ge, Peng Gong, Hua Wang, Feng Wang, Lingyi Chen, Lin Liu
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and meiosis are featured by relatively higher frequent homologous recombination associated with DNA double strand breaks (DSB) repair. Here, we show that Pold3 plays important roles in DSB repair, telomere maintenance and genomic stability of both ESCs and spermatocytes in mice. By attempting to generate Pold3 deficient mice using CRISPR/Cas9 or transcription activator-like effector nucleases, we show that complete loss of Pold3 (Pold3-/-) resulted in early embryonic lethality at E6...
February 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445146/dural-effects-of-oxidative-stress-on-cardiomyogenesis-via-gata4-transcription-and-protein-ubiquitination
#10
Tao Li, Xia Zhang, Kesheng Jiang, Jing Liu, Zhiqiang Liu
Oxidative stress generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can promote or inhibit cardiac differentiation of stem cells dependent on the intensity of stimuli as well as cellular context in redox and differentiation status. In the current study, we confirmed that suitable intensity of hydrogen peroxide at the formation stage of embryoid bodies (EBs) effectively favored the formation of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes from P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Mechanistic studies implicated that extrinsic ROS enhanced the Caspase-mediated degradation of Oct4 and Nanog, two factors that governing pluripotent property...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445086/the-oncogene-etv5-promotes-met-in-somatic-reprogramming-and-orchestrates-epiblast-primitive-endoderm-specification-during-mescs-differentiation
#11
Jinglong Zhang, Hongxia Cao, Jing Xie, Chen Fan, Youlong Xie, Xin He, Mingzhi Liao, Shiqiang Zhang, Huayan Wang
Unipotent spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can be efficiently reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells only by manipulating the culture condition, without introducing exogenous reprogramming factors. This phenotype raises the hypothesis that the endogenous transcription factors (TFs) in SSCs may facilitate reprogramming to acquire pluripotency. In this study, we screened a pool of SSCs TFs (Bcl6b, Lhx1, Foxo1, Plzf, Id4, Taf4b, and Etv5), and found that oncogene Etv5 could dramatically increase the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generation when combined with Yamanaka factors...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444173/transcriptome-variations-among-human-embryonic-stem-cell-lines-are-associated-with-their-differentiation-propensity
#12
Changbin Sun, Jiawen Zhang, Dongmin Zheng, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Xi Zhang
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to form any cell type in the body, making them attractive cell sources in drug screening, regenerative medicine, disease and developmental processes modeling. However, not all hESC lines have the equal potency to generate desired cell types in vitro. Significant variations have been observed for the differentiation efficiency of various human ESC lines. The precise underpinning molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this work, we compared transcriptome variations of four hESC lines H7, HUES1, HUES8 and HUES9...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443926/the-pleiotropic-effects-of-the-canonical-wnt-pathway-in-early-development-and-pluripotency
#13
REVIEW
Anchel de Jaime-Soguero, Willy Antoni Abreu de Oliveira, Frederic Lluis
The technology to derive embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells from early embryonic stages and adult somatic cells, respectively, emerged as a powerful resource to enable the establishment of new in vitro models, which recapitulate early developmental processes and disease. Additionally, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an invaluable source of relevant differentiated cell types with immense potential for regenerative medicine and cell replacement therapies. Pluripotent stem cells support self-renewal, potency and proliferation for extensive periods of culture in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443092/single-cell-quantification-of-protein-degradation-rates-by-time-lapse-fluorescence-microscopy-in-adherent-cell-culture
#14
Andrea Brigitta Alber, David Michael Suter
Proteins are in a dynamic state of synthesis and degradation and their half-lives can be adjusted under various circumstances. However, most commonly used approaches to determine protein half-life are either limited to population averages from lysed cells or require the use of protein synthesis inhibitors. This protocol describes a method to measure protein half-lives in single living adherent cells, using SNAP-tag fusion proteins in combination with fluorescence time-lapse microscopy. Any protein of interest fused to a SNAP-tag can be covalently bound by a fluorescent, cell permeable dye that is coupled to a benzylguanine derivative, and the decay of the labeled protein population can be monitored after washout of the residual dye...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443075/human-pluripotent-stem-cell-culture-on-polyvinyl-alcohol-co-itaconic-acid-hydrogels-with-varying-stiffness-under-xeno-free-conditions
#15
Tzu-Cheng Sung, Hsing-Fen Li, Akon Higuchi, Qing-Dong Ling, Jia-Sin Yang, Yeh-Chia Tseng, Chih-Hsien Pan Pan, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Murugan A Munusamy, Suresh Kumar, Shih-Tien Hsu, Kadarkarai Murugan
The effect of physical cues, such as the stiffness of biomaterials on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, has been investigated by several researchers. However, most of these investigators have used polyacrylamide hydrogels for stem cell culture in their studies. Therefore, their results are controversial because those results might originate from the specific characteristics of the polyacrylamide and not from the physical cue (stiffness) of the biomaterials. Here, we describe a protocol for preparing hydrogels, which are not based on polyacrylamide, where various stem, cells including human embryonic stem (ES) cells and human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, can be cultured...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443034/subretinal-transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-into-a-large-eyed-model-of-geographic-atrophy
#16
Sandra Petrus-Reurer, Hammurabi Bartuma, Monica Aronsson, Sofie Westman, Fredrik Lanner, Anders Kvanta
Geographic atrophy (GA), the late stage of dry age-related macular degeneration is characterized by loss of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer, which leads to subsequent degeneration of vital retinal structures (e.g., photoreceptors) causing severe vision impairment. Similarly, RPE-loss and decrease in visual acuity is seen in long-term follow up of patients with advanced wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) receiving intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. Therefore, on the one hand, it is fundamental to efficiently derive RPE cells from an unlimited source that could serve as replacement therapy...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442894/graphene-oxide-incorporated-plga-nanofibrous-scaffold-for-solid-phase-gene-delivery-into-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Zhiying Wang, He Shen, Saijie Song, Liming Zhang, Wei Chen, Jianwu Dai, Zhijun Zhang
Delivery of functional genes into stem cells shows great application prospect in DNA-based tissue engineering. However, comparing with epithelial cells and cancer cells, stem cells usually exhibit low gene transfection efficiency. To enhance the transfection efficiency, non-viral gene delivery in combination with biomaterial scaffolds, has raised increasing interests from researchers in tissue engineering. Nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning technique mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM) are widely used in tissue engineering applications...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442330/roles-of-zic2-in-regulation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Hisato Kondoh
Pioneered by the classical mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), various stem cell lines representing the peri- and postimplantation stages of embryogenesis have been established. To gain insight into the gene regulatory network operating in these cells, we first investigated epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), performing ChIP-seq analysis for five major transcription factors (TFs) involved in epiblast regulation. The analysis indicated that SOX2-POU5F1 TF pairs highlighted in mouse ESCs are not the major players in other stem cells...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442285/diverse-effect-of-bmp-2-homodimer-on-mesenchymal-progenitors-of-different-origin
#19
Edit Hrubi, László Imre, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz, László Virág, Farkas Kerényi, Krisztina Nagy, Gábor Varga, Attila Jenei, Csaba Hegedüs
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), is a potential factor to enhance osseointegration of dental implants. However, the appropriate cellular system to investigate the osteogenic effect of BMP-2 in vitro in a standardized manner still needs to be defined. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of BMP-2 on the cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteogenic progenitors of various origins: dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) and human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell line (HEPM)...
February 13, 2018: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442225/feeder-cell-independent-culture-of-the-pig-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-exocrine-pancreatic-cell-line-picm-31
#20
Neil C Talbot, Amy E Shannon, Caitlin E Phillips, Wesley M Garrett
The adaptation to feeder-independent growth of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line is described. The parental PICM-31 cell line, previously characterized as an exocrine pancreas cell line, was colony-cloned two times in succession resulting in the derivative cell line, PICM-31A1. PICM-31A1 cells were adapted to growth on a polymerized collagen matrix using feeder cell-conditioned medium and were designated PICM-31FF. Like the parental cells, the PICM-31FF cells were small and grew relatively slowly in closely knit colonies that eventually coalesced into a continuous monolayer...
February 13, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
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