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Embryonic stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445992/interaction-between-the-estrogen-receptor-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-pathways-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Jill M Siegfried, Mariya Farooqui, Natalie J Rothenberger, Sanja Dacic, Laura P Stabile
The estrogen receptor (ER) promotes non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) proliferation. Since fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are known regulators of stem cell markers in ER positive breast cancer, we investigated whether a link between the ER, FGFs, and stem cell markers exists in NSCLC. In lung preneoplasias and adenomas of tobacco carcinogen exposed mice, the anti-estrogen fulvestrant and/or the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole blocked FGF2 and FGF9 secretion, and reduced expression of the stem cell markers SOX2 and nanog...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445719/kat-independent-gene-regulation-by-tip60-promotes-esc-self-renewal-but-not-pluripotency
#2
Diwash Acharya, Sarah J Hainer, Yeonsoo Yoon, Feng Wang, Ingolf Bach, Jaime A Rivera-Pérez, Thomas G Fazzio
Although histone-modifying enzymes are generally assumed to function in a manner dependent on their enzymatic activities, this assumption remains untested for many factors. Here, we show that the Tip60 (Kat5) lysine acetyltransferase (KAT), which is essential for embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and pre-implantation development, performs these functions independently of its KAT activity. Unlike ESCs depleted of Tip60, KAT-deficient ESCs exhibited minimal alterations in gene expression, chromatin accessibility at Tip60 binding sites, and self-renewal, thus demonstrating a critical KAT-independent role of Tip60 in ESC maintenance...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445466/human-pluripotent-stem-cells-recurrently-acquire-and-expand-dominant-negative-p53-mutations
#3
Florian T Merkle, Sulagna Ghosh, Nolan Kamitaki, Jana Mitchell, Yishai Avior, Curtis Mello, Seva Kashin, Shila Mekhoubad, Dusko Ilic, Maura Charlton, Genevieve Saphier, Robert E Handsaker, Giulio Genovese, Shiran Bar, Nissim Benvenisty, Steven A McCarroll, Kevin Eggan
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPS cells) can self-renew indefinitely, making them an attractive source for regenerative therapies. This expansion potential has been linked with the acquisition of large copy number variants that provide mutated cells with a growth advantage in culture. The nature, extent and functional effects of other acquired genome sequence mutations in cultured hPS cells are not known. Here we sequence the protein-coding genes (exomes) of 140 independent human embryonic stem cell (hES cell) lines, including 26 lines prepared for potential clinical use...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444193/quantitative-assessment-of-timing-efficiency-specificity-and-genetic-mosaicism-of-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-editing-of-hemoglobin-beta-gene-in-rhesus-monkey-embryos
#4
Uros Midic, Pei-Hsuan Hung, Kailey A Vincent, Benjamin Goheen, Patrick G Schupp, Diane D Chen, Daniel E Bauer, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
Gene editing technologies offer new options for developing novel biomedical research models and for gene and stem cell based therapies. However, applications in many species demand high efficiencies, specificity, and a thorough understanding of likely editing outcomes. To date, overall efficiencies, rates of off-targeting, and degree of genetic mosaicism have not been well-characterized for most species, limiting our ability to optimize methods. As a model gene for measuring these parameters of CRISPR/Cas9 application in a primate species (rhesus monkey), we selected the β-hemoglobin gene (HBB), which also has high relevance to potential application of gene editing and stem-cell technologies for treating human disease...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443829/operating-principles-of-tristable-circuits-regulating-cellular-differentiation
#5
Dongya Jia, Mohit Kumar Jolly, William Harrison, Marcelo Boareto, Eshel Ben-Jacob, Herbert Levine
Many cell-fate decisions during embryonic development are governed by a motif comprised of two transcription factors (TFs) A and B that mutually inhibit each other and may self-activate. This motif, called as a self-activating toggle switch (SATS), can typically have three stable states (phenotypes) - two corresponding to differentiated cell fates, each of which has a much higher level of one TF than the other - (A, B) = (1,0) or (0,1) - and the third state corresponding to an 'undecided' stem-like state with similar levels of both A and B - (A, B) = (1/2,1/2)...
April 26, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443098/the-lysine-methyltransferase-g9a-in-immune-cell-differentiation-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Sebastian Scheer, Colby Zaph
G9a (KMT1C, EHMT2) is a lysine methyltransferase (KMT) whose primary function is to di-methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2). G9a-dependent H3K9me2 is associated with gene silencing and acts primarily through the recruitment of H3K9me2-binding proteins that prevent transcriptional activation. Gene repression via G9a-dependent H3K9me2 is critically required in embryonic stem (ES) cells for the development of cellular lineages by repressing expression of pluripotency factors. In the immune system, lymphoid cells such as T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can differentiate from a naïve state into one of several effector lineages that require both activating and repressive mechanisms to maintain the correct gene expression program...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442943/flow-shear-stress-enhances-the-proliferative-potential-of-cultured-radial-glial-cells-possibly-via-an-activation-of-mechanosensitive-calcium-channel
#7
Min Gu Park, Heeyeong Jang, Sang-Hoon Lee, C Justin Lee
Radial glial cells (RGCs) which function as neural stem cells are known to be non-excitable and their proliferation depends on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) level. It has been well established that Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry through various Ca(2+) channels are involved in the proliferation of RGCs. Furthermore, RGCs line the ventricular wall and are exposed to a shear stress due to a physical contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, little is known about how the Ca(2+) entry through mechanosensitive ion channels affects the proliferation of RGCs...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442664/induction-of-neural-crest-cells-from-human-dental-pulp-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Eisuke Kawano, Taku Toriumi, Shinya Iguchi, Daigo Suzuki, Shuichi Sato, Masaki Honda
We previously generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human dental pulp cells of deciduous teeth. Neural crest cells (NCCs) play a vital role in the development of the oral and maxillofacial region. Therefore, NCCs represent a cell source for bone, cartilage, and tooth-related tissue engineering. In this study, we examined whether iPS cells are capable of differentiating into NCCs through modification of the human embryonic stem cell protocol. First, iPS cells were dissociated into single cells and then reaggregated in low-cell-adhesion plates with neural induction medium for 8 days in suspension culture to form neurospheres...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440749/correction-pcgf6-prc1-suppresses-premature-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-by-regulating-germ-cell-related-genes
#9
Mitsuhiro Endoh, Takaho A Endo, Jun Shinga, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Anca Farcas, Kit-Wan Ma, Shinsuke Ito, Jafar Sharif, Tamie Endoh, Naoko Onaga, Manabu Nakayama, Tomoyuki Ishikura, Osamu Masui, Benedikt M Kessler, Toshio Suda, Osamu Ohara, Akihiko Okuda, Robert J Klose, Haruhiko Koseki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439945/enhancement-of-cardiomyogenesis-in-murine-stem-cells-by-low-intensity-ultrasound
#10
Ailing Teo, Amir Morshedi, Jen-Chieh Wang, Yufeng Zhou, Mayasari Lim
OBJECTIVES: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) has been shown to enhance bone and cartilage regeneration from stem cells. The ease of its incorporation makes it an attractive mechanical stimulus for not only osteogenesis and chondrogenesis, but also cardiomyogenesis. However, to date, no study has investigated its effects on cardiomyogenesis from embryonic stem cells. METHODS: In this study, murine embryonic stem cells were differentiated via embryoid body formation and plating, and after 3 days they were subjected to daily 10 minutes of LIUS treatment with various conditions: (1) low-pulsed (21 mW/cm(2) , 20% duty cycle), (2) low-continuous, (3) high-pulsed (147 mW/cm(2) , 20% duty cycle), and (4) high-continuous LIUS...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439878/dissecting-and-modelling-the-emergent-murine-tec-compartment-during-ontogeny
#11
Fabian Brunk, Chloé Michel, Tim Holland-Letz, Alla Slynko, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Bruno Kyewski, Sheena Pinto
The origin of the thymic epithelium, i.e. the cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) epithelial cells, from bipotent stem cells through TEC progenitors and lineage-specific progeny still remains poorly understood. We sought to obtain an unbiased view of the incipient emergence of TEC subsets by following embryonic TEC development based on co-expression of EpCAM, CD80 and MHC class II (MHCII) on non-hematopoietic (CD45(-) ) thymic stromal cells in wild-type BL6 mice. Using a combination of ex vivo analysis, Re-aggregate Thymic Organ Culture (RTOC) reconstitution assays and mathematical modelling, we traced emergent lineage commitment in murine embryonic TECs...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439102/mecp2-regulated-mirnas-control-early-human-neurogenesis-through-differential-effects-on-erk-and-akt-signaling
#12
N Mellios, D A Feldman, S D Sheridan, J P K Ip, S Kwok, S K Amoah, B Rosen, B A Rodriguez, B Crawford, R Swaminathan, S Chou, Y Li, M Ziats, C Ernst, R Jaenisch, S J Haggarty, M Sur
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked, neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene, which encodes a multifunctional epigenetic regulator with known links to a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although postnatal functions of MeCP2 have been thoroughly investigated, its role in prenatal brain development remains poorly understood. Given the well-established importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in neurogenesis, we employed isogenic human RTT patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and MeCP2 short hairpin RNA knockdown approaches to identify novel MeCP2-regulated miRNAs enriched during early human neuronal development...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438190/very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells-vsels-in-adult-mouse-uterine-perimetrium-and-myometrium
#13
Deepa Bhartiya, Kreema James
We have earlier reported the presence of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in adult mouse uterus along with slightly bigger progenitors termed endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) and their regulation by ovarian hormones thus demonstrating a crucial role played by them during proliferation, differentiation and remodeling of the endometrium. Present study is a brief communication wherein we have examined the effect of higher dose of estrogen (E, 2 μg/day), progesterone (P, 1 mg/day) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 5 IU/day for 5 days) specifically on the myometrium and perimetrium surrounding the endometrium in bilaterally ovariectomized mice...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436947/dedifferentiation-into-blastomere-like-cancer-stem-cells-via-formation-of-polyploid-giant-cancer-cells
#14
N Niu, I Mercado-Uribe, J Liu
Our recent perplexing findings that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) acquired embryonic-like stemness and were capable of tumor initiation raised two important unanswered questions: how do PGCCs acquire such stemness, and to which stage of normal development do PGCCs correspond. Intriguingly, formation of giant cells due to failed mitosis/cytokinesis is common in the blastomere stage of the preimplantation embryo. However, the relationship between PGCCs and giant blastomeres has never been studied. Here, we tracked the fate of single PGCCs following paclitaxel-induced mitotic failure...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436944/active-and-poised-promoter-states-drive-folding-of-the-extended-hoxb-locus-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#15
Mariano Barbieri, Sheila Q Xie, Elena Torlai Triglia, Andrea M Chiariello, Simona Bianco, Inês de Santiago, Miguel R Branco, David Rueda, Mario Nicodemi, Ana Pombo
Gene expression states influence the 3D conformation of the genome through poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we investigate the conformation of the murine HoxB locus, a gene-dense genomic region containing closely spaced genes with distinct activation states in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. To predict possible folding scenarios, we performed computer simulations of polymer models informed with different chromatin occupancy features that define promoter activation states or binding sites for the transcription factor CTCF...
April 24, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436137/insights-into-in-vitro-spermatogenesis-in-mammals-past-present-future
#16
REVIEW
Amir Fattahi, Zeinab Latifi, Tohid Ghasemnejad, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Mohammad Nouri
Considering the self-renewal and differentiation ability of pluripotent stem cells, some studies have pointed out the possibility of stem cell-derived sperm production. Most studies that test this hypothesis have been conducted on rodents, with some promising results; however, studies on humans are progressing slowly, and have encountered technical and ethical hurdles. Established methods to differentiate stem cells - including embryoid bodies, co-culturing, and various feeder cells - may provide a niche that is similar to in vivo conditions and resolve epigenetic abnormalities, but a gonadal-like three-dimensional structure is still required to produce germ cells with the correct imprinting...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436127/tip110-deletion-impaired-embryonic-and-stem-cell-development-involving-down-regulation-of-stem-cell-factors-nanog-oct4-and-sox2
#17
Amanda Whitmill, Ying Liu, Khalid Amine Timani, Yinghua Niu, Johnny J He
HIV-1 Tat-interacting protein of 110 kDa, Tip110, plays important roles in multiple biological processes. In this study, we aimed to characterize the function of Tip110 in embryonic development. Transgenic mice lacking expression of a functional Tip110 gene (Tip110(-/-) ) died post-implantation, and Tip110(-/-) embryos exhibited developmental arrest between 8.5 and 9.5 days post coitum. However, in vitro cultures of Tip110(-/-) embryos showed that Tip110 loss did not impair embryo growth from the zygote to the blastocyst...
April 24, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435121/proteome-analysis-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-organelles
#18
Faezeh Shekari, Hossein Nezari, Mehran Rezaei Larijani, Chia-Li Han, Hossein Baharvand, Yu-Ju Chen, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
As the functions of proteins are associated with their cellular localization, the comprehensive sub-cellular proteome knowledge of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is indispensable for ensuring a therapeutic effect. Here, we have utilized a sub-cellular proteomics approach to analyze the localization of proteins in the nucleus, mitochondria, crude membrane, cytoplasm, heavy and light microsomes. Out of 2002 reproducibly identified proteins, we detected 762 proteins in a single organelle whereas 160 proteins were found in all sub-cellular fractions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434941/dysregulation-of-the-sirt1-oct6-axis-contributes-to-environmental-stress-induced-neural-induction-defects
#19
Guoping Li, Zeyidan Jiapaer, Rong Weng, Yi Hui, Wenwen Jia, Jiajie Xi, Guiying Wang, Songcheng Zhu, Xin Zhang, Dandan Feng, Ling Liu, Xiaoqing Zhang, Jiuhong Kang
Environmental stresses are increasingly acknowledged as core causes of abnormal neural induction leading to neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the mechanism responsible for environmental stress-triggered neural induction defects remains unknown. Here, we report that a spectrum of environmental stresses, including oxidative stress, starvation, and DNA damage, profoundly activate SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent lysine deacetylase. Both mouse embryos and in vitro differentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) demonstrated a negative correlation between the expression of SIRT1 and that of OCT6, a key neural fate inducer...
April 19, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434939/calreticulin-is-required-for-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-during-cardiogenesis-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Fereshteh Karimzadeh, Michal Opas
Calreticulin, a multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum resident protein, is required for TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent cardiomyogenesis. Using embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from calreticulin-null and wild-type (WT) embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we show that expression of EMT and cardiac differentiation markers is induced during differentiation of WT EBs. This induction is inhibited in the absence of calreticulin and can be mimicked by inhibiting TGF-β signaling in WT cells...
April 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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