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Embryonic stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677519/suspended-graphene-oxide-nanosheets-maintain-the-self-renewal-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-via-down-regulating-the-expression-of-vinculin
#1
Guoxin Jing, Zhaojie Wang, Xizhen Zhuang, Xiaolie He, Huijun Wu, Qingxiu Wang, Liming Cheng, Zhongmin Liu, Shilong Wang, Rongrong Zhu
Graphene oxide (GO), with good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, is widely explored as a carrier for various factors in the field of stem cell differentiation. However, its function of sustaining the stemness of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and the underlying mechanisms of this process remains undiscovered. Herein, we explored the biofunction of GO on mESCs and revealed the involved signaling pathways and key gene. The alkaline phosphatase activity detection, pluripotency genes quantification and the teratomas formation in vivo confirmed that GO nanosheets could sustain the self-renewal ability of mESCs instead of influencing its pluripotency...
April 11, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676825/histone-chaperones-play-crucial-roles-in-maintenance-of-stem-cell-niche-during-plant-root-development
#2
Jing Ma, Yuhao Liu, Wangbin Zhou, Yan Zhu, Aiwu Dong, Wen-Hui Shen
Stem cells in both plant and animal kingdoms reside in a specialized cellular context called stem-cell niche (SCN). SCN integrity is crucial for organism development. Here we show that the H3/H4 histone chaperone CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR-1 (CAF-1) and the H2A/H2B histone chaperone NAP1-RELATED PROTEIN1/2 (NRP1/2) play synergistic roles in Arabidopsis root SCN maintenance. Compared to either the m56-1 double mutant deprived of NRP1 and NRP2 or the fas2-4 mutant deprived of CAF-1, the combined m56-1fas2-4 triple mutant displayed a much more severe short-root phenotype...
April 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676562/bacterial-cellulose-promotes-long-term-stemness-of-mesc
#3
Tina Tronser, Anna Laromaine, Anna Roig, Pavel A Levkin
Stem cells possess unique properties, such as the ability to self-renew and the potential to differentiate into an organism's various cell types. These make them highly valuable in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Their properties are precisely regulated in vivo through complex mechanisms that include multiple cues arising from the cell interaction with the surrounding extracellular matrix, neighboring cells, and soluble factors. Although many research efforts have focused on developing systems and materials that mimic this complex microenvironment, the controlled regulation of differentiation and maintenance of stemness in vitro remains elusive...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676032/use-of-two-grnas-for-crispr-cas9-improves-bi-allelic-homologous-recombination-efficiency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Sandra Acosta, Luciano Fiore, Isabel Anna Carota, Guillermo Oliver
Targeted genome editing in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a powerful resource to functionally characterize genes and regulatory elements. The use of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing approach has remarkably improved the time and efficiency of targeted recombination. However, the efficiency of this protocol is still far from ideal when aiming for bi-allelic homologous recombination, requiring at least two independent targeting recombination events. Here we describe an improved protocol that uses two gRNAs flanking the selected targeted region, leading to highly efficient homologous recombination in mouse ESCs...
April 20, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674978/reporter-based-isolation-of-developmental-myogenic-progenitors
#5
Eyemen Kheir, Gabriella Cusella, Graziella Messina, Giulio Cossu, Stefano Biressi
The formation and activity of mammalian tissues entail finely regulated processes, involving the concerted organization and interaction of multiple cell types. In recent years the prospective isolation of distinct progenitor and stem cell populations has become a powerful tool in the hands of developmental biologists and has rendered the investigation of their intrinsic properties possible. In this protocol, we describe how to purify progenitors with different lineage history and degree of differentiation from embryonic and fetal skeletal muscle by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674637/ube2s-stabilizes-%C3%AE-catenin-through-k11-linked-polyubiquitination-to-promote-mesendoderm-specification-and-colorectal-cancer-development
#6
Zhaoyan Li, Yan Wang, Yadan Li, Wanqi Yin, Libin Mo, Xianghao Qian, Yiran Zhang, Guifen Wang, Fan Bu, Zhiling Zhang, Xiaofang Ren, Baochang Zhu, Chang Niu, Wei Xiao, Weiwei Zhang
The canonical Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway is widely involved in regulating diverse biological processes. Dysregulation of the pathway results in severe consequences, such as developmental defects and malignant cancers. Here, we identified Ube2s as a novel activator of the Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway. It modified β-Catenin at K19 via K11-linked polyubiquitin chain. This modification resulted in an antagonistic effect against the destruction complex/β-TrCP cascade-orchestrated β-Catenin degradation...
April 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673565/scanning-the-horizon-for-high-value-add-manufacturing-science-accelerating-manufacturing-readiness-for-the-next-generation-of-disruptive-high-value-curative-cell-therapeutics
#7
Paul Hourd, David J Williams
BACKGROUND: Since the regenerative medicine sector entered the second phase of its development (RegenMed 2.0) more than a decade ago, there is increasing recognition that current technology innovation trajectories will drive the next translational phase toward the production of disruptive, high-value curative cell and gene-based regenerative medicines. AIM: To identify the manufacturing science problems that must be addressed to permit translation of these next generation therapeutics...
April 16, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671028/biochemical-profiling-of-rat-embryonic-stem-cells-grown-on-electrospun-polyester-fibers-using-synchrotron-infrared-microspectroscopy
#8
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Gary Ellis, Christophe Sandt, Peter S Shuttleworth, Agatha Bastida, Julia Revuelta, Eduardo García-Junceda, Alfonso Fernández-Mayoralas, Leoncio Garrido
Therapeutic options for spinal cord injuries are severely limited; current treatments only offer symptomatic relief and rehabilitation focused on educating the individual on how to adapt to their new situation to make best possible use of their remaining function. Thus, new approaches are needed, and interest in the development of effective strategies to promote the repair of neural tracts in the central nervous system inspired us to prepare functional and highly anisotropic polymer scaffolds. In this work, an initial assessment of the behavior of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) seeded on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) fiber scaffolds using synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS) is described...
April 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670286/pluripotency-factors-functionally-premark-cell-type-restricted-enhancers-in-es-cells
#9
Hong Sook Kim, Yuliang Tan, Wubin Ma, Daria Merkurjev, Eugin Destici, Qi Ma, Tom Suter, Kenneth Ohgi, Meyer Friedman, Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk, Michael G Rosenfeld
Enhancers for embryonic stem (ES) cell-expressed genes and lineage-determining factors are characterized by conventional marks of enhancer activation in ES cells1-3 , but it remains unclear whether enhancers destined to regulate cell-type-restricted transcription units might also have distinct signatures in ES cells. Here we show that cell-type-restricted enhancers are 'premarked' and activated as transcription units by the binding of one or two ES cell transcription factors, although they do not exhibit traditional enhancer epigenetic marks in ES cells, thus uncovering the initial temporal origins of cell-type-restricted enhancers...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670257/directed-reprogramming-of-comprehensively-characterized-dental-pulp-stem-cells-extracted-from-natal-tooth
#10
Rishikaysh V Pisal, Jakub Suchanek, Richard Siller, Tomas Soukup, Hana Hrebikova, Ales Bezrouk, David Kunke, Stanislav Micuda, Stanislav Filip, Gareth Sullivan, Jaroslav Mokry
The aim of this study was to extensively characterise natal dental pulp stem cells (nDPSC) and assess their efficiency to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). A number of distinguishing features prompted us to choose nDPSC over normal adult DPSC, in that they differed in cell surface marker expression and initial doubling time. In addition, nDPSC expressed 17 out of 52 pluripotency genes we analysed, and the level of expression was comparable to human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Ours is the first group to report comprehensive characterization of nDPSC followed by directed reprogramming to a pluripotent stem cell state...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670118/global-h3-3-dynamic-deposition-defines-its-bimodal-role-in-cell-fate-transition
#11
Hai-Tong Fang, Chadi A El Farran, Qiao Rui Xing, Li-Feng Zhang, Hu Li, Bing Lim, Yuin-Han Loh
H3.3 is a histone variant, which is deposited on genebodies and regulatory elements, by Hira, marking active transcription. Moreover, H3.3 is deposited on heterochromatin by Atrx/Daxx complex. The exact role of H3.3 in cell fate transition remains elusive. Here, we investigate the dynamic changes in the deposition of the histone variant H3.3 during cellular reprogramming. H3.3 maintains the identities of the parental cells during reprogramming as its removal at early time-point enhances the efficiency of the process...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666444/aligned-contiguous-microfiber-platform-enhances-neural-differentiation-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#12
Zhenjie Liu, Zhengqing Hu
A microfiber platform that is able to enhance neuronal differentiation and guide aligned neurite outgrowths is essential to the repair of nerve damage. To achieve this aim, we utilized biocompatible and biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) to design a novel Aligned Contiguous Microfiber Platform (ACMFP) as substrates for the neuronal induction of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. To generate the ACMFP, a modified micro-fluid chip system was established to control microfiber parameters including fiber diameter, alignment, and the distance between fibers...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666150/epigenetics-and-epitranscriptomics-in-temporal-patterning-of-cortical-neural-progenitor-competence
#13
REVIEW
Ki-Jun Yoon, Caroline Vissers, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
During embryonic brain development, neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) sequentially give rise to different subtypes of neurons and glia via a highly orchestrated process. To accomplish the ordered generation of distinct progenies, NPCs go through multistep transitions of their developmental competence. The molecular mechanisms driving precise temporal coordination of these transitions remains enigmatic. Epigenetic regulation, including changes in chromatin structures, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, has been extensively investigated in the context of cortical neurogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666052/functional-comparison-of-distinct-brachyury-states-in-a-renal-differentiation-assay
#14
Jing Zhou, Antonius Plagge, Patricia Murray
Mesodermal populations can be generated in vitro from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) using three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates called embryoid bodies or two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer culture systems. Here, we investigated whether Brachyury -expressing mesodermal cells generated using 3-D or 2-D culture systems are equivalent, or instead, have different properties. Using a Brachyury -GFP/E2-Crimson reporter mESC line, we isolated Brachyury- GFP+ mesoderm cells using flow-activated cell sorting and compared their gene expression profiles and ex vivo differentiation patterns...
April 17, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665903/-effect-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-on-acute-myeloid-leukemia-kg-1a-cells
#15
Jie Liu, Ben-Nian Huo, Ting Zhang, Meng-Nan Liu, Xue Wang, Tao Feng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of embryonic stem cells on the proliferation and apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukemia cell line KG-1a and to explore its potential mechanism. METHODS: The direct co-culture system between human embryonic stem cells H9 and human acute myeloid leukemia cell line KG-1a was established, and CCK8 assay was used to detect the proliferation of KG-1a cells. The changes of cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry (FCM)...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665362/chd9-mediates-highly-loosened-chromatin-structure-in-growing-mouse-oocytes
#16
Masatoshi Ooga, Satoshi Fuyana, Yuki Hashioka, Wataru Fujii, Kunihiko Naito, Masataka G Suzuki, Fugaku Aoki
During oogenesis, oocytes prepare for embryonic development following fertilization. The mechanisms underlying this process are still unknown. Recently, it has been suggested that a loosened chromatin structure is involved in pluripotency and totipotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells and early preimplantation embryos, respectively. Here, we explored chromatin looseness in oocytes by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) using enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged histone H2B. The results indicated that the chromatin in growing oocytes was already highly loosened to a level comparable to that in early preimplantation embryos...
April 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665185/laminar-shear-stress-modulates-endothelial-luminal-surface-stiffness-in-a-tissue-specific-manner
#17
Nick Merna, Andrew K Wong, Victor Barahona, Pierre Llanos, Balvir Kunar, Brisa Palikuqi, Michael Ginsberg, Shahin Rafii, Sina Y Rabbany
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. METHODS: Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness...
April 17, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664925/actin-and-myosin-ii-modulate-differentiation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Liana C Boraas, Emma T Pineda, Tabassum Ahsan
Use of stem cell-based therapies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is hindered by efficient means of directed differentiation. For pluripotent stem cells, an initial critical differentiation event is specification to one of three germ lineages: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Differentiation is known to be regulated by numerous extracellular and intracellular factors, but the role of the cytoskeleton during specification, or early differentiation, is still unknown. In these studies, we used agonists and antagonists to modulate actin polymerization and the actin-myosin molecular motor during spontaneous differentiation of embryonic stem cells in embryoid bodies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663175/gfap-positive-progenitor-cell-production-is-concentrated-in-specific-encephalic-regions-in-young-adult-mice
#19
Zhibao Guo, Yingying Su, Huifang Lou
Previous genetic fate-mapping studies have indicated that embryonic glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+ ) cells are multifunctional progenitor/neural stem cells that can produce astrocytes as well as neurons and oligodendrocytes throughout the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence from recent studies indicates that GFAP+ cells adopt different cell fates and generate different cell types in different regions. Moreover, the fate of GFAP+ cells in the young adult mouse CNS is not well understood...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662175/pluripotency-transcription-factors-and-tet1-2-maintain-brd4-independent-stem-cell-identity
#20
Lydia W S Finley, Santosha A Vardhana, Bryce W Carey, Direna Alonso-Curbelo, Richard Koche, Yanyang Chen, Duancheng Wen, Bryan King, Megan R Radler, Shahin Rafii, Scott W Lowe, C David Allis, Craig B Thompson
A robust network of transcription factors and an open chromatin landscape are hallmarks of the naive pluripotent state. Recently, the acetyllysine reader Brd4 has been implicated in stem cell maintenance, but the relative contribution of Brd4 to pluripotency remains unclear. Here, we show that Brd4 is dispensable for self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). When maintained in their ground state, ESCs retain transcription factor binding and chromatin accessibility independent of Brd4 function or expression...
April 16, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
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