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Maria Carolina Ferreira, Isabela Porto de Toledo, Kamile Leonardi Dutra, Fabiane Miron Stefani, André Luís Porporatti, Carlos Flores-Mir, Graziela De Luca Canto
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is an umbrella condition presenting several signs and symptoms including pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory muscles, articular noises, earache, headache, irregular or restricted jaw function, chewing difficulty, and limited mouth opening. Such TMD impairment may cause disorders during the chewing process. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to assess chewing dysfunctions measured by sEMG, and their association with TMD. A combination and variation of the descriptors "temporomandibular joint disorders", "masticatory dysfunctions", and electromyography were used to perform the searches across databases...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Jisu Hu, Ming Li, Yakang Dai, Chen Geng, Baotong Tong, Zhiyong Zhou, Xue Liang, Wen Yang, Bing Zhang
BACKGROUND: In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) using single-shot echo planar imaging (ss-EPI), both reduced field-of-view (FOV) excitation and sensitivity encoding (SENSE) alone can increase in-plane resolution to some degree. However, when the two techniques are combined to further increase resolution without pronounced geometric distortion, the resulted images are often corrupted by high level of noise and artifact due to the numerical restriction in SENSE. Hence, this study is aimed to provide a reconstruction method to deal with this problem...
June 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Anna Runemark, Laura Piñeiro Fernández, Fabrice Eroukhmanoff, Glenn-Peter Sætre
Hybridization is increasingly recognized as a potent evolutionary force. Although additive genetic variation and novel combinations of parental genes theoretically increase the potential for hybrid species to adapt, few empirical studies have investigated the adaptive potential within a hybrid species. Here, we address whether genomic contingencies, adaptation to climate, or diet best explain divergence in beak morphology using genomically diverged island populations of the homoploid hybrid Italian sparrow Passer italiae from Crete, Corsica, and Sicily...
July 2018: American Naturalist
Jakob Meineke, Fabian Wenzel, Matteo de Marco, Annalena Venneri, Daniel J Blackburn, Kevin Teh, Iain D Wilkinson, Ulrich Katscher
As Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) is maturing, more clinical applications are being explored. With this comes the question whether QSM is sufficiently robust and reproducible to be directly used in a clinical setting where patients are possibly not cooperative and/or unable to suppress involuntary movements sufficiently.
 Subjects and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), 31 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 41 healthy controls (HC) were scanned on a 3T scanner, including a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence for QSM and an inversion-prepared segmented gradient-echo sequence (T1-TFE, MPRAGE)...
June 13, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Christina Petridou, Lenka Strakova, Ruan Simpson
Introduction: Campylobacter is a common pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract, but invasive disease is rare. Campylobacter fetus can play a role in osteomyelitis, meningitis and joint infection and has a prediliction for the vascular endothelium, causing mycotic aneurysms, thrombophlebitis and endocarditis. Here we present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by C. fetus and a review of the literature. Case presentation: An 85-year-old woman with a tissue aortic valve replacement and atrial fibrillation was admitted to hospital with tonic-clonic seizures, right-sided hemiparesis, facial droop and hemianopia...
May 2018: JMM Case Reports
Charles Raybaud, George I Jallo
The metamerically associated normal hindbrain and normal posterior fossa are programmed to grow together in such a way that the tonsils are located above the foramen magnum and surrounded by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the cisterna magna. This allows the pulsating CSF to move freely up and down across the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). A developmental mismatch between the rates of growth of the neural tissue and of the bony posterior fossa may result in the cerebellar tonsils being dislocated across the foramen magnum...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
S R Sundararajan, Abdul Azeem Badurudeen, R Ramakanth, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
Fractures of talar body are uncommon injuries often associated with fractures of other long bones and in polytraumatized patients. The integrity of the talus is essential for the normal function of the ankle, subtalar, and midtarsal joints. The relative infrequency of this injury limits the number of studies available to guide treatment. They occur as a result of high-velocity trauma and are therefore associated with considerable soft tissue damage. Axial compression with supination or pronation is the common mechanism of injury...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Shu-Chen Kuo, Shu-Man Shih, Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale, I-Shou Chang, Yee-Chun Chen, Chao A Hsiung, Shang-Chwen Chang
OBJECTIVE: A policy initiated in 2001 by Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) Administration has effectively reduced outpatient antibiotic use except fluoroquinolones (FQs). The influence of differential regulation policy of narrow-spectrum versus broad-spectrum FQs on the prescriptions is unknown. METHODS: This study analyzed the claim records of oral FQs prescription at outpatient visits during 2000-2010 using the NHI Research Database and compared prescriptions for narrow-spectrum FQs, which are inactive against Streptococcus pneumoniae and lack formulary restriction, with those for broad-spectrum FQs...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Denis A Baird, Lavinia Paternoster, Jennifer S Gregory, Benjamin G Faber, Fiona R Saunders, Claudiu V Giuraniuc, Rebecca J Barr, Deborah A Lawlor, Richard M Aspden, Jonathan H Tobias
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether hip shape contributes to osteoarthritis (OA) development, we investigated relationships between known OA susceptibility loci and hip shape in a population-based cohort of peri-menopausal women. METHODS: Hip shape was measured using Statistical Shape Modelling, on hip DXA scans from mothers in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The proximal femur and superior acetabulum were outlined, and independent hip shape modes generated...
June 8, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Beibei Guo, Daniel Li, Ying Yuan
Immunotherapy-treatments that enlist the immune system to battle tumors-has received widespread attention in cancer research. Due to its unique features and mechanisms for treating cancer, immunotherapy requires novel clinical trial designs. We propose a Bayesian seamless phase I/II randomized design for immunotherapy trials (SPIRIT) to find the optimal biological dose (OBD) defined in terms of the restricted mean survival time. We jointly model progression-free survival and the immune response. Progression-free survival is used as the primary endpoint to determine the OBD, and the immune response is used as an ancillary endpoint to quickly screen out futile doses...
June 7, 2018: Pharmaceutical Statistics
Henrik Behrend, Tilman Graulich, Rene Gerlach, Christian Spross, Andreas Ladurner
PURPOSE: Alterations in patellar height and posterior tibial slope (PTS) are frequently measured radiographic parameters associated with postoperative impairments after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Few studies correlate the clinical outcome of TKA with the radiological indices. Both the modified Insall-Salvati ratio (mISR) and the Blackburne-Peel ratio (BPR) were hypothesised to correlate with the clinical outcome after TKA. METHODS: A total of 282 computer navigated primary LCS® -TKAs, implanted in our institution from 2008 to 2012, were included...
June 8, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
J Eli Robins, Anthony A Capehart
Matrix remodeling associated 5 (MXRA5) is an extracellular protein that is upregulated in several cancers, but little is known regarding its spatial and temporal localization in the developing embryo. The present study was undertaken to investigate MXRA5 transcript expression in the trunk and limb of the embryonic chick to provide groundwork for future investigation of its developmental function. In situ hybridization utilizing digoxigenin-labeled sense control and experimental antisense probes was performed in paraffin sections of chick embryos from Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stages 18-38...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Zhizhen Huang, Yifeng Huang, Ningsheng Xu, Jun Chen, Juncong She, Shaozhi Deng
Thermo-enhancement is an effective way to achieve high performance field electron emitters, and enables the individually tuning on the emission current by temperature and the electron energy by voltage. The field emission current from metal or n-doped semiconductor emitter at a relatively lower temperature (i.e., < 1000 K) is less temperature sensitive due to the weak dependence of free electron density on temperature, while that from p-doped semiconductor emitter is restricted by its limited free electron density...
June 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joo Hyun Kwon, Sungbin Im, Minho Chang, Jong-Eun Kim, June-Sung Shim
PURPOSE: This technical procedure describes a method for tracking mandibular movement using a three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner and target tracking system to digitally portray the motion of the mandible and temporomandibular joints by merging cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data. METHODS: Four nonreflective targets were attached to the labial surface of the incisors in a noncolinear arrangement. Mandibular movement was tracked directly using a 3D facial scanner and target tracking software after merging facial scanning data, digital data obtained from a diagnostic cast, and CBCT scan data based on several landmarks of the anterior teeth...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Stephanie W Mayer, Andrew P Kraszewski, Anne Skelton, Andreas Kontaxis, Russell Warren
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment for shoulder instability generally involves labral repair with a capsular plication or imbrication. Good results are reported in both open and arthroscopic procedures, but there is no consensus on the amount or location of capsular plication that is needed to achieve stability and anatomic anterior, posterior, and inferior translation of the joint. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What are the separate and combined effects of increasing plication magnitude and sequential additive plications in the anterior, posterior, and inferior locations of the joint capsule on glenohumeral joint translation in the anterior, posterior, and inferior directions? (2) What plication location and magnitude restores anterior, posterior, and inferior translation to a baseline level? METHODS: Fourteen cadaveric shoulders were dissected down to the glenohumeral capsule and underwent instrumented biomechanical testing...
May 30, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Jung-Hoon Lee, Hyun-Su Choi
BACKGROUND: Although cross tape has recently been used by clinicians for various musculoskeletal conditions, scientific studies on the direction of cross tape application are lacking. METHODS: The present study aimed to investigate whether the direction of cross tape application affected the outcomes of the modified O-ring test and maximal pinch strength using a pinch gauge and the conformity between these 2 tests when cross tape was applied to the forearm muscles of individuals with no upper extremity pain and no restriction of joint range of motion...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dian Jing, Shiwen Zhang, Wenjing Luo, Xiaofei Gao, Yi Men, Chi Ma, Xiaohua Liu, Yating Yi, Abhijit Bugde, Bo O Zhou, Zhihe Zhao, Quan Yuan, Jian Q Feng, Liang Gao, Woo-Ping Ge, Hu Zhao
Tissue clearing technique enables visualization of opaque organs and tissues in 3-dimensions (3-D) by turning tissue transparent. Current tissue clearing methods are restricted by limited types of tissues that can be cleared with each individual protocol, which inevitably led to the presence of blind-spots within whole body or body parts imaging. Hard tissues including bones and teeth are still the most difficult organs to be cleared. In addition, loss of endogenous fluorescence remains a major concern for solvent-based clearing methods...
May 29, 2018: Cell Research
Yuichi Nishikawa, Takanori Kokubun, Naohiko Kanemura, Tetsuya Takahashi, Masayasu Matsumoto, Hirofumi Maruyama, Kiyomi Takayanagi
BACKGROUND: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is responsible for braking forward movement of the tibia relative to the femur and for tibial rotation. After ACL injury, this braking performance deteriorates, inducing abnormal joint movement. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of controlled abnormal joint movement on the molecular biological response in intra-articular tissues during the acute phase of ACL injury. METHODS: Eighty-four mature Wistar male rats were randomly assigned to a controlled abnormal movement (CAM) group, an ACL-transection (ACL-T) group, a sham-operated group, or an intact group...
May 29, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Mark A Cairns, Peter T Moskal, Scott M Eskildsen, Robert F Ostrum, R Carter Clement
BACKGROUND: Bundled payments are meant to reduce costs and improve quality of care. Without adequate risk adjustment, bundling may be inequitable to providers and restrict access for certain patients. This study examines patient factors that could improve risk stratification for the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) bundled-payment program. METHODS: Ninety-five thousand twenty-four patients meeting the CJR criteria were retrospectively reviewed using administrative Medicare data...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Sîan A Williams, Leo Ng, Nathan Stephens, Nardia Klem, Catherine Wild
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ankle taping on ankle and knee joint biomechanics during cutting and rebound activities in females. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty semi-professional female basketball players performed a cut and rebound task under two conditions (taped and no-tape). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected during the deceleration phase of each movement task...
April 8, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
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