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Alexandria Voigt, Katherine Bohn, Sukesh Sukumaran, Carol M Stewart, Indraneel Bhattacharya, Cuong Q Nguyen
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease in which the underlying cause has yet to be elucidated. The main objective of this study was to determine the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of individual infiltrating T helper (Th)-1 and 17 cells of pSS patients using single-cell analysis. Single-cell analysis of ex-vivo infiltrating T cells demonstrated that pSS patients had higher frequencies of activated Th17 cells. Single-cell TCR sequencing revealed that TCRβ variable (TRBV)3-1/joint (J)1-2 (CLFLSMSACVW) and TRBV20-1/J1-1 (SVGSTAIPP*T) were expressed by activated Th1 and Th17 cells in both cohorts...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Grigory Gershkovich, David Kahan, Scott Kozin, Daniel Zlotolow
BACKGROUND: Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FFCD) is a rare disorder of the upper and lower extremities. In the distal ulna, a ligamentous tether emerging from the metaphysis crosses the physis and restricts growth, leading to deformity. Lesion excision before radiocapitellar subluxation has been shown to restore growth and allow remodeling. We review the outcomes of 4 patients with FFCD of the distal ulna after the occurrence of radiocapitellar incongruity. METHODS: This retrospective review examined 4 patients diagnosed with FFCD of the distal ulna from 2007 to 2015...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
J Wagener, C Schweizer, L Zwicky, T Horn Lang, B Hintermann
Aims Arthroscopically controlled fracture reduction in combination with percutaneous screw fixation may be an alternative approach to open surgery to treat talar neck fractures. The purpose of this study was thus to present preliminary results on arthroscopically reduced talar neck fractures. Patients and Methods A total of seven consecutive patients (four women and three men, mean age 39 years (19 to 61)) underwent attempted surgical treatment of a closed Hawkins type II talar neck fracture using arthroscopically assisted reduction and percutaneous screw fixation...
April 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Keshav Singhal, Rammohan R
Rotator cuff is a vital structure of glenohumeral joint, the dysfunction of which leads to debilitating pain and restricted movement. Arthroplasty using unconstrained anatomical prosthesis for treating these conditions have not been successful in the past. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty (RSA) is a novel technique specifically designed to address end stage glenohumeral arthritis in rotator cuff deficient joint. Short and mid-term studies have demonstrated a significant improvement in pain and range of motion of the shoulder joint...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
J Kraeima, B J Merema, M J H Witjes, F K L Spijkervet
OBJECTIVES: Patients suffering from osteoarthritis, ankylosis (e.g. post-trauma or tumour) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can present with symptoms such as severely restricted mouth opening, pain or other dynamic restrictions of the mandible. To alleviate the symptoms, a total joint prosthesis can be indicated, such as the Groningen TMJ prosthesis. This was developed as a stock device with a lowered centre of rotation for improved translational and opening capacity. This study aimed to improve the design of the prosthesis, and produce a workflow for a customized Groningen TMJ prosthesis, in order to make it more accurate and predictable...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Shenhao Dai, Klaus Dieterich, Marie Jaeger, Bernard Wuyam, Pierre-Simon Jouk, Dominic Pérennou
OBJECTIVE: To understand the disability of adults with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), a rare disease spectrum characterized by at least 2 joint contractures at birth in different body areas. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data for unselected persons with AMC referred to the French center for adults with AMC from 2010 to 2016. All underwent a pluriprofessional systematic and comprehensive investigation of deficits, activity limitation, and participation restriction according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and genetic analysis when indicated...
April 6, 2018: Neurology
C Halewood, K K Athwal, A A Amis
Pre-clinical, bench-top assessment of Total Knee Replacements (TKR) can provide information about the inherent constraint provided by a TKR, which does not depend on the condition of the patient undergoing the arthroplasty. However little guidance is given by the ASTM standard on test configurations such as medial-lateral (M:L) loading distribution, flexion angle or restriction of secondary motions. Using a purpose built rig for a materials testing machine, four TKRs currently in widespread clinical use, including medial-pivot and symmetrical condyle types, were tested for anterior-posterior translational constraint...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Jin-Huan Cui, Ya-Bin Jin, Kai-Rong Lin, Ping Xiao, Xiang-Ping Chen, Ying-Ming Pan, Wei Lin, Zu-Chang Wu, Dong-Mei Guo, Xiao-Fan Mao, Chu-Ling Zhang, Wen-Lue Lian, Wei Luo
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic and progressive autoimmune disease affecting the invasion of the spine, sacroiliac joints and peripheral joints. T cells play a vital role in the underlying pathogenesis of AS, which mediated autoimmune and inflammatory responses via specific recognition of autoantigen peptides presented by susceptibility HLA. Antigen-specific T cells triggered by HLA/antigen complexes will undergo a massive expansion that forming an uneven T cell repertoire. To enhance our understanding of T-cell-mediated autoimmune in AS, we applied TCR β chains high-throughput sequencing to AS patients for in-depth TCR repertoire analysis...
March 31, 2018: Human Immunology
Nicholas J Giori, Derek F Amanatullah, Shalini Gupta, Thomas Bowe, Alex H S Harris
BACKGROUND: Morbidly obese patients with severe osteoarthritis benefit from successful total joint arthroplasty. However, morbid obesity increases the risk of complications. Because of this, some surgeons enforce a body mass index (BMI) eligibility criterion above which total joint arthroplasty is denied. In this study, we investigate the trade-off between avoiding complications and restricting access to care when enforcing BMI-based eligibility criteria for total joint arthroplasty. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW) and Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) databases were reviewed for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty from October 2011 through September 2014...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Suyu Mei
Bacterial protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are significant to reveal the machinery of signal transduction and drug resistance within bacterial cells. The database STRING has collected a large number of bacterial pathogen PPI networks, but most of the data are of low quality without being experimentally or computationally validated, thus restricting its further biomedical applications. In this work, we exploit the experimental data via four solutions to enhance the quality of M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB) PPI networks in STRING...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Wenyuan Ruan, Meina Guo, Lei Xu, Xueqing Wang, Hongyu Zhao, Junmin Wang, Keke Yi
Leaf erectness is one of the key traits of plant architecture; in grains, plants with upright leaves can be planted close together, thus benefiting yield/unit area. Many factors, such as hormones, affect leaf inclination; however, how nutrition status, in particular phosphate (Pi) availability, affects leaf inclination remains largely unexplained. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), Pi-deficiency stress inhibits lamina joint cell elongation, thus restricting lamina joint size and inducing leaf erectness in rice...
April 2, 2018: Plant Cell
Ashley P Westerman, Andrew R Moor, Martin H Stone, Todd D Stewart
General trends of increasing body mass index have been observed in many western countries along with an increasing demand for joint replacement. Standards have been developed for testing the fatigue properties of femoral stems; however, the loads that these apply are based on a historic patient weight and may not be valid in the current patient population. Several fatigue tests were conducted using distally fixed titanium alloy stems positioned according to the ISO standard but with a cyclic load based on a current 75th percentile patient sample...
March 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Emily S Matijevich, Lauren M Branscombe, Karl E Zelik
The purpose of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon (AT) length changes during a series of tasks that involved combinations of higher/lower force, and larger/smaller length changes of the medial gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit (MTU). We sought to determine if common ultrasound-based estimates of AT length change were consistent with expectations for a passive elastic tendon acting in series with a muscle. We tested 8 healthy individuals during restricted joint calf contractions (high force, low displacement), ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion (DF/PF) with the foot in the air (low force, high displacement), and heel raises (high force, high displacement)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Tammy H Wharton, Krystle J Nomie, Robin P Wharton
Drosophila Pumilio (Pum) is a founding member of the conserved Puf domain class of RNA-binding translational regulators. Pum binds with high specificity, contacting eight nucleotides, one with each of the repeats in its RNA-binding domain. In general, Pum is thought to block translation in collaboration with Nanos (Nos), which exhibits no binding specificity in isolation but is recruited jointly to regulatory sequences containing a Pum binding site in the 3'-UTRs of target mRNAs. Unlike Pum, which is ubiquitous in the early embryo, Nos is tightly restricted to the posterior, ensuring that repression of its best-characterized target, maternal hunchback (hb) mRNA, takes place exclusively in the posterior...
2018: PloS One
Masafumi Kashii, Kenta Masuhara, Takashi Kaito, Motoki Iwasaki
Introduction: The relationship between the morphometry of atlantoaxial joint and chronic atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is well known, but disorders in the atlanto-occipital joint in chronic AARF are not fully elucidated. The authors report two rare cases of secondary deformities in the atlanto-occipital joint in chronic AARF. Case Reports: Two patients with chronic AARF were treated with closed manipulation, skull traction and halo-vest immobilization. Clinical outcomes and radiographs were reviewed retrospectively, focusing on pathological changes in the atlanto-occipital joint using multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography and three-dimensional computed tomography images...
November 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Anantha Krishnan Raghupathi, Avinash Joshi
Introduction: Septic arthritis of the hip is a rare entity in acute presentation of hip pain in adults. Even though hip is the second most commonly affected joint, adult patients with septic arthritis not related to a surgical procedure represent <0.00001% of total acute admissions. Case Report: We present a 32-year-old female intravenous drug abuser, positive for Hepatitis B and C who had started to inject her femoral veins 2 years ago. She presented with a 10 weeks history of radiating pain in the leg which was full, constant and diffuse in nature with hip stiffness...
November 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Fashun Liu, Guanshui Ma, Dongyu Zhao
Blue phase liquid crystals (BPLCs) are regarded as the potential candidate for the next generation optical devices, but they appear in a&#13; narrow temperature range, which restricts their applicability. The nanoparticles stabilization of BPLCs which is usually about either simple-cubic blue phase (BPⅡ) or body-centered-cubic BP (BPⅠ). Hence, a nanoparticles-stabilized both BPⅡ and BPⅠ possessing wide&#13; temperature ranges has been scarcely reported. Here, nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) were synthesized and introduced into a BPLC...
March 29, 2018: Nanotechnology
Femke Nawijn, Benjamin Lucas Emmink, Jort Keizer, Willem-Maarten Bosman
A 10-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with proximal radioulnar translocation and radial head fracture, after fall onto an outstretched hand. Open reduction was used to reduce and stabilise the elbow joint after which the radial head was fixated by Kirschner wires. Three months after surgery, full range of motion was regained and union of the radial head was achieved. Proximal radioulnar translocation is a rare injury which is often missed on initial radiographs. Persistent restriction of forearm rotation with seemingly normal elbow configuration must trigger to take a closer look at the relationship between the ulna, radius and distal humerus...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Fiorenza Magi, Ivan Dimauro, Fabrizio Margheritini, Guglielmo Duranti, Neri Mercatelli, Cristina Fantini, Francesca Romana Ripani, Stefania Sabatini, Daniela Caporossi
In skeletal muscle, which mainly contains postmitotic myonuclei, it has been suggested that telomere length remains roughly constant throughout adult life, or shortens in response to physiopathological conditions in muscle diseases or in the elderly. However, telomere length results from both the replicative history of a specific tissue and the exposure to environmental, DNA damage-related factors, therefore the predictive biological significance of telomere measures should combine the analysis of the various interactive factors...
March 28, 2018: Free Radical Research
C E L Watkins, D W Elson, J W K Harrison, J Pooley
Aim The aim of this study was to report the long-term outcome and implant survival of the lateral resurfacing elbow (LRE) arthroplasty in the treatment of elbow arthritis. Patients and Methods We reviewed a consecutive series of 27 patients (30 elbows) who underwent LRE arthroplasty between December 2005 and January 2008. There were 15 women and 12 men, with a mean age of 61 years (25 to 82). The diagnosis was primary hypotrophic osteoarthritis (OA) in 12 patients (14 elbows), post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in five (five elbows) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in ten patients (11 elbows)...
March 1, 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
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