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C F Song, H Li, B Tian, S Chen, J B Miao, Y L Fu, B You, Q R Chen, T Li, X X Hu, W Q Zhang, B Hu
Objective: To evaluate the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after thoracic surgery and its characteristic. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective cohort study. Patients undergoing major thoracic surgeries between July 2016 and March 2017 at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University were enrolled in this study. Besides the routine examination, all patients were screened for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by using noninvasive duplex lower-extremity ultrasonography after surgery...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Xavier Mayali, Peter K Weber
To quantitatively link microbial identity with biogeochemical function, we carried out 14 simultaneous stable isotope probing experiments with organic and inorganic C and N substrates to measure the isotope incorporation by over one hundred co-occurring eukaryotic and prokaryotic populations in a coastal community. We found that nitrate was the most commonly incorporated substrate, and that light-driven carbon fixation was carried out by some bacterial taxa from the Flavobacteriales and OM60 (NOR5) clade, in addition to photoautotrophic phytoplankton...
March 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Heitor S P de Souza, Claudio Fiocchi
Despite unquestionable progress in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the much improved clinical results achievable today in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, the overall therapeutic outcome remains far from optimal. The main reason of this partial success is that all current medications only block individual components of a highly complex disease process that results from the integration of multiple and incompletely identified pathogenic components. Thus, if further progress is to be achieved in IBD therapeutics and we want to move from the current success rate to nearly 100%, bold new ideas must be entertained and new approaches put into practice...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Humayun Pervez, Nazia Khan, Jamshed Iqbal, Sumera Zaib, Muhammad Yaqub, Muhammad Moazzam Naseer
A series of fifteen N4-benzyl substituted 5-chloroisatin-3-thiosemicarbazones 5a-o were synthesized and screened mainly for their antiurease and antiglycation effects. Lemna aequinocitalis growth and Artemia salina assays were carried out to determine their phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity potential. All the compounds proved to be extremely effective urease inhibitors, demonstrating enzyme inhibition much better than the reference inhibitor, thiourea (IC50 values 1.31 ± 0.06 to 3.24 ± 0.15 vs. 22.3 ± 1.12 μM)...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Caitlin Black, Colin Southwell, Louise Emmerson, Daniel Lunn, Tom Hart
Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period...
2018: PloS One
Joanna X Wu, Chad B Wilsey, Lotem Taylor, Gregor W Schuurman
Birds in U.S. national parks find strong protection from many longstanding and pervasive threats, but remain highly exposed to effects of ongoing climate change. To understand how climate change is likely to alter bird communities in parks, we used species distribution models relating North American Breeding Bird Survey (summer) and Audubon Christmas Bird Count (winter) observations to climate data from the early 2000s and projected to 2041-2070 (hereafter, mid-century) under high and low greenhouse gas concentration trajectories, RCP8...
2018: PloS One
Abdalla Ahmed Elbashir, Hassan Y Aboul-Enein
Multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) is well-established GC method used for a diverse range of applications. Enantioselective MDGC (enantio-MDGC) has been suggested as the method of preference for the separation of extremely overlapping enantiomers. An extensive number of literatures describe enantio-MDGC of polychlorinated biphenyls, essential oils and flavor and fragrance and amino acids were reported. In this review, the applications of MDGC approaches both, heart cutting GC-GC and comprehensive GC × GC in chiral analysis is presented...
March 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Seungho Bang, Ngoc Thanh Duong, Jubok Lee, Yoo Hyun Cho, Hye Min Oh, Hyun Kim, Seok Joon Yun, Chul Ho Park, Min-Ki Kwon, Ja-Yeon Kim, Jeongyong Kim, Mun Seok Jeong
Monolayer (1L) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are promising materials for nano-scale optoelectronic devices, because of their direct band gap and wide absorption range (ultraviolet to infrared). However, 1L-TMDCs cannot be easily utilized for practical optoelectronic device applications (e.g., photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes) because of their extremely low optical quantum yields (QYs). In this investigation, a high-gain 1L-MoS2 photodetector was successfully realized, based on surface plasmon (SP) of the Ag nanowire (NW) network...
March 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Haw-Tyng Huang, Li Zhu, Matthew D Ward, Brian L Chaloux, Rostislav Hrubiak, Albert Epshteyn, John V Badding, Timothy A Strobel
The chemical stability of solid cubane under high-pressure was examined with in situ Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to 60 GPa. The Raman modes associated with solid cubane were assigned by comparing experimental data with calculations based on density functional perturbation theory, and low-frequency lattice modes are reported for the first time. The equation of state of solid cubane derived from the PXRD measurements taken during compression gives a bulk modulus of 14...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Kaveh Matinkhoo, Alla Pryyma, Mihajlo Todorovic, Brian O Patrick, David M Perrin
α-Amanitin is an extremely toxic bicyclic octapeptide isolated from the death-cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides. As a potent inhibitor of RNA polymerase II, α-amanitin is toxic to eukaryotic cells. Recent interest in α-amanitin arises from its promise as a payload for antibody-drug conjugates. For over 60 years, A. phalloides has been the only source of α-amanitin. Here we report a synthesis of α-amanitin, which surmounts the key challenges for installing the 6-hydroxy-tryptathionine sulfoxide bridge, enantioselective synthesis of (2 S,3 R,4 R)-4,5-dihydroxy-isoleucine, and diastereoselective sulfoxidation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hyun Woo Noh, Soon Moon Jeong, Junghyun Cho, Jung-Il Hong
Single crystalline ZnO nanoplatelet structures were synthesized via a hydrothermal process on the surface of GaN microparticles. Growth of ZnO seeded on the GaN surface promoted faster growth along the directions within the basal plane of the ZnO crystal structure, resulting in the formation of 2-dimensional nanoplates with a thickness less than a few tens of nanometers at most. Electrical conduction across an individual nanoplate was measured and found to be extremely sensitive to UV illumination and the surrounding atmospheric environment...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Deng Xiang, Jiannan He, Zimeng Fan, Fangfang Xiong, Gang Liu, Sufen Chen, Wu Wen, Jianfeng Li, Junhua Ai, Renhua Wan, Gongxian Wang, Jun Shi
RATIONALE: Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare anatomical variation of the internal organs, and solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a rare tissue type of pancreatic tumors, classified as benign or low-grade malignancy. However, to our knowledge, a patient with SIT and SPTP is extremely rare and has never been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: We retrospectively analyzed a case of SIT with SPTP in a 45-year-old woman. The main complaints were abdominal pain and sensation of heaviness for 2 weeks...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chen Ben David, Nicola L Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Kassem Sharif, Aaron Whitby, Howard Amital, Mohammad Adawi
RATIONALE: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by recurrent swollen, deep, and painful abscesses. Several autoimmune conditions have been shown to be associated with HS including inflammatory bowel disease and spondyloarthropathies. PATIENT CONCERNS: 40-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) presented with recurrent abscesses and nodules on her extremities. DIAGNOSIS: Early considerations related the described dermatologic findings to the dermatologic manifestations of SLE, however findings from lesion biopsy were suggestive of HS...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Wan-Lin Zhang, Shuang Ma, Rachel Jug, Fan Li, Endi Wang, Huan-Yu Zhao, Hong-Tao Xu, Lin Cai, Cheng-Qian Yu, Shuai Shen, Lian-He Yang
RATIONALE: Primary testicular natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive lymphoid malignancy. At present, only 20 cases have been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 32-year-old Chinese man complained of discomfort and swelling of his right testicle for 3 months. Physical examination revealed a 10 × 10 × 9.5 cm mass on the right side of the scrotum area. DIAGNOSES: Pathologic evaluation showed effacement of normal testicular parenchymal architecture by small-to-medium-sized lymphoid cells with irregular nuclear profiles, and immunohistochemical studies positively expressed CD2, CD56, cytoplasmic CD3, granzyme B, perforin, and TIA-1...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Je Jin Lee, Seho Lim, Yeon Sil Lee, Hwa-Yong Shin, Chong-Wha Baek, Yong Hun Jung, Young Cheol Woo, Yong-Hee Park
RATIONALE: Myoclonic movement is a rare side effect after general anesthesia. Since we use various intravenous agents during general anesthesia recently, it is troublesome to find out the exact cause of this neurologic complication. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old female patient without any past medical history underwent hip arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia. DIAGNOSES: Although there was no specific event during the operation, she showed a sudden myoclonic movement confined to left upper extremity in recovery room...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Z X Ren, C L Liu, Q Zhang, F Xu, Y N Zheng, X J Li, J Yang
RATIONALE: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a life-threatening situation that is rare in children, especially infants, and early diagnosis is challenging. Timely identification and broad-spectrum antibiotic and supportive treatment before surgical debridement are very important for survival and may reduce scar formation. PATIENT CONCERNS: A previously healthy 4-month-old infant was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with a history of fever and cough for 5 days and extreme swelling of the scrotum for one day...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrea M Byrne, Tal Schechter, Robyn Westmacott
We report the neuropsychological profile of a 6-year-old girl with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder associated with thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and malignancy. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males and is extremely rare in females, with no known research focused on cognitive and academic functioning in this population. Our patient was referred due to concerns about her memory and academic functioning. She had a history of progressive thrombocytopenia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at age 15 months...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Brandon P Vasquez, Jennifer C Tomaszczyk, Bhanu Sharma, Brenda Colella, Robin E A Green
BACKGROUND: Executive control deficits are deleterious and enduring consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that disrupt everyday functioning. Clinically, such impairments can manifest as behavioural inconsistency, measurable experimentally by the degree of variability across trials of a reaction time (RT) task (also known as intraindividual variability [IIV]). Growing research on cognition after TBI points to cognitive deterioration in the chronic stages postinjury...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Alexandra Mendoza-Caminade
Although research on human biological material has long been the subject of much controversy, the question of the embryo is an extremely delicate subject.Concerns are strong about the possibilities of conducting research on embryonic matter, and the difficulties in defining the legal rules applicable to the embryo are also found in research and intellectual property. The field of patentability depends on the notion retained about the embryo because of a principle prohibiting the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Meiling Chen, Yufeng Wu, Weixing Song, Yuncheng Mo, Xiankun Lin, Qiang He, Bin Guo
High-performance floating film-based solar steam generation has received extensive attention for clean fresh water generation. Herein, we report high-strength nanoporous gold nanoparticle (AuNP)/poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) nanofibre (PBONF) composite films that are capable of enhanced solar steam generation. The PBONFs were employed as building blocks to fabricate nanoporous PBONF multilayer composite films using a layer-by-layer assembly technique. These PBONF multilayer composite films then served as supports for depositing AuNPs...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
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