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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523066/framework-for-an-effective-assessment-from-rocky-roads-to-silk-route
#1
Zarrin Seema Siddiqui
A defensible assessment is the cornerstone of health professions education and requires a careful approach from all the stakeholders involved in designing and delivering the curriculum. In this article, a framework is described using four essential attributes that define an effective assessment. These attributes include orientation and clarification of expectations for both faculty and students followed by a well-structured learning experience and constant evaluation of the assessment program.
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379960/gc-ms-and-proteomics-to-unravel-the-painting-history-of-the-lost-giant-buddhas-of-b%C3%A4-miy%C3%A4-n-afghanistan
#2
Anna Lluveras-Tenorio, Roberto Vinciguerra, Eugenio Galano, Catharina Blaensdorf, Erwin Emmerling, Maria Perla Colombini, Leila Birolo, Ilaria Bonaduce
A chemical investigation of the organic paint binders of the Giant Buddhas of Bāmiyān was performed using an analytical approach based on mass spectrometry, combining traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry protocols with advanced proteomics methodologies. The research was carried out on a selection of rescued fragments. The data revealed the use of egg proteins as the paint binders of the original layers, in accordance with the traditional use of this proteinaceous medium in antiquity, spanning from the Mediterranean basin to the Far East, and already in the Bronze Age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357801/nitrogen-contamination-in-groundwater-in-an-agricultural-region-along-the-new-silk-road-northwest-china-distribution-and-factors-controlling-its-fate
#3
Jie Chen, Hui Qian, Hao Wu
Nitrogen contamination is a global concern and has been a serious problem in agricultural areas. The present study was carried out in an intensively irrigated region of northwest China along the New Silk Road, Yinchuan Plain, where the residents depend on the groundwater as the primary source for drinking. To understand the nitrogen contamination in the aquifer system, the distribution of nitrate and ammonium and its controlling factors were studied based on hydrochemical, hydrogeological, and isotopic analyses...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303732/mitochondrial-dna-sequence-variation-in-iranian-native-dogs
#4
Zeinab Amiri Ghanatsaman, Adeniyi C Adeola, Masood Asadi Fozi, Ya-Ping Ma, Min-Sheng Peng, Guo-Dong Wang, Ali Esmailizadeh, Ya-Ping Zhang
The dog mtDNA diversity picture from wide geographical sampling but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, displayed little geographical correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. For a clear picture, we extensively surveyed Iranian native dogs (n = 305) in comparison with published European (n = 443) and Southwest Asian (n = 195) dogs. Twelve haplotypes related to haplogroups A, B and C were shared by Iranian, European, Southwest Asian and East Asian dogs...
March 17, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277506/nomadic-ecology-shaped-the-highland-geography-of-asia-s-silk-roads
#5
Michael D Frachetti, C Evan Smith, Cynthia M Traub, Tim Williams
There are many unanswered questions about the evolution of the ancient 'Silk Roads' across Asia. This is especially the case in their mountainous stretches, where harsh terrain is seen as an impediment to travel. Considering the ecology and mobility of inner Asian mountain pastoralists, we use 'flow accumulation' modelling to calculate the annual routes of nomadic societies (from 750 m to 4,000 m elevation). Aggregating 500 iterations of the model reveals a high-resolution flow network that simulates how centuries of seasonal nomadic herding could shape discrete routes of connectivity across the mountains of Asia...
March 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236931/technical-aspects-of-transcarotid-artery-revascularization-using-the-enroute-transcarotid-neuroprotection-and-stent-system
#6
Mahmoud B Malas, Jose Leal, Vikram Kashyap, Richard Paul Cambria, Christopher J Kwolek, Enrique Criado
Transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) with the ENROUTE transcarotid neuroprotection and stent system (Silk Road Medical, Inc, Sunnyvale, Calif) combines surgical principles of neuroprotection with less invasive endovascular techniques to treat high grade stenosis in the carotid artery. The ENROUTE Neuroprotection System allows the surgeon to directly access the common carotid artery to initiate high rate temporary blood flow reversal to protect the brain while performing carotid angioplasty and stenting...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148585/behcet-s-disease
#7
Jagdish R Nair, Robert J Moots
Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting vasculitis of unknown aetiology. It has the capacity to affect almost all organ systems because of its potential to involve both arteries and veins of all sizes, resulting in significant organ-threatening morbidity and mortality. Traditionally known as the 'silk road' disease, it has a worldwide occurrence. The aetiopathological mechanisms of disease development in BD remain poorly understood, but genome wide studies show human leukocyte antigen and non-human leukocyte antigen associations...
February 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118680/surgical-wisdom-and-genghis-khan-s-pax-mongolica
#8
Jakob Köstenbauer
BACKGROUND: The unrivalled conquests of Genghis Khan (CE c.1162-1227) led to the establishment of the Greater Mongolian Empire. By 1279, the Mongol dynasty controlled a vast Empire which, for the first time in history, unified Europe and China via the famous Silk Road. The ensuing century of peace and stability is referred to by historians as the Pax Mongolica, which facilitated Europe's renaissance and remarkably contributed to the rise of modern medicine and surgery. METHODS: Secondary sources from published literature, primary sources from manuscripts and illustrations courtesy of universities, museum libraries and archives...
March 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089207/delivery-dilemmas-how-drug-cryptomarket-users-identify-and-seek-to-reduce-their-risk-of-detection-by-law-enforcement
#9
Judith Aldridge, Rebecca Askew
BACKGROUND: Cryptomarkets represent an important drug market innovation by bringing buyers and sellers of illegal drugs together in a 'hidden' yet public online marketplace. We ask: How do cryptomarket drug sellers and buyers perceive the risks of detection and arrest, and attempt to limit them? METHODS: We analyse selected texts produced by vendors operating on the first major drug cryptomarket, Silk Road (N=600) alongside data extracted from the marketplace discussion forum that include buyer perspectives...
January 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031553/genetic-origin-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-population-in-denizli-turkey-population-genetics-data-analysis-historical-demography-and-geographical-perspectives-based-on-%C3%AE-globin-gene-cluster-haplotype-variation
#10
O Ozturk, S Arikan, A Bahadir, A Atalay, E O Atalay
In our study, we aimed to investigate the possible genetic drift, relationships, expansion and historical origin based on haplotype frequencies of the β-globin gene cluster of normal and Behçet's disease (BD) population in Denizli, Turkey. We examined blood DNA samples obtained from our DNA bank. The association of population genetic parameters such as haplotypes, diversity, differentiation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and demographic analysis for two populations was performed by Arlequin ver. 3.5. Our results show that both populations have high similarity in genetic parameters in terms of development and expansion based on haplotype diversity through the history...
December 29, 2016: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889114/the-hidden-web-and-the-fentanyl-problem-detection-of-ocfentanil-as-an-adulterant-in-heroin
#11
Pol Quintana, Mireia Ventura, Marc Grifell, Alvaro Palma, Liliana Galindo, Iván Fornís, Cristina Gil, Xoán Carbón, Fernando Caudevilla, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
BACKGROUND: The popularization of anonymous markets such as Silk Road is challenging current drug policy and may provide a new context for old issues, such as adulteration of heroin with fentanyl derivatives. The aims of this paper are to report the presence of ocfentanil, a novel, potent, non-controlled fentanyl analog, in samples sold as heroin in the hidden web, and to summarize the effects reported by users. METHODS: In 2015, four samples allegedly bought as heroin in cryptomarkets of the hidden web were sent to Energy Control for analysis...
November 23, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867825/evolution-opportunity-and-challenges-of-transboundary-water-and-energy-problems-in-central-asia
#12
Lidan Guo, Haiwei Zhou, Ziqiang Xia, Feng Huang
Central Asia is one of the regions that suffer the most prominent transboundary water and energy problems in the world. Effective transboundary water-energy resource management and cooperation are closely related with socioeconomic development and stability in the entire Central Asia. Similar to Central Asia, Northwest China has an arid climate and is experiencing a water shortage. It is now facing imbalanced supply-demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853113/ancient-human-parasites-in-ethnic-chinese-populations
#13
REVIEW
Hui-Yuan Yeh, Piers D Mitchell
Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808359/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-kazakh-horses-equus-caballus-inferred-from-mtdna-sequences
#14
M Gemingguli, K R Iskhan, Y Li, A Qi, W Wunirifu, L Y Ding, A Wumaierjiang
The Kazakh horse is an important old horse breed in Xinjiang. They have contributed greatly to the breeding and improvement of other local horse breeds, yet their genetic diversity and population structure are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Kazakh horses and their relationship with other horse breeds using the mtDNA D-loop region, Cyt b gene, and a DNA fragment (nps 7974-9963, containing COX3, tRNA-Gly, ND3, and tRNA-Arg). A total of 130 Kazakh horses from 8 populations in China and Kazakhstan were analyzed...
October 5, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762330/strontium-isotope-evidence-for-a-highly-mobile-population-on-the-pamir-plateau-2500-years-ago
#15
Xueye Wang, Zihua Tang, Jing Wu, Xinhua Wu, Yiqun Wu, Xinying Zhou
Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606133/investigation-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-and-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis-frequency-the-highest-prevalence-in-turkey
#16
Yalçın Baş, Havva Yıldız Seçkin, Göknur Kalkan, Zennure Takcı, Yalçın Önder, Rıza Çıtıl, Selim Demir, Şafak Şahin
BACKGROUND: The Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is the most frequently observed painful pathology of the oral mucosa in the society. It appears mostly in idiopathic form; however, it may also be related with systemic diseases like Behçet's Disease (BD). AIMS: Determining the prevalence of RAS and BD in the Northern Anatolian Region, which is one of the important routes on the Antique Silk Road. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Overall, 85 separate exemplification groups were formed to reflect the population density, and the demographic data of the region they represent...
July 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558013/hla-class-i-variation-in-iranian-lur-and-kurd-populations-high-haplotype-and-allotype-diversity-with-an-abundance-of-kir-ligands
#17
E Ashouri, P J Norman, L A Guethlein, A S Han, N Nemat-Gorgani, S J Norberg, A Ghaderi, P Parham
HLA-A, -B and -C alleles of 285 individuals, representing three Iranian Lur populations and one Iranian Kurd population were sequenced completely, yielding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genotypes at high resolution and filling four fields of the official HLA nomenclature. Each population has 87-99 alleles, evenly distributed between the three HLA class I genes, 145 alleles being identified in total. These alleles were already known, named and deposited in the HLA database. The alleles form 316 different HLA A-B-C haplotypes, with each population having between 80 and 112 haplotypes...
September 2016: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527229/tissue-regeneration-a-silk-road
#18
REVIEW
Dave Jao, Xiaoyang Mou, Xiao Hu
Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503253/bibliometric-analysis-on-global-beh%C3%A3-et-disease-publications-during-1980-2014-is-there-a-silk-road-in-the-literature
#19
E Şenel, E Demir, R M Alkan
BACKGROUND: Behçet disease (BD) is a chronic and multisystemic vasculitis characterized with recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis and skin manifestations. The highest prevalence of the disease has been reported in regions historically involved in the Silk Road routes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyse Behçet literature and evaluate whether there is a concordance between ancient Silk Road regions and the distribution of publication productivity. METHODS: The bibliometric analysis of the publications published during 1980-2014 using Thomson Reuters Web of Science database was performed...
March 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497330/y-str-markers-from-ladakh-in-the-himalayas
#20
David Perez-Benedico, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Tenzin Gayden, Diane J Rowold, Ralph Garcia-Bertrand, Rene J Herrera
A total of 223 samples from the general population of Ladakh in Northwestern India were amplified at 17 Y-STR loci using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ system. The DNA profiles generated were employed to generate allelic frequencies, gene diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity values as well as number of different haplotypes, fraction of unique haplotypes and Rst pair wise genetic distances. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Correspondence Analysis (CA) were performed with the Rst values and allelic frequencies, respectively...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
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