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Silk Road

Xueye Wang, Zihua Tang, Jing Wu, Xinhua Wu, Yiqun Wu, Xinying Zhou
Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yalçın Baş, Havva Yıldız Seçkin, Göknur Kalkan, Zennure Takcı, Yalçın Önder, Rıza Çıtıl, Selim Demir, Şafak Şahin
BACKGROUND: The Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is the most frequently observed painful pathology of the oral mucosa in the society. It appears mostly in idiopathic form; however, it may also be related with systemic diseases like Behçet's Disease (BD). AIMS: Determining the prevalence of RAS and BD in the Northern Anatolian Region, which is one of the important routes on the Antique Silk Road. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Overall, 85 separate exemplification groups were formed to reflect the population density, and the demographic data of the region they represent...
July 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
E Ashouri, P J Norman, L A Guethlein, A S Han, N Nemat-Gorgani, S J Norberg, A Ghaderi, P Parham
HLA-A, -B and -C alleles of 285 individuals, representing three Iranian Lur populations and one Iranian Kurd population were sequenced completely, yielding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genotypes at high resolution and filling four fields of the official HLA nomenclature. Each population has 87-99 alleles, evenly distributed between the three HLA class I genes, 145 alleles being identified in total. These alleles were already known, named and deposited in the HLA database. The alleles form 316 different HLA A-B-C haplotypes, with each population having between 80 and 112 haplotypes...
September 2016: HLA
Dave Jao, Xiaoyang Mou, Xiao Hu
Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Engin Şenel, Emre Demir, Reha Metin Alkan
BACKGROUND: Behçet disease is a chronic and multisystemic vasculitis characterized with recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis, and skin manifestations. The highest prevalence of the disease has been reported in regions historically involved in the Silk Road routes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze Behçet literature and evaluate whether there is a concordance between ancient Silk Road regions and the distribution of publication productivity. METHODS: The bibliometric analysis of the publications published during 1980-2014 using Thomson Reuters Web of Science database was performed...
August 9, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
David Perez-Benedico, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Tenzin Gayden, Diane J Rowold, Ralph Garcia-Bertrand, Rene J Herrera
A total of 223 samples from the general population of Ladakh in Northwestern India were amplified at 17 Y-STR loci using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ system. The DNA profiles generated were employed to generate allelic frequencies, gene diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity values as well as number of different haplotypes, fraction of unique haplotypes and Rst pair wise genetic distances. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Correspondence Analysis (CA) were performed with the Rst values and allelic frequencies, respectively...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
David Décary-Hétu, Masarah Paquet-Clouston, Judith Aldridge
BACKGROUND: Since 2011, we have witnessed the rise of 'dark net' drug marketplaces known as cryptomarkets. Cryptomarkets operate on the same model as eBay as they provide a platform where authorized vendors can set up a virtual shop and place listings. Building on a growing body of literature that seeks to understand cryptomarket participants, this paper seeks to explain the decision of cryptomarket vendors to take on risk. METHODS: We collected data on Silk Road 1 (SR1), the first cryptomarket launched in 2011...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Rasmus Munksgaard, Jakob Demant
BACKGROUND: Dread Pirate Roberts, founder of the first cryptomarket for illicit drugs named Silk Road, articulated libertarian political motives for his ventures. Previous research argues that there is a significant political component present or involved in cryptomarket drug dealing which is specifically libertarian. The aim of the paper is to investigate the prevalence of political discourses within discussions of cryptomarket drug dealing, and further to research the potential changes of these over the timespan of the study...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Fereydoun Davatchi, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Hormoz Shams, Farhad Shahram, Abdolhadi Nadji, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Tahreh Faezi, Zahra Ghodsi, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi, Farimah Ashofteh, Negin Mohtasham, Hoda Kavosi, Mariam Masoumi
INTRODUCTION: Behcet's Disease (BD) is classified among vasculitides. The aim of this review was to put together different known reports in order to help the reader to better understand the disease, to avoid the frequent misdiagnosis, and to decide the best treatment. AREAS COVERED: a) Epidemiology: BD is rare, and is seen along the Silk Road, from 20 to 420/100,000 in Turkey and 80/100,000 in Iran, to 0.64/100,000 in the UK. b) Clinical manifestations: oral aphthosis is seen in more than 95% of patients, genital aphthosis (60-90%), skin (pseudofolliculitis/erythema nodosum, 40-90%), eyes (uveitis/retinal vasculitis, 45-90%), gastrointestinal (diarrhea/hemorrhage/perforation/pain, 4-38%), vascular (venous/arterial thrombosis, aneurysm, 2...
July 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Kateryna B Fuks, Gudrun Weinmayr, Frauke Hennig, Lilian Tzivian, Susanne Moebus, Hermann Jakobs, Michael Memmesheimer, Hagen Kälsch, Silke Andrich, Michael Nonnemacher, Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Barbara Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may lead to increased blood pressure (BP). The role of industry- and traffic-specific PM2.5 remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of residential long-term source-specific PM2.5 exposure with arterial BP and incident hypertension in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study. METHODS: We defined hypertension as systolic BP≥140mmHg, or diastolic BP≥90mmHg, or current use of BP lowering medication...
August 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Judith Aldridge, David Décary-Hétu
BACKGROUND: In spite of globalizing processes 'offline' retail drug markets remain localized and - in recent decades - typically 'closed', in which dealers sell primarily to known customers. We characterize drug cryptomarkets as 'anonymous open' marketplaces that allow the diffusion of drugs across locales. Where cryptomarket customers make stock-sourcing purchases for offline distribution, the cryptomarket may indirectly serve drug users who are not themselves cryptomarket customers, thereby increasing the drug diffusing capacity of these marketplaces...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Qiu-ju He, Li-qin Wang
As the birthplace of Silk Road, China has a long dyeing history. The valuable information about the production time, the source of dyeing material, dyeing process and preservation status were existed in organic dyestuff deriving from cultural relics and artifacts. However, because of the low contents, complex compositions and easily degraded of dyestuff, it is always a challenging task to identify the dyestuff in relics analyzing field. As a finger-print spectrum, Raman spectroscopy owns unique superiorities in dyestuff identification...
February 2016: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, Guang Pu
Monica J Barratt, Simon Lenton, Alexia Maddox, Matthew Allen
BACKGROUND: Cryptomarkets are digital platforms that use anonymising software (e.g. Tor) and cryptocurrencies (e.g. Bitcoin) to facilitate peer-to-peer (P2P) trade of goods and services. Their emergence has facilitated access to a wide range of high-quality psychoactive substances, according to surveys of users. In this paper, we ask the question 'How does changing access to drugs through cryptomarkets affect the drug use and harm trajectories of their users?' METHODS: We conducted a digital ethnography spanning 2012-2014, a period that included the seizure of the original Silk Road marketplace and forum by law enforcement...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Jane Qiu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Scientific American
Rasmus Munksgaard, Jakob Demant, Gwern Branwen
The development of cryptomarkets has gained increasing attention from academics, including growing scientific literature on the distribution of illegal goods using cryptomarkets. Dolliver's 2015 article "Evaluating drug trafficking on the Tor Network: Silk Road 2, the Sequel" addresses this theme by evaluating drug trafficking on one of the most well-known cryptomarkets, Silk Road 2.0. The research on cryptomarkets in general-particularly in Dolliver's article-poses a number of new questions for methodologies...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Nabila El-Bassel, Louisa Gilbert, Stacey A Shaw, Gaukhar Mergenova, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Xin Ma, Mingway Chang, Leyla Ismayilova, Tim Hunt, Brooke West, Elwin Wu, Chris Beyrer
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex). METHODS: We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics...
2016: PloS One
Wesley S Moore, Brian G DeRubertis
BACKGROUND: Carotid stent and/or angioplasty (CAS) via the transfemoral route with distal protection carries twice the risk of stroke and/or death when compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in multiple randomized trials. Potential causes for this include disadvantaged aortic arch anatomy and the need to traverse the lesion to place a distal protection device. This report describes the technique and our experience with direct CAS using flow reversal for embolic protection. METHODS: University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) division of Vascular and Endovascular surgery was a participant in the multi-institutional Roadster Trial of high-risk patients...
May 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Yukihiro Horie, Akira Meguro, Tohru Ohta, Eun Bong Lee, Kenichi Namba, Kazuomi Mizuuchi, Daiju Iwata, Nobuhisa Mizuki, Masao Ota, Hidetoshi Inoko, Susumu Ishida, Shigeaki Ohno, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi
PURPOSE: Behçet disease (BD) is predominantly found between East Asia and the Mediterranean basin along the historic Silk Road. HLA-B51 is known to be strongly associated with BD. We investigated the association between HLA-B51 and the ocular manifestations of BD among various ethnic groups. METHODS: A literature survey was conducted, and 18 articles written in English were reviewed. RESULTS: A strong correlation was found between HLA-B51 and ocular lesions in the entire cohort discussed in the reviewed articles (OR = 1...
March 8, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Ranajit Das, Paul Wexler, Mehdi Pirooznia, Eran Elhaik
The Yiddish language is over 1,000 years old and incorporates German, Slavic, and Hebrew elements. The prevalent view claims Yiddish has a German origin, whereas the opposing view posits a Slavic origin with strong Iranian and weak Turkic substrata. One of the major difficulties in deciding between these hypotheses is the unknown geographical origin of Yiddish speaking Ashkenazic Jews (AJs). An analysis of 393 Ashkenazic, Iranian, and mountain Jews and over 600 non-Jewish genomes demonstrated that Greeks, Romans, Iranians, and Turks exhibit the highest genetic similarity with AJs...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Athanasios Diamandopoulos
The paper presents the history of the dissemination of knowledge about renal issues during the Middle Ages based on the transfer of manuscripts from the centres of knowledge of the then known world to the periphery. Starting from the Greco-Roman world it follows the transfer of manuscripts and ideas via three main roads. Firstly, the North Road extends till the remote Ireland on the West and Russia to the East, secondly, the South Road reaching Arabia and Central Africa and thirdly, the East Road otherwise named the Silk Road...
February 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
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