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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889114/the-hidden-web-and-the-fentanyl-problem-detection-of-ocfentanil-as-an-adulterant-in-heroin
#1
Pol Quintana, Mireia Ventura, Marc Grifell, Alvaro Palma, Liliana Galindo, Iván Fornís, Cristina Gil, Xoán Carbón, Fernando Caudevilla, Magí Farré, Marta Torrens
BACKGROUND: The popularization of anonymous markets such as Silk Road is challenging current drug policy and may provide a new context for old issues, such as adulteration of heroin with fentanyl derivatives. The aims of this paper are to report the presence of ocfentanil, a novel, potent, non-controlled fentanyl analog, in samples sold as heroin in the hidden web, and to summarize the effects reported by users. METHODS: In 2015, four samples allegedly bought as heroin in cryptomarkets of the hidden web were sent to Energy Control for analysis...
November 23, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867825/evolution-opportunity-and-challenges-of-transboundary-water-and-energy-problems-in-central-asia
#2
Lidan Guo, Haiwei Zhou, Ziqiang Xia, Feng Huang
Central Asia is one of the regions that suffer the most prominent transboundary water and energy problems in the world. Effective transboundary water-energy resource management and cooperation are closely related with socioeconomic development and stability in the entire Central Asia. Similar to Central Asia, Northwest China has an arid climate and is experiencing a water shortage. It is now facing imbalanced supply-demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853113/ancient-human-parasites-in-ethnic-chinese-populations
#3
REVIEW
Hui-Yuan Yeh, Piers D Mitchell
Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808359/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-kazakh-horses-equus-caballus-inferred-from-mtdna-sequences
#4
M Gemingguli, K R Iskhan, Y Li, A Qi, W Wunirifu, L Y Ding, A Wumaierjiang
The Kazakh horse is an important old horse breed in Xinjiang. They have contributed greatly to the breeding and improvement of other local horse breeds, yet their genetic diversity and population structure are not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Kazakh horses and their relationship with other horse breeds using the mtDNA D-loop region, Cyt b gene, and a DNA fragment (nps 7974-9963, containing COX3, tRNA-Gly, ND3, and tRNA-Arg). A total of 130 Kazakh horses from 8 populations in China and Kazakhstan were analyzed...
October 5, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762330/strontium-isotope-evidence-for-a-highly-mobile-population-on-the-pamir-plateau-2500-years-ago
#5
Xueye Wang, Zihua Tang, Jing Wu, Xinhua Wu, Yiqun Wu, Xinying Zhou
Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606133/investigation-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-and-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis-frequency-the-highest-prevalence-in-turkey
#6
Yalçın Baş, Havva Yıldız Seçkin, Göknur Kalkan, Zennure Takcı, Yalçın Önder, Rıza Çıtıl, Selim Demir, Şafak Şahin
BACKGROUND: The Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is the most frequently observed painful pathology of the oral mucosa in the society. It appears mostly in idiopathic form; however, it may also be related with systemic diseases like Behçet's Disease (BD). AIMS: Determining the prevalence of RAS and BD in the Northern Anatolian Region, which is one of the important routes on the Antique Silk Road. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Overall, 85 separate exemplification groups were formed to reflect the population density, and the demographic data of the region they represent...
July 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558013/hla-class-i-variation-in-iranian-lur-and-kurd-populations-high-haplotype-and-allotype-diversity-with-an-abundance-of-kir-ligands
#7
E Ashouri, P J Norman, L A Guethlein, A S Han, N Nemat-Gorgani, S J Norberg, A Ghaderi, P Parham
HLA-A, -B and -C alleles of 285 individuals, representing three Iranian Lur populations and one Iranian Kurd population were sequenced completely, yielding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genotypes at high resolution and filling four fields of the official HLA nomenclature. Each population has 87-99 alleles, evenly distributed between the three HLA class I genes, 145 alleles being identified in total. These alleles were already known, named and deposited in the HLA database. The alleles form 316 different HLA A-B-C haplotypes, with each population having between 80 and 112 haplotypes...
September 2016: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527229/tissue-regeneration-a-silk-road
#8
REVIEW
Dave Jao, Xiaoyang Mou, Xiao Hu
Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503253/bibliometric-analysis-on-global-beh%C3%A3-et-disease-publications-during-1980-2014-is-there-a-silk-road-in-the-literature
#9
Engin Şenel, Emre Demir, Reha Metin Alkan
BACKGROUND: Behçet disease is a chronic and multisystemic vasculitis characterized with recurrent oral and genital ulcers, uveitis, arthritis, and skin manifestations. The highest prevalence of the disease has been reported in regions historically involved in the Silk Road routes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze Behçet literature and evaluate whether there is a concordance between ancient Silk Road regions and the distribution of publication productivity. METHODS: The bibliometric analysis of the publications published during 1980-2014 using Thomson Reuters Web of Science database was performed...
August 9, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497330/y-str-markers-from-ladakh-in-the-himalayas
#10
David Perez-Benedico, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Tenzin Gayden, Diane J Rowold, Ralph Garcia-Bertrand, Rene J Herrera
A total of 223 samples from the general population of Ladakh in Northwestern India were amplified at 17 Y-STR loci using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler™ system. The DNA profiles generated were employed to generate allelic frequencies, gene diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity values as well as number of different haplotypes, fraction of unique haplotypes and Rst pair wise genetic distances. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Correspondence Analysis (CA) were performed with the Rst values and allelic frequencies, respectively...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453145/going-international-risk-taking-by-cryptomarket-drug-vendors
#11
David Décary-Hétu, Masarah Paquet-Clouston, Judith Aldridge
BACKGROUND: Since 2011, we have witnessed the rise of 'dark net' drug marketplaces known as cryptomarkets. Cryptomarkets operate on the same model as eBay as they provide a platform where authorized vendors can set up a virtual shop and place listings. Building on a growing body of literature that seeks to understand cryptomarket participants, this paper seeks to explain the decision of cryptomarket vendors to take on risk. METHODS: We collected data on Silk Road 1 (SR1), the first cryptomarket launched in 2011...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424175/mixing-politics-and-crime-the-prevalence-and-decline-of-political-discourse-on-the-cryptomarket
#12
Rasmus Munksgaard, Jakob Demant
BACKGROUND: Dread Pirate Roberts, founder of the first cryptomarket for illicit drugs named Silk Road, articulated libertarian political motives for his ventures. Previous research argues that there is a significant political component present or involved in cryptomarket drug dealing which is specifically libertarian. The aim of the paper is to investigate the prevalence of political discourses within discussions of cryptomarket drug dealing, and further to research the potential changes of these over the timespan of the study...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351485/behcet-s-disease-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis
#13
Fereydoun Davatchi, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Hormoz Shams, Farhad Shahram, Abdolhadi Nadji, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Tahreh Faezi, Zahra Ghodsi, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi, Farimah Ashofteh, Negin Mohtasham, Hoda Kavosi, Mariam Masoumi
INTRODUCTION: Behcet's Disease (BD) is classified among vasculitides. The aim of this review was to put together different known reports in order to help the reader to better understand the disease, to avoid the frequent misdiagnosis, and to decide the best treatment. AREAS COVERED: a) Epidemiology: BD is rare, and is seen along the Silk Road, from 20 to 420/100,000 in Turkey and 80/100,000 in Iran, to 0.64/100,000 in the UK. b) Clinical manifestations: oral aphthosis is seen in more than 95% of patients, genital aphthosis (60-90%), skin (pseudofolliculitis/erythema nodosum, 40-90%), eyes (uveitis/retinal vasculitis, 45-90%), gastrointestinal (diarrhea/hemorrhage/perforation/pain, 4-38%), vascular (venous/arterial thrombosis, aneurysm, 2...
July 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318724/association-of-long-term-exposure-to-local-industry-and-traffic-specific-particulate-matter-with-arterial-blood-pressure-and-incident-hypertension
#14
Kateryna B Fuks, Gudrun Weinmayr, Frauke Hennig, Lilian Tzivian, Susanne Moebus, Hermann Jakobs, Michael Memmesheimer, Hagen Kälsch, Silke Andrich, Michael Nonnemacher, Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Barbara Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may lead to increased blood pressure (BP). The role of industry- and traffic-specific PM2.5 remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of residential long-term source-specific PM2.5 exposure with arterial BP and incident hypertension in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study. METHODS: We defined hypertension as systolic BP≥140mmHg, or diastolic BP≥90mmHg, or current use of BP lowering medication...
August 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260863/hidden-wholesale-the-drug-diffusing-capacity-of-online-drug-cryptomarkets
#15
Judith Aldridge, David Décary-Hétu
BACKGROUND: In spite of globalizing processes 'offline' retail drug markets remain localized and - in recent decades - typically 'closed', in which dealers sell primarily to known customers. We characterize drug cryptomarkets as 'anonymous open' marketplaces that allow the diffusion of drugs across locales. Where cryptomarket customers make stock-sourcing purchases for offline distribution, the cryptomarket may indirectly serve drug users who are not themselves cryptomarket customers, thereby increasing the drug diffusing capacity of these marketplaces...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209739/-research-progress-of-raman-spectroscopy-on-dyestuff-identification-of-ancient-relics-and-artifacts
#16
Qiu-ju He, Li-qin Wang
As the birthplace of Silk Road, China has a long dyeing history. The valuable information about the production time, the source of dyeing material, dyeing process and preservation status were existed in organic dyestuff deriving from cultural relics and artifacts. However, because of the low contents, complex compositions and easily degraded of dyestuff, it is always a challenging task to identify the dyestuff in relics analyzing field. As a finger-print spectrum, Raman spectroscopy owns unique superiorities in dyestuff identification...
February 2016: Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi, Guang Pu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157539/-what-if-you-live-on-top-of-a-bakery-and-you-like-cakes-drug-use-and-harm-trajectories-before-during-and-after-the-emergence-of-silk-road
#17
Monica J Barratt, Simon Lenton, Alexia Maddox, Matthew Allen
BACKGROUND: Cryptomarkets are digital platforms that use anonymising software (e.g. Tor) and cryptocurrencies (e.g. Bitcoin) to facilitate peer-to-peer (P2P) trade of goods and services. Their emergence has facilitated access to a wide range of high-quality psychoactive substances, according to surveys of users. In this paper, we ask the question 'How does changing access to drugs through cryptomarkets affect the drug use and harm trajectories of their users?' METHODS: We conducted a digital ethnography spanning 2012-2014, a period that included the seizure of the original Silk Road marketplace and forum by law enforcement...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27082185/silk-road-heads-for-the-hills
#18
Jane Qiu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Scientific American
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079624/a-replication-and-methodological-critique-of-the-study-evaluating-drug-trafficking-on-the-tor-network
#19
Rasmus Munksgaard, Jakob Demant, Gwern Branwen
The development of cryptomarkets has gained increasing attention from academics, including growing scientific literature on the distribution of illegal goods using cryptomarkets. Dolliver's 2015 article "Evaluating drug trafficking on the Tor Network: Silk Road 2, the Sequel" addresses this theme by evaluating drug trafficking on one of the most well-known cryptomarkets, Silk Road 2.0. The research on cryptomarkets in general-particularly in Dolliver's article-poses a number of new questions for methodologies...
September 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26967159/the-silk-road-health-project-how-mobility-and-migration-status-influence-hiv-risks-among-male-migrant-workers-in-central-asia
#20
Nabila El-Bassel, Louisa Gilbert, Stacey A Shaw, Gaukhar Mergenova, Assel Terlikbayeva, Sholpan Primbetova, Xin Ma, Mingway Chang, Leyla Ismayilova, Tim Hunt, Brooke West, Elwin Wu, Chris Beyrer
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex). METHODS: We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics...
2016: PloS One
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