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Dark Web

Ahmed Al-Imam, Rita Santacroce, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Fenetheylline, a psychostimulant drug, often branded as Captagon, is a combination of amphetamine and theophylline. Since the cessation of its legal production in 1986, counterfeited products have been produced illicitly in south-east Europe and far-east Asia. Its profitable trade has been linked to terrorist organizations, including Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. This study aims to reach up-to-date data, concerning the Captagon e-commerce and use in the Middle East...
October 21, 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Masahiro Hayata, Shintaro Tsuda, Kiyoshi Yamada, Yasushi Nagata
We proposed a simple visual method for evaluating the dynamic tumor tracking (DTT) accuracy of a gimbal mechanism using a light field. A single photon beam was set with a field size of 30 × 30 mm2 at a gantry angle of 90°. The center of a cube phantom was set up at the isocenter of a motion table, and 4D modeling was performed based on the tumor and infrared (IR) marker motion. After 4D modeling, the cube phantom was replaced with a sheet of paper, which was placed perpen-dicularly, and a light field was projected on the sheet of paper...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Célia Boyer, Ron D Appel, Marion J Ball, Jan H van Bemmel, Jean-Paul Bergmans, Michel Carpentier, Denis Hochstrasser, Donald Lindberg, Randolph Miller, Jean-Claude Peterschmitt, Charlie Safran, Michèle Thonnet, Antoine Geissbühler
The Health On the Net Foundation (HON) was born in 1996, during the beginning of the World Wide Web, from a collective decision by health specialists, led by the late Jean-Raoul Scherrer, who anticipated the need for online trustworthy health information. Because the Internet is a free space that everyone shares, a search for quality information is like a shot in the dark: neither will reliably hit their target. Thus, HON was created to promote deployment of useful and reliable online health information, and to enable its appropriate and efficient use...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Jian-Huan Yang, Ying-Yong Wang, Guo-Ling Chen, Ding-Qi Rao
A new species of the genus Leptolalax is described from the Tengchong Section of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The new species, Leptolalax tengchongensis sp. nov., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) small size (SVL 23.9-26.0 mm in males, 28.8-28.9 mm in females); (2) dorsal skin shagreened and scattered with fine, round reddish tubercles; (3) toes with rudimentary webbing and narrow lateral fringes; (4) tympanum distinctly discernible, almost entirely black; (5) ventrolateral glands indistinct; (6) flanks with several distinct and large dark blotches; (7) ventral surfaces white, scattered with distinct irregular dark speckling; (8) iris not bicolored, uniformly dark brown and scattered with minute, coppery reticulations throughout...
2016: Zootaxa
Zhi-Yong Yuan, Bao-Lin Zhang, Jing Che
Despite recent descriptions of multiple new species of the genus Pachytriton (Salamandridae), species richness in this China-endemic newts genus likely remains underestimated. In this study, we describe a new species of Pachytriton from northeastern Guangxi and southern Hunan, southeastern China. Both molecular analyses and morphological characters reveal that the new species can be distinguished from its congeners. The mitochondrial gene tree identified the new lineage highly divergent (uncorrected p-distance > 5...
2016: Zootaxa
Cuong The Pham, Truong Quang Nguyen, Minh Duc Le, Michael Bonkowski, Thomas Ziegler
A new species of Odorrana is described from the karst forests in northeastern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: (1) size large (SVL 85.9-91.6 mm in males, 108.7-110.1 mm in females); (2) head longer than wide; (3) vomerine teeth present; (4) external vocal sacs absent; (5) snout short (SL/SVL 0.16-0.17); (6) tympanum large (TD/ED 0.70 in males, 0...
2016: Zootaxa
Antoine Fouquet, Quentin Martinez, Lauren Zeidler, Elodie A Courtois, Philippe Gaucher, Michel Blanc, Jucivaldo Dias Lima, Sergio Marques Souza, Miguel T Rodrigues, Jucivaldo Dias Lima, Sergio Marques Souza, Miguel T Rodrigues, Philippe J R Kok
We used molecular and morphological data to investigate the hidden diversity within the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group, and more specifically within H. geographicus, an allegedly widespread species in northern South America. As a result, the identity of H. geographicus was clarified, several candidate species were detected and one of them, from the eastern Guiana Shield, is described herein as a preliminary step to resolve the taxonomy of the group. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is mainly distinguished from closely-related species by an acuminate snout in lateral view, well-developed webbing between fingers and toes, and unspotted carmine/crimson colouration on the concealed surfaces of legs, feet and hands in life...
2016: Zootaxa
Fabio Fabbian, Beatrice Zucchi, Alfredo De Giorgi, Ruana Tiseo, Benedetta Boari, Raffaella Salmi, Rosaria Cappadona, Gloria Gianesini, Erika Bassi, Fulvia Signani, Valeria Raparelli, Stefania Basili, Roberto Manfredini
BACKGROUND: Light-dark alternation has always been the strongest external circadian "zeitgeber" for humans. Due to its growing technological preference, our society is quickly transforming toward a progressive "eveningness" (E), with consequences on personal circadian preference (chronotype), depending on gender as well. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence of possible relationships between chronotype and gender, with relevance on disturbances that could negatively impact general health, including daily life aspects...
2016: Chronobiology International
Ana Sofia P S Reboleira, Henrik Enghoff
The postembryonic development of millipedes includes a series of stadia separated by moults, a process known as anamorphosis. The moulting process and especially the moulting into maturity, i.e., with fully developed copulatory organs, remains unknown for most millipede species. We have kept specimens of Lusitanipus alternans (Verhoeff, 1893) in the laboratory for one year and studied its moulting process, including the first study of the maturation moult in the order Callipodida. Unlike the typical silk cocoon reported for other callipodidans, this species builds a new type of solid moulting chamber, using the available substrate reinforced by a silken web...
May 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
V P Edgcomb
Marine protists are integral to marine food webs and exhibit complex relationships with other microbial taxa. Phagotrophic protists contribute significantly to carbon turnover in the sunlit ocean and evidence suggests grazing in the dark ocean can be significant as well. New in situ sampling technologies hold great promise for more accurately accessing these impacts. The molecular signatures of parasitic protists comprise significant fractions of many high-throughput sequencing datasets, suggesting a major role in controlling populations of their host(s)...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Cristina Carrera, Michael A Marchetti, Stephen W Dusza, Giuseppe Argenziano, Ralph P Braun, Allan C Halpern, Natalia Jaimes, Harald J Kittler, Josep Malvehy, Scott W Menzies, Giovanni Pellacani, Susana Puig, Harold S Rabinovitz, Alon Scope, H Peter Soyer, Wilhelm Stolz, Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof, Iris Zalaudek, Ashfaq A Marghoob
IMPORTANCE: The comparative diagnostic performance of dermoscopic algorithms and their individual criteria are not well studied. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the discriminatory power and reliability of dermoscopic criteria used in melanoma detection and compare the diagnostic accuracy of existing algorithms. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective, observational study of 477 lesions (119 melanomas [24.9%] and 358 nevi [75.1%]), which were divided into 12 image sets that consisted of 39 or 40 images per set...
July 1, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
L Jagadeesan, R Jyothibabu
Globally, tumour-like anomalies (TLA) in copepods and the critical assessment of their possible causes are rare. The exact causative factor and ecological consequences of TLA in copepods are still unclear and there is no quantitative data available so far to prove conclusively the mechanism involved in developing TLA in copepods. TLA in copepods are considered as a potential threat to the well-being of the aquatic food web, which prompted us to assess these abnormalities in Indian marine waters and assess the possible etiological agents...
April 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Pulikottil Wilson Vinny, Venugopalan Y Vishnu, Vivek Lal
The world wide web has brought about a paradigm shift in the way medical research is published and accessed. The ease with which a new journal can be started/hosted by publishing start-ups is unprecedented. The tremendous capabilities of the world wide web and the open access revolution when combined with a highly profitable business have attracted unscrupulous fraudulent operators to the publishing industry. The intent of these fraudulent publishers is solely driven by profit with utter disregard to scientific content, peer reviews and ethics...
April 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
J Broséus, D Rhumorbarbe, C Mireault, V Ouellette, F Crispino, D Décary-Hétu
Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online...
July 2016: Forensic Science International
David Scheel, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Matthew Lawrence
Cephalopods show behavioral parallels to birds and mammals despite considerable evolutionary distance [1, 2]. Many cephalopods produce complex body patterns and visual signals, documented especially in cuttlefish and squid, where they are used both in camouflage and a range of interspecific interactions [1, 3-5]. Octopuses, in contrast, are usually seen as solitary and asocial [6, 7]; their body patterns and color changes have primarily been interpreted as camouflage and anti-predator tactics [8-12], though the familiar view of the solitary octopus faces a growing list of exceptions...
February 8, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Dominique Eckert, Mathilde Jauzac, HuanYuan Shan, Jean-Paul Kneib, Thomas Erben, Holger Israel, Eric Jullo, Matthias Klein, Richard Massey, Johan Richard, Céline Tchernin
Observations of the cosmic microwave background indicate that baryons account for 5 per cent of the Universe's total energy content. In the local Universe, the census of all observed baryons falls short of this estimate by a factor of two. Cosmological simulations indicate that the missing baryons have not condensed into virialized haloes, but reside throughout the filaments of the cosmic web (where matter density is larger than average) as a low-density plasma at temperatures of 10(5)-10(7) kelvin, known as the warm-hot intergalactic medium...
December 3, 2015: Nature
Jodi J L Rowley, Bryan L Stuart, Thy Neang, Huy D Hoang, Vinh Q Dau, Tao T Nguyen, David A Emmett
We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from the Kon Tum Plateau of Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Leptolalax isos sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of an absence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings; toes with rudimentary webbing, wide lateral dermal fringes in males and weak or absent lateral dermal fringes in females; most males with wide lateral dermal fringes on Finger II, a body size of 23.7-27.9 mm in 38 adult males and 28.6-31.5 mm in 9 adult females, near immaculate white chest and belly; absence of white speckling on the dorsum; and a call consisting of 2-3 notes with a dominant frequency of 5...
2015: Zootaxa
Antje Boetius, Alexandre M Anesio, Jody W Deming, Jill A Mikucki, Josephine Z Rapp
The Earth's cryosphere comprises those regions that are cold enough for water to turn into ice. Recent findings show that the icy realms of polar oceans, glaciers and ice sheets are inhabited by microorganisms of all three domains of life, and that temperatures below 0 °C are an integral force in the diversification of microbial life. Cold-adapted microorganisms maintain key ecological functions in icy habitats: where sunlight penetrates the ice, photoautotrophy is the basis for complex food webs, whereas in dark subglacial habitats, chemoautotrophy reigns...
November 2015: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Sarah D Stellwagen, Brent D Opell, Mary E Clouse
Many spider orb-webs are exposed to sunlight and the potentially damaging effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. We examined the effect of UVB on the viscoelastic glycoprotein core of glue droplets deposited on the prey capture threads of these webs, hypothesizing that webs built by species that occupy sunny habitats are less susceptible to UVB damage than are webs built by species that prefer shaded forest habitats or by nocturnal species. Threads were tested shortly after being collected in the early morning and after being exposed to UVB energy equivalent to a day of summer sun and three times this amount...
September 2015: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jian-Huan Yang, Ding-Qi Rao, Ying-Yong Wang
A new tree frog species of the genus Liuixalus was described from Heishiding Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China based on a combination of morphological characters and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Liuixalus feii sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of following characters: small size (SVL 16.2-17.6 mm in adult males and 18.0-18.7 mm in adult females); snout obtusely pointed; tympanum distinct, about half size of eye diameter; nostril closer to eye than to the tip of snout; fingers free of webbing; toe III longer than toe V; toes weakly webbed; tibiotarsal articulation reaching the naris or loreal; dorsal skin smooth and scattered with fine granulars; a subtle longitudinal median ridge present on dorsum; weak skin folds present on dorsal surface of body and thighs; supratympanic fold distinct and curved; ventral surface dull white with more or less irregular dark spots; iris bicolored...
2015: Zootaxa
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