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Behavioral Addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332112/evaluation-of-effectiveness-of-peer-education-on-smoking-behavior-among-high-school-students
#1
Nurcan Bilgiç, Türkan Günay
To evaluate the effectiveness of peer education on changing the smoking behavior of high schoolage children's.  Methods: In this interventional study; transtheoretical model, which is one of the cognitive-behavioral models was used for application of the peer education. Study was conducted in Izmir during 2011-2012 education period and included 338 students from 2 high schools The independent variable of the study is peer training.  Descriptive variables for a student are age, gender, tendecy of friends to smoke inside and outside the school,  the age they have first experienced the habit,  reasons for nicotine consumption,  levels of addiction,  chatting about smoking and related harms...
January 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324253/a-qualitative-study-comparing-physician-reported-barriers-to-treating-addiction-using-buprenorphine-and-extended-release-naltrexone-in-u-s-office-based-practices
#2
Barbara Andraka-Christou, Matthew J Capone
AIM: Our aim was to compare physician-reported barriers to sublingual buprenorphine (BUP) and extended-release naltrexone (XR-NLT) prescribing in U.S. office-based practices, and to identify potential policies for minimizing these barriers. Only one previous qualitative study has examined physician-reported barriers to prescribing XR-NLT and no qualitative study has compared physician-reported barriers between the two medications. METHODS: Researchers conducted individual semi-structured and in-depth interviews with 20 licensed physicians in four U...
January 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324054/bayesian-diagnostics-of-hidden-markov-structural-equation-models-with-missing-data
#3
Jingheng Cai, Ming Ouyang, Kai Kang, Xinyuan Song
Cocaine is a type of drug that functions to increase the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. However, cocaine dependence or abuse is highly related to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and deficits in cognitive performance, attention, and decision-making abilities. Given the chronic and persistent features of drug addiction, the progression of abstaining from cocaine often evolves across several states, such as addiction to, moderate dependence on, and swearing off cocaine. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are well suited to the characterization of longitudinal data in terms of a set of unobservable states, and have increasingly been used to uncover the dynamic heterogeneity in progressive diseases or activities...
January 11, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322265/the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction
#4
REVIEW
Liubov S Kalinichenko, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller
Psychoactive drug use is a common behavior in many societies worldwide, frequently associated with drug instrumentalization. Regular use may develop into drug addiction, which is a severe psychiatric disorder with multiple pathological effects to virtually all organ systems. Treatment strategies for addiction are often insufficient with no broadly working pharmaco-treatment available. Recently, lipids, and particularly sphingolipids, have been considered as new mediators in the pathogenic pathways and as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of addictive states...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317849/is-medical-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-a-stag-hunt-challenges-and-opportunities-in-managing-risk-and-uncertainty-in-addiction-cessation
#5
Roger Lee Mendoza
Purpose: While the individual and social costs of alcoholism or alcohol use disorder are well established, few are aware that medical problems can arise during detoxification, some of which can be life-threatening. This study determines if sustained treatment for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) might be based on the strategic choices and expectations of patients and health care providers alike, as well as the risk mitigation options available to them. Design/approach: AWS was modeled as a Stag Hunt to explain both risk and decision-making in medical treatments for detoxification, since it can deduce a set of equilibrium strategies available to both patient and provider...
2018: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317777/a-kinase-anchoring-protein-150-akap150-promotes-cocaine-reinstatement-by-increasing-ampa-receptor-transmission-in-the-accumbens-shell
#6
Leonardo A Guercio, Mackenzie E Hofmann, Sarah E Swinford-Jackson, Julia S Sigman, Mathieu E Wimmer, Mark L Dell'Acqua, Heath D Schmidt, R Christopher Pierce
Previous work indicated that activation of D1-like dopamine receptors (D1DRs) in the nucleus accumbens shell promoted cocaine seeking through a process involving the activation of PKA and GluA1-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs). A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) localize PKA to AMPARs leading to enhanced phosphorylation of GluA1. AKAP150, the most well-characterized isoform, plays an important role in several forms of neuronal plasticity. However, its involvement in drug addiction has been minimally explored...
December 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317611/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-binding-in-male-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#7
Funda Akkus, Yoan Mihov, Valerie Treyer, Simon M Ametamey, Anass Johayem, Smeralda Senn, Susanne Rösner, Alfred Buck, Gregor Hasler
Glutamate signaling plays a major role in addiction. Preclinical research strongly suggests an implication of G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in nicotine addiction and alcohol use disorder. In humans, smoking is related to a global reduction in mGluR5 availability. In the present study, we investigated mGluR5 in vivo in patients with alcohol use disorder without the confounding effects of smoking. A total of 14 male subjects with alcohol use disorder and at least a 25-day abstinence and 14 matched male non-smoking healthy controls were included in the study...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316800/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220z-attenuates-hoarding-and-shopping-behavior-in-a-female-diagnosed-with-sud-and-adhd
#8
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Bruce Steinberg, Edward J Modestino, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Background Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution. Case presentation C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314464/chemogenetic-inhibition-of-direct-pathway-striatal-neurons-normalizes-pathological-cue-induced-reinstatement-of-drug-seeking-in-rats
#9
Lindsay M Yager, Aaron F Garcia, Elizabeth A Donckels, Susan M Ferguson
Addiction to drugs such as cocaine is marked by cycles of compulsive drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. Although the transition to addiction is thought to recruit neural processes in dorsal striatum, little is known regarding the role of dorsal striatal projections to the substantia nigra (i.e. the direct pathway) in regulating these behaviors. Combining a Cre-recombinase-dependent chemogenetic approach with a cocaine self-administration paradigm that produces both low-risk and high-risk addiction phenotypes, we examined the effect of transiently decreasing direct pathway activity in the dorsomedial striatum on drug-taking and drug-seeking under conditions of normal and pathological drug use...
January 5, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306721/comparative-risk-assessment-and-cessation-information-seeking-among-smokeless-tobacco-users
#10
Jungmi Jun, Xiaoli Nan
INTRODUCTION: This research examined (1) smokeless tobacco users' comparative optimism in assessing the health and addiction risks of their own product in comparison with cigarettes, and (2) the effects of comparative optimism on cessation information-seeking. METHODS: A nationally-representative sample from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)-FDA was employed. RESULTS: The analyses revealed the presence of comparative optimism in assessing both health and addiction risks among smokeless tobacco users...
December 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305936/modeling-cocaine-relapse-in-rodents-behavioral-considerations-and-circuit-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Mitchell R Farrell, Hannah Schoch, Stephen V Mahler
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder, in that most addicted individuals who choose to quit taking drugs fail to maintain abstinence in the long-term. Relapse is especially likely when recovering addicts encounter risk factors like small "priming" doses of drug, stress, or drug-associated cues and locations. In rodents, these same factors reinstate cocaine seeking after a period of abstinence, and extensive preclinical work has used priming, stress, or cue reinstatement models to uncover brain circuits underlying cocaine reinstatement...
January 3, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303948/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-chronic-pain-one-therapeutic-approach-for-the-opioid-epidemic
#12
Muhammad Hassan Majeed, Donna M Sudak
Opioids are frequently prescribed for chronic pain. For the past 2 decades, long-term opioid analgesic therapy was considered the cornerstone of effective pain management for chronic nonmalignant conditions, despite a lack of documented effectiveness and safety, with the attendant risk of addiction, overdose, and death. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may be used effectively to treat chronic pain, either as a stand-alone treatment or with other nonopioid pharmacological treatments. CBT improves pain-related outcomes along with mobility, quality of life, and disability and mood outcomes...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303015/tests-of-the-attachment-and-developmental-dynamic-systems-theory-of-crime-addstoc-toward-a-differential-rdoc-diagnostic-and-treatment-approach
#13
Marc A Lindberg, Dana Zeid
The Attachment and Developmental Dynamic Systems Theory of Crime was tested on 206 male inmates. They completed measures tapping attachments, clinical issues, adverse childhood events, peer crime, and crime addictions. A significant path model was found, going from insecure parental attachments to adverse childhood events, and then on to the behavioral crime addiction and criminal peers scales. Peer crime was also predicted by insecure parent attachments and the crime addiction scale. Finally, the crime addiction, peer crime, and insecure parental attachment scales predicted frequencies of criminal behavior...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302226/minding-the-brain-the-role-of-pharmacotherapy-in-substance-use-disorder-treatment
#14
Dakwar Elias, Herbert D Kleber
With its medicalization as a brain-based disease, addiction has come to be regarded as amenable to biomedical treatment approaches, most commonly pharmacotherapy. Various vulnerabilities are recognized to contribute to maladaptive substance use, and have been linked to diverse neurobiological alterations that may be targeted with pharmacotherapy: withdrawal, craving and cue reactivity, and aberrant reward processing are the most significant. Here, we summarize current thinking regarding pharmacotherapy for substance-use disorders, grouping medications by the type of vulnerability they propose to address and providing insight into their neurobiological mechanisms...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302225/clinical-neuropsychiatric-considerations-regarding-nonsubstance-or-behavioral-addictions
#15
Marc N Potenza
Over the past several decades, non-substance-use behaviors like gambling, gaming, and sex have received greater consideration as possible foci of addictions. In this article, I will review the recent history and current status of non-substance or behavioral addictions. A main focus will involve gambling and gambling disorder, given that the latter is currently the sole non-substance addictive disorder described in the main text of the current (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302222/animal-models-of-addiction
#16
Rainer Spanagel
In recent years, animal models in psychiatric research have been criticized for their limited translational value to the clinical situation. Failures in clinical trials have thus often been attributed to the lack of predictive power of preclinical animal models. Here, I argue that animal models of voluntary drug intake-under nonoperant and operant conditions-and addiction models based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are crucial and informative tools for the identification of pathological mechanisms, target identification, and drug development...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302221/genetics-of-addictive-behavior-the-example-of-nicotine-dependence
#17
Philip Gorwood, Yann Le Strat, Nicolas Ramoz
The majority of addictive disorders have a significant heritability-roughly around 50%. Surprisingly, the most convincing association (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster in nicotine dependence), with a unique attributable risk of 14%, was detected through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer, although lung cancer has a low heritability. We propose some explanations of this finding, potentially helping to understand how a GWAS strategy can be successful. Many endophenotypes were also assessed as potentially modulating the effect of nicotine, indirectly facilitating the development of nicotine dependence...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302219/individual-differences-in-the-neuropsychopathology-of-addiction
#18
Olivier George, George F Koob
Drug addiction or substance-use disorder is a chronically relapsing disorder that progresses through binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect and preoccupation/anticipation stages. These stages represent diverse neurobiological mechanisms that are differentially involved in the transition from recreational to compulsive drug use and from positive to negative reinforcement. The progression from recreational to compulsive substance use is associated with downregulation of the brain reward systems and upregulation of the brain stress systems...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302218/addictive-behaviors-where-do-we-stand-and-where-are-we-going
#19
Florence Thibaut, Margret Hoehe
Tobacco and alcohol use remain the most prevalent addictive behaviors reported and the leading risk factors for global burden of disease, injury, and death. Considering addiction as a chronically relapsing brain disorder has opened up the way for biomedical treatment approaches.
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301261/detection-of-craving-for-gaming-in-adolescents-with-internet-gaming-disorder-using-multimodal-biosignals
#20
Hodam Kim, Jihyeon Ha, Won-Du Chang, Wanjoo Park, Laehyun Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
The increase in the number of adolescents with internet gaming disorder (IGD), a type of behavioral addiction is becoming an issue of public concern. Teaching adolescents to suppress their craving for gaming in daily life situations is one of the core strategies for treating IGD. Recent studies have demonstrated that computer-aided treatment methods, such as neurofeedback therapy, are effective in relieving the symptoms of a variety of addictions. When a computer-aided treatment strategy is applied to the treatment of IGD, detecting whether an individual is currently experiencing a craving for gaming is important...
January 1, 2018: Sensors
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