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Behavioral Addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155800/nicotinic-receptors-mediate-stress-nicotine-detrimental-interplay-via-dopamine-cells-activity
#1
C Morel, S P Fernandez, F Pantouli, F J Meye, F Marti, S Tolu, S Parnaudeau, H Marie, F Tronche, U Maskos, M Moretti, C Gotti, M-H Han, A Bailey, M Mameli, J Barik, P Faure
Epidemiological studies report strong association between mood disorders and tobacco addiction. This high comorbidity requires adequate treatment but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We demonstrate that nicotine exposure, independent of drug withdrawal effects, increases stress sensitivity, a major risk factor in mood disorders. Nicotine and stress concur to induce long-lasting cellular adaptations within the dopamine (DA) system. This interplay is underpinned by marked remodeling of nicotinic systems, causing increased ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons' activity and stress-related behaviors, such as social aversion...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154688/substance-use-and-cognitive-function-as-drivers-of-condomless-anal-sex-among-hiv-positive-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-aged-50-and-older-the-gold-studies
#2
Sandra A Kupprat, Kristen D Krause, Danielle C Ompad, Perry N Halkitis
PURPOSE: Substance use has been linked to the sexual transmission of HIV among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) across the lifespan. Among older, HIV-positive, MSM populations, cognitive dysfunction associated with age and HIV disease progression also may play a role in sexual risk-taking. People aged 50 years and older represent a growing proportion of the overall HIV-positive population. This study aimed to explore relationships between substance use and cognitive function, and their impact on condomless anal sex (CAS) among HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other MSM aged 50 years and older...
November 20, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154365/is-neural-processing-of-negative-stimuli-altered-in-addiction-independent-of-drug-effects-findings-from-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-youth-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#3
Sarah W Yip, James J Gross, Megha Chawla, Shan-Shan Ma, Xing-Hui Shi, Lu Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Lei Zhu, Patrick D Worhunsky, Jintao Zhang
Difficulties in emotion regulation are commonly reported among individuals with alcohol and drug addictions and contribute to the acquisition and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Alterations in neural processing of negative affective stimuli have further been demonstrated among individuals with addictions. However, it is unclear whether these alterations are a general feature of addictions or are a result of prolonged exposure to drugs-of-abuse. To test the hypothesis of altered negative affect processing independent of drug effects, this study assessed neural function among drug-naïve youth with a behavioral addiction-Internet gaming disorder (IGD)...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152855/kinase-interest-you-in-treating-incubated-cocaine-craving-a-hypothetical-model-for-treatment-intervention-during-protracted-withdrawal-from-cocaine
#4
REVIEW
Karen K Szumlinski, Christina B Shin
A diagnostic criterion for drug addiction, persistent drug-craving continues to be the most treatment-resistant aspect of addiction that maintains the chronic, relapsing, nature of this disease. Despite the high prevalence of psychomotor stimulant addiction, there currently exists no FDA-approved medication for craving reduction. In good part, this reflects our lack of understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of drug-craving. In humans, cue-elicited drug-craving is associated with the hyper-excitability of prefrontal cortical regions...
November 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149914/testing-the-effectiveness-of-a-motivational-interviewing-based-brief-intervention-for-substance-use-as-an-adjunct-to-usual-care-in-community-based-aids-service-organizations-study-protocol-for-a-multisite-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Bryan R Garner, Heather J Gotham, Stephen J Tueller, Elizabeth L Ball, David Kaiser, Patricia Stilen, Kathryn Speck, Denna Vandersloot, Traci R Rieckmann, Michael Chaple, Erika G Martin, Steve Martino
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States was released and included three goals: (1) reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, (2) increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV, and (3) reducing HIV-related health disparities and health inequities. In 2013, as part of its effort to help address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the Substance Abuse Treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project...
November 17, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145012/the-gut-brain-interaction-in-opioid-tolerance
#6
REVIEW
Hamid I Akbarali, William L Dewey
The prevailing opioid crisis has necessitated the need to understand mechanisms leading to addiction and tolerance, the major contributors to overdose and death and to develop strategies for developing drugs for pain treatment that lack abuse liability and side-effects. Opioids are commonly used for treatment of pain and symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. The significant effect of opioids in the gut, both acute and chronic, includes persistent constipation and paradoxically may also worsen pain symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143541/the-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-chinese-people-a-meta-analysis
#7
Ting Kin Ng, Daniel Fu Keung Wong
OBJECTIVE: Over the past decade, cognitive behavioral therapy has been applied to an increasingly wider range of disorders and problems in Chinese societies. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the studies on cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese clients. The purpose of this meta-analytic study was to examine the overall efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for Chinese people. METHOD: A literature search was conducted using electronic databases, including Web of Science, PsycINFO and PubMed...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143401/assessment-of-risk-behaviors-in-patients-with-opioid-prescriptions-a-study-of-indiana-s-inspect-data
#8
Marion S Greene, Robert Andrew Chambers, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Eric R Wright, Gregory K Steele, Terrell W Zollinger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) can serve as screening tools and support the clinical decision-making process in patients receiving opioids. The objective of the study was to utilize 2014 INSPECT (Indiana's PDMP) data to identify factors that increase patients' likelihood to engage in opioid-related risk behaviors. METHODS: Based on a literature review, four risk behaviors were identified: Receiving >90 morphine milligram equivalents (MME), having >4 opioid prescribers, obtaining opioids from >4 pharmacies, and concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines...
November 16, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143133/association-of-dna-repair-genes-polymorphisms-and-mutations-with-increased-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Agata Dylawerska, Wojciech Barczak, Anna Wegner, Wojciech Golusinski, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska
DNA repair mechanisms allow maintain genomic stability and proper functioning within the cells. Any aberrations may cause an increased risk of many diseases such as cancer. The most crucial risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are behavioral factors, predominantly chronic exposure to tobacco, alcohol addiction, and infection with human papillomavirus or Epstein-Barr virus. These agents can induce DNA damage; therefore, cells must activate appropriate mechanisms in order to function correctly...
November 15, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142795/comorbid-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-opioid-dependence
#10
Rikinkumar S Patel, Ahmed Elmaadawi, Suhayl Nasr, John Haskin
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is predominant amongst individuals addicted to opioids and obscures the course of illness and the treatment outcome. We report the case of a patient with major depressive disorder and opioid dependence, who experienced post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms during a recent visit to the inpatient unit. The similarity of symptoms between post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid dependence is so high that, sometimes, it is a challenge to differentiate between these conditions...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140927/clinical-trial-designs-and-models-for-analgesic-medications-for-acute-pain-in-neonates-infants-toddlers-children-and-adolescents-acttion-recommendations
#11
Gary A Walco, Ernest A Kopecky, Steven J Weisman, Jennifer Stinson, Bonnie Stevens, Paul J Desjardins, Charles B Berde, Elliot J Krane, Kanwaljeet Js Anand, Myron Yaster, Carlton D Dampier, Robert H Dworkin, Ian Gilron, Anne M Lynn, Lynne G Maxwell, Srinivasa Raja, Bernard Schachtel, Dennis C Turk
Clinical trials to test the safety and efficacy of analgesics across all pediatric age cohorts are needed to avoid inappropriate extrapolation of adult data to children. However, the selection of acute pain models and trial design attributes to maximize assay sensitivity, by pediatric age cohort, remains problematic. Acute pain models used for drug treatment trials in adults are not directly applicable to the pediatric age cohorts - neonates, infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents. Developmental maturation of metabolic enzymes in infants and children must be taken into consideration when designing trials to test analgesic treatments for acute pain...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#12
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135444/-validation-of-hungarian-smartphone-deprivation-inventory-hsdi-with-school-children
#13
Sándor Csibi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Attila Szabo
The widespread use of smartphones generates new habits and behaviors among the users, including schoolchildren. Advance technology-based applications, capturing interest and attention, influence cognitive focus and time spent with the device. Examination of these factors points toward the risk of addiction, as well as the deprivations sensations associated with the latter, that call for scholastic attention. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate a Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI), to gauge the deprivation feelings and their severity in schoolchildren when they cannot access their device...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130328/established-risk-factors-for-addiction-fail-to-discriminate-between-healthy-gamers-and-gamers-endorsing-dsm-5-internet-gaming-disorder
#14
Jory Deleuze, Filip Nuyens, Lucien Rochat, Stéphane Rothen, Pierre Maurage, Joël Billieux
Background and aims The DSM-5 includes criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD) that are adapted from substance abuse and widely used in research and clinical contexts, although evidence supporting their validity remains scarce. This study compared online gamers who do or do not endorse IGD criteria regarding self-control-related abilities (impulsivity, inhibitory control, and decision-making), considered the hallmarks of addictive behaviors. Method A double approach was adopted to distinguish pathological from recreational gamers: The first is the classic DSM-5 approach (≥5 criteria required to endorse the IGD diagnosis), and the second consists in using latent class analysis (LCA) for IGD criteria to distinguish gamers' subgroups...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129722/an-extended-history-of-drug-self-administration-results-in-multiple-sources-of-control-over-drug-seeking-behavior
#15
REVIEW
Kelly J Clemens, Nathan M Holmes
It is widely recognized that across the development of drug addiction, cues associated with drug use come to exert increasing control over drug seeking and taking behaviors. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge regarding how the different types of drug related cues affect drug seeking and taking behaviors, and how the emergence of cue control over these behaviors relates to the onset of drug seeking compulsions. This paper reviews the literature on drug self-administration in animals to address these gaps...
November 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129680/existential-issues-in-sexual-medicine-the-relation-between-death-anxiety-and-hypersexuality
#16
REVIEW
Daniel N Watter
INTRODUCTION: Current sex therapy and sexual medicine protocols often ignore the existential dilemmas associated with sexual dysfunction and other problematic sexual problems. This oversight is especially apparent when assessing and treating the controversial phenomenon of hypersexuality, or "sexual addiction." A deeper understanding of the existential concept of death anxiety could offer an alternative treatment paradigm that might lead to a more effective treatment outcome. AIM: To explore the relation between the existential phenomenon of death anxiety and hypersexuality (ie, sexual addiction) and present an evaluation and treatment paradigm that is rooted in existential psychotherapy, a form of psychotherapy that is a deeply life-affirming and dynamic approach to therapy that focuses on concerns rooted in the individual's existence...
November 9, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129052/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-orexin-1-receptor-antagonists-with-improved-solubility-and-cns-permeability
#17
David A Perrey, Ann M Decker, Yanan Zhang
Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides playing important roles in many functions including the motivation of addictive behaviors. Blockade of the orexin-1 receptor has been suggested as a potential strategy for the treatment of drug addiction. We have previously reported OX1 receptor antagonists based on the tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold with excellent OX1 potency and selectivity; however, these compounds had high lipophilicity (clogP > 5) and low to moderate solubility. In an effort to improve their properties, we have designed and synthesized a series of analogues where the 7-position substituents known to favor OX1 potency and selectivity were retained, and groups of different nature were introduced at the 1-position where substitution was generally tolerated as demonstrated in previous studies...
November 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128857/emotionally-laden-impulsivity-interacts-with-affect-in-predicting-addictive-use-of-online-sexual-activity-in-men
#18
Aline Wéry, Jory Deleuze, Natale Canale, Joël Billieux
The interest in studying addictive use of online sexual activities (OSA) has grown sharply over the last decade. Despite the burgeoning number of studies conceptualizing the excessive use of OSA as an addictive disorder, few have tested its relations to impulsivity, which is known to constitute a hallmark of addictive behaviors. To address this missing gap in the literature, we tested the relationships between addictive OSA use, impulsivity traits, and affect among a convenience sample of men (N=182; age, M=29...
October 16, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128447/developmental-perspectives-on-methamphetamine-abuse-exploring-adolescent-vulnerabilities-on-brain-and-behavior
#19
REVIEW
Sophia J Luikinga, Jee Hyun Kim, Christina J Perry
Most people that experience illicit drugs do so for the first time during adolescence, and methamphetamine (meth) is no exception. Therefore, research into the effects of meth should highlight the adolescent period. Despite this, the vast majority of current literature has mainly focused on meth exposure during adulthood. In this review, we first describe existing literature that compares the behavioral effects of meth where exposure occurs in adolescence compared to adulthood. Given that there are actually very few such studies, we also look at what is known about neural effects of meth in the adult brain, and relate these to normal neural development occurring during the adolescent period to establish how meth may target maturing regions and related neurochemistry...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#20
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
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