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Addiction Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340034/estimating-demand-and-cross-price-elasticity-for-very-low-nicotine-content-vlnc-cigarettes-using-a-simulated-demand-task
#1
Megan R Tucker, Murray Laugesen, Randolph C Grace
Introduction: Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes might be useful as part of a tobacco control strategy, but relatively little is known about their acceptability as substitutes for regular cigarettes. We compared subjective effects and demand for regular cigarettes and Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes, and estimated cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes, using simulated demand tasks. Methods: 40 New Zealand smokers sampled a VLNC cigarette and completed Cigarette Purchase Tasks to indicate their demand for regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes at a range of prices, and a cross-price task indicating how many regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes they would purchase at 0...
March 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301969/the-internet-s-effect-on-personality-traits-an-important-casualty-of-the-internet-addiction-paradigm
#2
Elias Aboujaoude
Background and aims The "Internet addiction" paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm's biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be considered "addicted" under any definition...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292690/overcoming-professionals-challenging-experiences-to-promote-a-trustful-therapeutic-alliance-in-addiction-treatment-a-qualitative-study
#3
Aymeric Reyre, Raphaël Jeannin, Myriam Largueche, Marie Rose Moro, Thierry Baubet, Olivier Taieb
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A good therapeutic alliance plays a major role in the healing process. Professionals working in addiction treatment report high levels of psychological distress related to work and this may challenge the establishment of a trustful therapeutic alliance, and lead to a loss of care quality provided to service users. The purpose of this study was to investigate the experience of specialized professionals, its effects on trust and the therapeutic alliance, and the means to restore them...
March 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285466/acceptability-and-effectiveness-of-a-web-based-psychosocial-intervention-among-criminal-justice-involved-adults
#4
J D Lee, B Tofighi, R McDonald, A Campbell, M C Hu, E Nunes
BACKGROUND: The acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of web-based interventions among criminal justice involved populations are understudied. This study is a secondary analysis of baseline characteristics associated with criminal justice system (CJS) status as treatment outcome moderators among participants enrolling in a large randomized trial of a web-based psychosocial intervention (Therapeutic Education System [TES]) as part of outpatient addiction treatment. METHODS: We compared demographic and clinical characteristics, TES participation rates, and the trial's two co-primary outcomes, end of treatment abstinence and treatment retention, by self-reported CJS status at baseline: 1) CJS-mandated to community treatment (CJS-mandated), 2) CJS-recommended to treatment (CJS-recommended), 3) no CJS treatment mandate (CJS-none)...
December 2017: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275020/intellectual-disability-complicated-by-sexual-addiction-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-common-condition
#5
Nicholas Tze Ping Pang, Ruziana Masiran
A young man presented with high libido for 3 years, associated with preoccupation with sexual thoughts combined with his pursuit of pornographic materials. He had strong psychological cravings for and had spent large amount of money on sex, resulting in a dispute with his family. There were no mood or psychotic symptoms. Medical history revealed recent diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis. Cognitive assessment showed subtle deficiencies in reasoning and executive functions. There was occasional use of alcohol...
March 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264786/response-inhibition-and-internet-gaming-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Evangelia Argyriou, Christopher B Davison, Tayla T C Lee
Previous research has demonstrated that Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has multiple negative effects in psychological functioning and health. This makes the identification of its underpinnings, such as response inhibition, essential for the development of relevant interventions that target these core features of the disorder resulting in more effective treatment. Several empirical studies have evaluated the relationship between response inhibition deficits and IGD using neurocognitive tasks, but provided mixed results...
February 24, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260499/regulatory-role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-pancreatic-cancer-development-and-progression
#7
Hildegard M Schuller
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths with incidence rising and a high mortality rate. Smoking, psychological stress, diabetes, pancreatitis and alcohol abuse are known risk factors for pancreatic cancer. OBJECTIVE: Targeting G protein-coupled receptor signaling for the prevention and therapy of pancreatic cancer. METHOD: Review of published literature. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: All known risk factors for pancreatic cancer cause hyperactive cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling via cancer stimulating Gαs-coupled beta-adrenergic and prostaglandin E2 receptors and/or by suppressing signaling via inhibitory Gαi-coupled GABAB-receptors...
March 3, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260336/-the-relationship-among-depression-anxiety-stress-and-addictive-substance-use-behavior-in-5-935-secondary-vocational-students
#8
X D Yu, J C Yu, Q F Wu, J Y Chen, Y C Wang, D Yan, S W Teng, Y T Zhao, J P Cao, S Q Li, Y Q Yan, J Gong, K Yao, H Zhou, Z Z Wang
Objective: To investigate the relationship among depression, anxiety, stress and addictive substance use behavior in secondary vocational students. Methods: Cluster sampling method and the Adolescent Health-related Behaviors Questionnaire were used to collect demographic characteristics, psychological symptoms, and addictive substance usage among 5 935 students in nine vocational schools in Chongqing, Zhaoqing, Ningbo, and Taiyuan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the addictive substance use behavior and psychological factors...
March 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254428/the-behavioural-cognitive-and-neural-corollaries-of-blunted-cardiovascular-and-cortisol-reactions-to-acute-psychological-stress
#9
REVIEW
Douglas Carroll, Annie T Ginty, Anna C Whittaker, William R Lovallo, Susanne R de Rooij
Recent research shows that blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress are associated with adverse behavioural and health outcomes: depression, obesity, bulimia, and addictions. These outcomes may reflect suboptimal functioning of the brain's fronto-limbic systems that are needed to regulate motivated behaviour in the face of challenge. In support of this, brain imaging data demonstrate fronto-limbic hypoactivation during acute stress exposure. Those demonstrating blunted reactions also show impairments of motivation, including lower cognitive ability, more rapid cognitive decline, and poorer performance on motivation-dependent tests of lung function...
February 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250554/technology-addiction-among-treatment-seekers-for-psychological-problems-implication-for-screening-in-mental-health-setting
#10
Aswathy Das, Manoj Kumar Sharma, P Thamilselvan, P Marimuthu
BACKGROUND: Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224962/-gambling-in-elderly-patients
#11
Morgane Guillou Landreat, Jean-Yves Le Reste, Catherine Théréné-Mouden, Julie Caillon, Jennyfer Cholet, Marie Grall Bronnec
Behavioural addictions concern behaviour which generate pleasure (shopping, gambling, sex, etc.). Pathological gambling is the most common behavioural addiction in elderly people. It can be severely harmful causing psychological, financial and family problems and increasing the risk of suicide. Gambling addiction is underestimated in the elderly. Psychological, social and family support is important whatever the age, with treatment aiming to improve the person's quality of life, help them regain control of their gambling or stop altogether...
January 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224686/addiction-research-and-theory-a-commentary-on-the-surgeon-general-s-report-on-alcohol-drugs-and-health
#12
Aldo Badiani, Kent C Berridge, Markus Heilig, David J Nutt, Terry E Robinson
The Office of the Surgeon General recently produced its first Report on the consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on health, making several very laudable policy recommendations. The Report also emphasizes the importance of adequate funding for biomedical research, which is good news for both researchers and patients. However, the Report is marred by a biased viewpoint on the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction. We highlight here four controversial issues that were depicted as facts in the Report, thereby potentially misleading non-expert readers about the current state-of-the-art understanding of the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction...
February 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209979/fractionating-impulsivity-neuropsychiatric-implications
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey W Dalley, Trevor W Robbins
The ability to make decisions and act quickly without hesitation can be advantageous in many settings. However, when persistently expressed, impulsive decisions and actions are considered risky, maladaptive and symptomatic of such diverse brain disorders as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction and affective disorders. Over the past decade, rapid progress has been made in the identification of discrete neural networks that underlie different forms of impulsivity - from impaired response inhibition and risky decision making to a profound intolerance of delayed rewards...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199203/neurogenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-opiate-opioid-abstinence-treating-symptoms-and-the-cause
#14
Kenneth Blum, Mark S Gold, William Jacobs, William Vaughn McCall, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Kristina Dushaj, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198637/video-gaming-and-gaming-addiction-in-transgender-people-an-exploratory-study
#15
Jon Arcelus, Walter Pierre Bouman, Bethany Alice Jones, Christina Richards, Susana Jimenez-Murcia, Mark D Griffiths
Background There is anecdotal clinical evidence that transgender people use the online world - such as forums and online video gaming - for the purpose of experiencing their gender identity in a safe, non-threatening, non-alienating, non-stigmatizing, and non-critical environment. Aims To describe gaming behavior, degree of problematic gaming behavior and associated factors with problematic gaming in a comparatively large group of transgender people accessing transgender health services. Methods Every individual referred to a national transgender health service in the United Kingdom during a 12-month period was invited to complete a series of questionnaires to measure gaming behavior, interpersonal functioning, severity of autistic features, and anxiety and depressive symptoms...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198209/a-report-of-sexual-abuse-in-an-afghan-refugee-boy-in-iran
#16
Naimeh Farhidnia, Nahid Dadashzadeh Asl, Azadeh Memarian
All children have the right to complete and integrated physical and psychological protection against abuse. The most important reason and risk factors for child abuse are social causes including poor familial support, poverty, mood disorders in the family, and addiction. Here, we report a case of child abuse of an Afghan child in Iran with a background of mood disturbances who presented with multiple trauma and injury. A nine-year-old Afghan boy was described with multiple injuries on neck, upper and lower extremities, and trunk...
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193693/unresponsive-choline-transporter-as-a-trait-neuromarker-and-a-causal-mediator-of-bottom-up-attentional-biases
#17
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Aaron Kucinski, Kyle Pitchers, Brittney Yegla, Vinay Parikh, Youngsoo Kim, Paulina Valuskova, Sarika Gurnani, Craig W Lindsley, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, which can manifest as a propensity to approach and contact pavlovian cues, and for addiction-like behavior. STs also exhibit poor attentional performance, relative to goal-trackers (GTs), which is associated with attenuated acetylcholine (ACh) levels in prefrontal cortex (Paolone et al., 2013). Here, we demonstrate a cellular mechanism, linked to ACh synthesis, that accounts for attenuated cholinergic capacity in STs. First, we found that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain increased cortical choline transporter (CHT)-mediated choline transport in GTs, paralleled by a redistribution of CHTs to the synaptic plasma membrane...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192219/a-qualitative-study-of-overweight-and-obese-australians-views-of-food-addiction
#18
A J Cullen, A Barnett, P A Komesaroff, W Brown, K S O'Brien, W Hall, A Carter
The concept of food addiction is increasingly used in the academic literature and popular media to explain some forms of overweight and obesity. However, there is limited evidence on how this term is understood by and impacts overweight and obese individuals. This qualitative study investigated the views of overweight and obese individuals on food addiction, and its likely impact upon stigma, treatment-seeking, and support for public policies to reduce overeating. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 overweight and obese individuals (Mage = 38, MBMI = 33, 74% female) and analysed thematically...
February 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191914/relative-contribution-of-genetic-individual-and-self-efficacy-factors-to-smoking-cessation-in-a-chinese-rural-population
#19
Qiang Wang, Suyun Li, Huijie Li, Xiaorong Yang, Fan Jiang, Nan Zhang, Mingkui Han, Chongqi Jia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nicotine dependence is influenced by genetic, individual, and psychological factors. We aimed to examine whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRN) were associated with smoking cessation (SC) using genetic risk score and compare the relative contribution of genetic, individual and self-efficacy factors to SC. METHODS: Eight hundred and nineteen male smokers (mean age: 59.62) were recruited from 17 villages of three counties in Shandong province, China...
February 13, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178739/methamphetamine-consumption-during-pregnancy-effects-on-child-health
#20
Jürgen Dinger, Patricia Hinner, Jörg Reichert, Mario Rüdiger
Methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy represents an emerging health care problem. The consequences are not only of relevance to the pregnant women, but also their unborn child. It is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and hypertension, fetal demise, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction. The deleterious effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on the developing fetal brain may lead to long-term neuro-developmental and behavioral problems.Given the current evidence, abuse of methamphetamine during pregnancy must be of utmost concern to health care professionals and to policy-makers...
February 8, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
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