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Addiction Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149893/association-between-severity-of-illicit-drug-dependence-and-quality-of-life-in-a-psychosocial-care-center-in-brazil-cross-sectional-study
#1
Selva Rios Campêlo, Maria Alves Barbosa, Danilo Rocha Dias, Camila Cardoso Caixeta, Cláudio Rodrigues Leles, Celmo Celeno Porto
BACKGROUND: Quality of life must be one of the main purposes for the treatment of drug users, requiring a better understanding of the association between the quality of life and the severity of dependency. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between severity of substance use in various areas of human functioning and quality of life of illicit drug users in a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 60 participants - illicit drug users - treated at a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs...
November 17, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130329/investigating-the-differential-effects-of-social-networking-site-addiction-and-internet-gaming-disorder-on-psychological-health
#2
Halley M Pontes
Background and aims Previous studies focused on examining the interrelationships between social networking site (SNS) addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in isolation. Moreover, little is known about the potential simultaneous differential effects of SNS addiction and IGD on psychological health. This study investigated the interplay between these two technological addictions and ascertained how they can uniquely and distinctively contribute to increasing psychiatric distress when accounting for potential effects stemming from sociodemographic and technology-related variables...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128857/emotionally-laden-impulsivity-interacts-with-affect-in-predicting-addictive-use-of-online-sexual-activity-in-men
#3
Aline Wéry, Jory Deleuze, Natale Canale, Joël Billieux
The interest in studying addictive use of online sexual activities (OSA) has grown sharply over the last decade. Despite the burgeoning number of studies conceptualizing the excessive use of OSA as an addictive disorder, few have tested its relations to impulsivity, which is known to constitute a hallmark of addictive behaviors. To address this missing gap in the literature, we tested the relationships between addictive OSA use, impulsivity traits, and affect among a convenience sample of men (N=182; age, M=29...
October 16, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125218/marijuana-use-and-associated-motives-in-colorado-university-students
#4
Kristina T Phillips, Trent L Lalonde, Michael M Phillips, Maryia M Schneider
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug among college students, with heavy use leading to negative outcomes. Use of marijuana for medical and recreational purposes in select U.S. states has been controversial, with concerns surrounding increased prevalence rates and harm. The current exploratory study aimed to assess marijuana use in college students in Colorado, demographic differences in frequency of use, and motives for using. METHODS: College students (N = 300; 61% female) were recruited through introductory psychology courses and completed a series of questionnaires and a marijuana urine screen...
November 10, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107304/the-role-of-pain-classification-systems-in-pain-management
#5
REVIEW
Patty Montgomery Orr, Bettina Cobb Shank, Amy Conner Black
Pain is a multidimensional experience that can significantly impair an individual's quality of life. This article describes the pain classification systems, including anatomic, etiologic, intensity, duration, pathophysiological, and conditions that are not easily classified. A holistic approach is taken by addressing key components to assist with effective pain management, including the psychological and spiritual aspects of care. A case study scenario demonstrates the implementation of pain classifications in pain management...
December 2017: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106659/biological-and-psychological-factors-associated-with-smoking-abstinence-six-years-post-stroke
#6
Rosa Suñer-Soler, Armand Grau-Martín, Mikel Terceno, Yolanda Silva, Antoni Davalos, Juan Manuel Sánchez, Silvia Font-Mayolas, Eugenia Gras, Joana Rodrigo, Martha Kazimierczak, Carmen Malagón, Joaquín Serena
Introduction: Tobacco use is a public health problem causing high morbidity and mortality, including stroke. This study evaluates predictive factors of smoking cessation in the long term after stroke. Methods: We followed a cohort of 110 consecutive smokers with stroke for up to 6 years. Sociodemographic variables, stroke severity, insular involvement, stage of change in smoking habit before stroke and disruption of addiction variable (smoking cessation, absence of relapses, having stopped smoking without difficulties and not having had urge) were evaluated...
July 4, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098681/summary-and-prospect
#7
Zhengde Wei, Xueli Chen, Xiaochu Zhang
In this chapter, the main content is to summarize the similarities and differences between substance and non-substance addictions in several aspects, involving definition, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. We try to display the complete picture of addictions in a brief but comprehensive way. Mechanism includes molecule and neural circuit, genetics, neuroimaging and cognitive psychology; diagnosis includes diagnostic criterion, diagnostic scales, biochemical diagnosis and new diagnostic techniques; treatment includes drug therapy, physical therapy, traditional Chinese medical therapy, nutrition support therapy, psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098679/psychotherapy
#8
Ri-Hui He, Ran Tao
This chapter focuses on psychotherapy of substance and non-substance addiction (see Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Chap. 16 ) and introduces the latest advances, mainly in the mindfulness-based relapse prevention, PITDH, and points out that complete elimination of psychological addiction is hopefully to become the target and core of the psychotherapy of addiction disorder. This chapter also introduces methods and progress of various types of substance and non-substance addiction.
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098676/physical-therapy
#9
Li-Jun Xiao, Ran Tao
Physical therapy has the evidence-based science knowledge to address a wide range of physical and psychological problems of addiction. Neuromodulation techniques are becoming more and more important in the treatment of addiction. Here, the efficacy of different neuromodulation techniques in addiction, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), is critically evaluated. Other physical therapy methods including Biofeedback, Physical Activity and Acupuncture are also presented...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098675/drug-therapy
#10
Ri-Hui He, Ran Tao
This chapter first summarizes the therapy of addiction disorder, and elaborates on the progress of medication. First, the difference between dependency and addiction are introduced. The basic principles of the therapy of substance and non-substance addiction are then put forward. It is also pointed out in this chapter that with the progress of the study, the goal of addiction disorder therapy is expected to transfer from reducing the relapse and harm of the addiction to completely eliminating and recovering from it...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098670/similarities-and-differences-in-psychology
#11
Yu Chen, Yan Sun, Si-Zhi Ai, Jason J Li, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Addiction is marked by repeating a certain behavior while ignoring the potential physical or mental consequences. Non-substance addiction provides an ideal model for researching the emergence and development of addiction's basic mechanism. Comparative studies of substance and non-substance addiction are helpful to reveal the common basis of addiction development. This article explores this topic from a psychological angle, touching upon sensation seeking, inhibitory control, attentional bias, intertemporal choice and environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098666/definition-of-substance-and-non-substance-addiction
#12
Zhiling Zou, Huijun Wang, Federico d'Oleire Uquillas, Xiaomei Wang, Jianrui Ding, Hong Chen
Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098665/received-view-of-addiction-relapse-and-treatment
#13
Yamikani Ndasauka, Zhengde Wei, Xiaochu Zhang
It is important to highlight that attempts at understanding and explaining addiction have been made for centuries. It is, however, just five decades ago, with the growth of science and technology that more interest has been observed in this field. This chapter examines different views and theories that have been posited to understand and explain addiction. More attention will be given to prominent views that seem to draw consensus among researchers and medical practitioners. The first section of the chapter introduces the addiction debate, the different theories that have been provided to explain it from different perspectives and disciplines such as neurosciences, philosophy and psychology...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089287/scaling-up-research-on-drug-abuse-and-addiction-through-social-media-big-data
#14
Sunny Jung Kim, Lisa A Marsch, Jeffrey T Hancock, Amarendra K Das
BACKGROUND: Substance use-related communication for drug use promotion and its prevention is widely prevalent on social media. Social media big data involve naturally occurring communication phenomena that are observable through social media platforms, which can be used in computational or scalable solutions to generate data-driven inferences. Despite the promising potential to utilize social media big data to monitor and treat substance use problems, the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of substance use-related communications on social media are largely unknown...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072477/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-addictive-behaviors-implementation-issues-on-the-road-ahead
#15
Adam D Wilson, Corey R Roos, Charles S Robinson, Elena R Stein, Jacob A Manuel, Matthew C Enkema, Sarah Bowen, Katie Witkiewitz
Over the past 35 years, mindfulness meditation practices have increasingly been integrated into Western medical settings. Research into the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) continues to expand, such that there are currently more than a dozen different protocolled MBIs for patients suffering from a variety of physical and psychological disorders. In the last decade, a number of MBIs specifically designed to treat addictive behaviors have been developed and tested. This review first provides a brief overview of the current state of the science with respect to the efficacy of MBIs for addictive behaviors, and some of the proposed mechanisms underlying the efficacy of MBIs...
October 26, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072187/substance-abuse-and-cancer
#16
G I Moussas, A G Papadopoulou
Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072184/dysfunctional-internet-behaviour-symptoms-in-association-with-personality-traits
#17
E Tsiolka, I D Bergiannaki, M Margariti, M Malliori, Ch Papageorgiou
Internet addiction is a matter of great interest for researchers, taking into consideration Internet's rapid spread and its ever growing use in children, adolescents and adults. It has been associated with multiple psychological symptoms and social difficulties, therefore raising even greater concerns for its adverse consequences. The present study that consists part of a broader research, aims to investigate the association between excessive Internet use and personality traits in an adult population. Specifically, the research examined the relation between dysfunctional internet behaviour and personality traits as neuroticism and extraversion, the two personality dimensions that have arisen as the most important ones in all relevant research...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049971/food-addiction-prevalence-psychopathological-correlates-and-associations-with-quality-of-life-in-a-large-sample
#18
Paulo R Nunes-Neto, Cristiano A Köhler, Felipe B Schuch, Marco Solmi, João Quevedo, Michael Maes, Andrea Murru, Eduard Vieta, Roger S McIntyre, Susan L McElroy, Ashley N Gearhardt, Brendon Stubbs, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of food addiction in a large Brazilian non-clinical sample. Sociodemographic and psychopathological correlates of food addiction as well as associations with quality (QoL) domains were also investigated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study obtained data from a Brazilian anonymous web-based research platform (N = 7639; 71.3% females). Participants provided sociodemographic data and completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048569/impulse-control-in-negative-mood-states-emotional-eating-and-food-addiction-are-associated-with-lower-quality-of-life-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity
#19
Meredith H Rose, Evan P Nadler, Eleanor R Mackey
Objectives: Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome to evaluate in adolescents with severe obesity, yet intrapersonal predictors of QoL are understudied. The current study assessed whether difficulty with impulse control when experiencing a negative mood (negative urgency) is associated with poorer QoL, mediated by more emotional eating and food addiction. Method: Participants consisted of 69 primarily female (71%), minority (76%) adolescents aged 13-21 (M age = 16...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042778/motivation-to-change-and-posttreatment-temptation-to-drink-a-multicenter-study-among-alcohol-dependent-patients
#20
Elena Fiabane, Marcella Ottonello, Valeria Zavan, Caterina Pistarini, Ines Giorgi
BACKGROUND: An inpatient 28-day rehabilitation program for alcohol dependence is focused on detoxification, enhancing motivation to change, and coping strategies for the management of emotional distress and temptation to drink. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) changes over time in motivation to change, anxiety, and depression in individuals undergoing residential rehabilitation treatment for alcohol addiction, and 2) which pretreatment factors are associated with posttreatment temptation to drink...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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