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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214742/what-s-the-agreement-between-self-reported-and-biochemical-verification-of-drug-use-a-look-at-permanent-supportive-housing-residents
#1
Alexis Rendon, Melvin Livingston, Sumihiro Suzuki, Whitney Hill, Scott Walters
Self-reported substance use is commonly used as an outcome measure in treatment research. We evaluated the validity of self-reported drug use in a sample of 334 adults with mental health problems who were residing in supportive housing programs. The primary analysis was the calculation of the positive predictive values (PPVs) of self-report compared to an oral fluid test taken at the same time. A sensitivity analysis compared the positive predictive values of two self-reported drug use histories: biological testing window (ranging between the past 96h to 30days depending on drug type) or the full past 90-day comparison window (maximum length recorded during interview)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212679/histopathological-study-of-cardiac-lesions-in-methamphetamine-poisoning-related-deaths
#2
Maryam Akhgari, Homeira Mobaraki, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. METHODS: The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group...
February 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211669/3-aminomethyl-derivatives-of-2-phenylimidazo-1-2-a-pyridine-as-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-gabaa-receptor-with-potential-antipsychotic-activity
#3
Monika Marcinkowska, Marcin Kolaczkowski, Krzysztof Kamiński, Adam Bucki, Maciej Henryk Pawlowski, Agata Siwek, Tadeusz Karcz, Gabriela Starowicz, Karolina Sloczynska, Elżbieta Pękala, Anna Wesołowska, Jerzy Samochowiec, Paweł Mierzejewski, Przemyslaw Bienkowski
Schizophrenia is a mental illness characterized by behavioral changes as well as anatomical and neurochemical abnormalities. There has been a remarkable progress in the drug discovery for schizophrenia; however, antipsychotics that act through molecular targets, other than monoaminergic receptors, have not been developed. One of the hypotheses of schizophrenia states that GABAergic dysfunction might be implemented in the pathophysiology of this disease. Our recent findings and previous clinical observations have suggested that modulation of GABAergic system through α1-GABAA receptors would represent an original approach for the treatment of schizophrenia...
February 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207572/cross-reactivity-of-chloroquine-and-hydroxychloroquine-with-dri-amphetamine-immunoassay
#4
Isabel Gomila, Loreto Quesada, Victoria López-Corominas, Julia Fernández, Miguel Ángel Servera, Laura Sahuquillo, Macarena Dastis, Albert Torrents, Bernardino Barceló
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are medical drugs used to treat the chemoprophylaxis of malaria as well as a second-line anti-inflammatory drug. METHODS: We performed a study of cross-reactivity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the DRI Amphetamine Assay inspired by a case report of a self-ingestion of chloroquine following a family dispute, that involved the following: (a) an in vitro study with control samples of healthy subjects, (b) an in vivo study with samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and (c) an evaluation of the cross-reactivity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in three additional immunoassays...
February 14, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196426/development-of-a-functional-observational-battery-in-the-minipig-for-regulatory-neurotoxicity-assessments
#5
Miao Zhong, Catherine Shoemake, Amber Fuller, David White, Chris Hanks, Derek Brocksmith, Jason Liu, Shayne Gad, Guy Bouchard, Alain Stricker-Krongrad
A functional observational battery (FOB) is recommended as the first-tier neurotoxicity screening in the preclinical safety pharmacology testing guidelines. Minipigs have increasingly been used in regulatory toxicology studies; however, no current FOB protocol is available for neurotoxicity testing in these species. Hence, a minipig FOB instrument was developed. A complete crossover study with Sinclair minipigs was performed to evaluate physiologic, neurologic, and behavioral effects of amphetamine, ketamine, and diazepam...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191490/dietary-triglycerides-as-signaling-molecules-that-influence-reward-and-motivation
#6
Chloé Berland, Céline Cansell, Thomas S Hnasko, Christophe Magnan, Serge Luquet
The reinforcing and motivational aspects of food are tied to the release of the dopamine in the mesolimbic system (ML). Free fatty acids from triglyceride (TG)-rich particles are released upon action of TG-lipases found at high levels in peripheral oxidative tissue (muscle, heart), but also in the ML. This suggests that local TG-hydrolysis in the ML might regulate food seeking and reward. Indeed, evidence now suggests that dietary TG directly target the ML to regulate amphetamine-induced locomotion and reward seeking behavior...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189103/ultrasound-assisted-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-the-determination-of-seven-recreational-drugs-in-human-whole-blood-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#7
Zebin Lin, Jiaolun Li, Xinyu Zhang, Meihong Qiu, Zhibin Huang, Yulan Rao
Recreational drugs have large impact on public health and security, and to monitor them is of urgent demand. In the present study, ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with the detection of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of seven common recreational drugs, including amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, meperidine, methadone and ketamine in 200μL of human whole blood. A series of factors which would affect the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including the nature and the volume of extraction and dispersing solvents, ultrasonication time, salting-out effect and pH value...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187857/adaptive-and-behavioral-changes-in-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-knockout-mice-relevance-to-psychotic-disorders
#8
Sophie Erhardt, Ana Pocivavsek, Mariaelena Repici, Xi-Cong Liu, Sophie Imbeault, Daniel C Maddison, Marian A R Thomas, Joshua L Smalley, Markus K Larsson, Paul J Muchowski, Flaviano Giorgini, Robert Schwarcz
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia...
December 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182965/simultaneous-use-of-alcohol-with-methamphetamine-but-not-ecstasy-linked-with-aggression-among-young-adult-stimulant-users
#9
Ellen M Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Adrian Cherney, Helene Wells, Margot Legosz, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
INTRODUCTION: Illicit stimulants are often combined with alcohol in nightlife entertainment districts, an environment where aggressive behaviour commonly occurs. While alcohol and methamphetamine use are each associated with aggressive behaviour, relatively little is known about the impact of the combined use of alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulants (i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) on aggression. METHOD: Analysis of longitudinal data from a population-based sample of Australian young adult amphetamine-type stimulant users (n=248) to examine: (a) prevalence and timing of simultaneous alcohol and amphetamine-type stimulant use and (b) predictors of ecstasy- and methamphetamine-related aggression and hostility...
February 2, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181385/hemodynamic-profile-and-behavioral-characteristics-during-induction-of-anesthesia-in-pediatric-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Richard S Cartabuke, Joseph D Tobias, Julie Rice, Dmitry Tumin
AIM: There is no consensus regarding the administration of stimulant drugs preoperatively, particularly in pediatric patients diagnosed with ADHD. The primary objective of the current study was to assess differences in blood pressure and heart rate before and after induction of anesthesia between patients on chronic amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy who receive their normal dose preoperatively compared to patients in whom the prescribed medication was withheld. Secondary objectives were to assess the anxiety level during the induction of anesthesia and the effect of premedication with midazolam...
February 8, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170051/factors-associated-with-substance-use-among-spanish-military-personnel-involved-in-bosnia-herzegovina
#11
Cristina Vargas Pecino, Enrique Castellano, Humberto Trujillo
The use of both legal and illegal drugs has rarely been investigated among the Spanish military population involved in multinational military operations. The aim of the current study was to examine the consumption of drugs by Spanish military personnel in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the variables associated with such substance use. A total of 605 military personnel participated in the cross-sectional study. The participants' mean age was 25.9 years (SD = 5.9), and 93.9% of the sample was male. The majority of the participants were enlisted personnel (83...
January 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167616/towards-trans-diagnostic-mechanisms-in-psychiatry-neurobehavioral-profile-of-rats-with-a-loss-of-function-point-mutation-in-the-dopamine-transporter-gene
#12
Valentina Vengeliene, Anton Bespalov, Martin Roßmanith, Sandra Horschitz, Stefan Berger, Ana L Relo, Hamid R Noori, Peggy Schneider, Thomas Enkel, Dusan Bartsch, Miriam Schneider, Berthold Behl, Anita C Hansson, Patrick Schloss, Rainer Spanagel
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix has been developed to reorient psychiatric research towards measurable behavioral dimensions and underlying mechanisms. Here we used a new genetic rat model with a loss of function point mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene (Slc6a3_N157K) to systematically study the RDoC matrix (www.nimh.nih.gov/research-priorities/rdoc/constructs/rdoc-matrix.shtml). First, we examined the impact of the Slc6a3_N157K mutation on monoaminergic signaling. We then performed behavioral tests representing each of the five RDoC domains - negative and positive valence systems, cognitive, social, and in arousal/regulatory systems...
February 6, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164142/importance-of-substrate-coupled-proton-antiport-by-the-vesicular-monoamine-transporter-in-the-actions-of-amphetamines-in-drosophila-brain
#13
Takato Hiranita, Zachary Freyberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163218/atypical-dopamine-efflux-caused-by-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-via-the-human-dopamine-transporter
#14
Aparna Shekar, Jenny I Aguilar, Greta Galli, Nicholas V Cozzi, Simon D Brandt, Arnold E Ruoho, Michael H Baumann, Heinrich J G Matthies, Aurelio Galli
Synthetic cathinones are similar in chemical structure to amphetamines, and their behavioral effects are associated with enhanced dopaminergic signaling. The past ten years of research on the common constituent of bath salts, MDPV (the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), has aided the understanding of how synthetic cathinones act at the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT). Several groups have described the ability of MDPV to block the DAT with high-affinity. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time, a new mode of action of MDPV, namely its ability to promote DAT-mediated DA efflux...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152026/hiv-prevalence-and-gender-differences-among-new-injection-drug-users-in-tallinn-estonia-a-persisting-problem-in-a-stable-high-prevalence-epidemic
#15
Anneli Uusküla, Mait Raag, Kristina Marsh, Ave Talu, Sigrid Vorobjov, Don Des Jarlais
INTRODUCTION: New injectors / younger drug users are an important population to target for intervention because they are often at especially high risk of HIV and HCV infection. We examined HIV prevalence and gender differences in HIV prevalence and risk behavior among new injection-drug-users in Tallinn, Estonia. METHODS: Respondent driven sampling (RDS) interview surveys and HIV testing were conducted in Tallinn in 2009, 2011 and 2013. We classified "new injectors" as persons who reported their first injection as occurring within three years of the study interview...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147891/mechanistic-assessment-of-the-analgesic-anti-inflammatory-and-antipyretic-actions-of-dalbergia-saxatilis-in-animal-models
#16
Omoniyi K Yemitan, Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi
CONTEXT: Aqueous root extract of Dalbergia saxatilis, Hook, f., (Leguminosae) (DS) is reported useful for toothache, pains, and fever, but not scientifically proven. OBJECTIVE: This study determined its effectiveness in pain, inflammation, and fever, applying scientific models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss mice or Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) were pretreated with distilled water, DS (100 or 200 mg/kg), or standard drug for 30 min. The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid writhing, tail flick, tail immersion, tail clip, hot plate, and formalin pain tests; anti-inflammatory effects were determined via carrageenan and dextran rat paw oedema tests; antipyretic activity was measured by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ECL) and turpentine in rabbits, and d-amphetamine sulphate (d-AS) pyrexia test in rats...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146616/acute-substance-use-as-a-warning-sign-for-suicide-attempts-a-case-crossover-examination-of-the-48-hours-prior-to-a-recent-suicide-attempt
#17
Courtney L Bagge, Guilherme Borges
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which specific categories of acute substance use are short-term risk factors, or warning signs, for suicide attempts is unknown. The aim of the current study was to quantify the near-term effects of sole use and co-use of substances on medically attended suicide attempts. METHODS: The current study used a case-crossover design, comparing substance use within the 24 hours prior to a suicide attempt (case day) to the control day, the matched 24 hours the day prior to the case day...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144880/use-of-stimulants-in-bipolar-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Giulio Perugi, Giulia Vannucchi, Fulvio Bedani, Ettore Favaretto
Several international guidelines indicate stimulants, including methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamines and derivatives, modafinil, and armodafinil among the second-third-line choices for bipolar depression. Efficacy of stimulants has been also reported for the management of residual depressive symptoms such as fatigue and sleepiness and for the management of affective, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms in children and adult bipolar patients with comorbid ADHD. Few case reports show positive results with MPH in the treatment of resistant mania...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141724/inattentive-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-stimulant-medication-and-weight-loss-in-a-15-year-old-girl-are-we-enabling-the-development-of-an-eating-disorder
#19
Sai Iyer, Maya Kumar, Michael I Reiff, Martin T Stein
Nicole is a 15-year-old girl presenting to the Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic with symptoms of the inattentive type of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and declining school performance over the last year. She expressed frustration over her inability to concentrate on schoolwork. Assuming that her poor grades were secondary to lack of effort, her parents withdrew privileges. Nicole became increasingly depressed. She stopped participating in activities, she previously enjoyed, and her parents reported that she stopped singing in the shower...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140405/the-impact-of-disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1-disc1-on-the-dopaminergic-system-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
T Dahoun, S V Trossbach, N J Brandon, C Korth, O D Howes
Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a gene known as a risk factor for mental illnesses possibly associated with dopamine impairments. DISC1 is a scaffold protein interacting with proteins involved in the dopamine system. Here we summarise the impact of DISC1 disruption on the dopamine system in animal models, considering its effects on presynaptic dopaminergic function (tyrosine hydroxylase levels, dopamine transporter levels, dopamine levels at baseline and after amphetamine administration) and postsynaptic dopaminergic function (dopamine D1 and D2 receptor levels, dopamine receptor-binding potential and locomotor activity after amphetamine administration)...
January 31, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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