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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105978/simultaneous-transplantation-of-fetal-ventral-mesencephalic-tissue-and-encapsulated-genetically-modified-cells-releasing-gdnf-in-a-hemi-parkinsonian-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Alberto Perez-Bouza, Stefano Di, Stefanie Seiler, Morten Meyer, Lukas Andereggen, Alexander Huber, Raphael Guzman, Hans R
Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) neurons for Parkinson's disease (PD) is limited by poor survival and suboptimal integration of grafted tissue into the host brain. In a 6-OHDA rat model of PD we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous transplantation of rat fetal VM tissue and polymer-encapsulated C2C12 myoblasts genetically modified to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or mocktransfected myoblasts on graft function. Amphetamine-induced rotations were assessed prior and 2, 4, 6 and 9 weeks post-transplantation...
January 20, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104804/the-n-terminus-specifies-the-switch-between-transport-modes-of-the-human-serotonin-transporter
#2
Carina Kern, Fatma Asli Erdem, Ali El-Kasaby, Walter Sandtner, Michael Freissmuth, Sonja Sucic
The serotonin transporter (SERT) and other monoamine transporters operate in either a forward transport mode, where the transporter undergoes a full transport cycle, or an exchange mode, where the transporter seesaws through half-cycles. Amphetamines trigger the exchange-mode leading to substrate efflux. This efflux was proposed to rely on the N-terminus, which was suggested to adopt different conformations in the inward-, outward-facing and amphetamine-bound states. This prediction was verified by tryptic digestion of SERT-expressing membranes: in the absence of Na+, the N-terminus was rapidly digested...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098590/analgesia-and-sedation-requirements-in-mechanically-ventilated-trauma-patients-with-acute-preinjury-use-of-cocaine-and-or-amphetamines
#3
Bridgette Kram, Shawn J Kram, Michelle L Sharpe, Michael L James, Maragatha Kuchibhatla, Mark L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanically ventilated trauma patients with a positive urine drug screen (UDS) for cocaine and/or amphetamines have different opioid analgesic and sedative requirements compared with similar patients with a negative drug screen for these stimulants. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center cohort study at a tertiary care, academic medical and level 1 trauma center in the United States included patients ≥16 years of age who were admitted to an adult intensive care unit with a diagnosis of trauma between 2009 and 2013 with a UDS documented within 24 hours of admission, and were mechanically ventilated for >24 hours...
January 16, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096495/memory-disrupting-effects-of-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-inhibition-depend-on-the-class-of-abused-drug-and-brain-region
#4
Sherri B Briggs, Ashley M Blouin, Erica J Young, Gavin Rumbaugh, Courtney A Miller
Depolymerizing actin in the amygdala through nonmuscle myosin II inhibition (NMIIi) produces a selective, lasting, and retrieval-independent disruption of the storage of methamphetamine-associated memories. Here we report a similar disruption of memories associated with amphetamine, but not cocaine or morphine, by NMIIi. Reconsolidation appeared to be disrupted with cocaine. Unlike in the amygdala, methamphetamine-associated memory storage was not disrupted by NMIIi in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, or orbitofrontal cortex...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096470/dampened-amphetamine-stimulated-behavior-and-altered-dopamine-transporter-function-in-the-absence-of-brain-gdnf
#5
Jaakko Kopra, Anne Panhelainen, Sara Af Bjerkén, Lauriina Porokuokka, Kärt Varendi, Soophie Olfat, Heidi Montonen, T Petteri Piepponen, Mart Saarma, Jaan-Olle Andressoo
: Midbrain dopamine neuron dysfunction contributes to various psychiatric and neurological diseases including drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. Because of its well-established dopaminotrophic effects, the therapeutic potential of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been extensively studied in various disorders with disturbed dopamine homeostasis. The outcomes from pre-clinical and clinical studies vary, however, highlighting a need for a better understanding of the physiological role of GDNF on striatal dopaminergic function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093027/effects-of-amphetamine-and-methylphenidate-on-attentional-performance-and-impulsivity-in-the-mouse-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#6
Maitane Caballero-Puntiverio, Ciarán Martin Fitzpatrick, David Pd Woldbye, Jesper Tobias Andreasen
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the effects of conventional attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication in the mouse 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), and rat studies have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the effects of acute methylphenidate (MPH) and amphetamine (AMPH) treatment in the mouse 5-CSRTT. METHODS: Trained male C57Bl/6J mice were tested in a variable stimulus duration schedule...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076672/prenatal-psychostimulant-and-antidepressant-exposure-and-risk-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy
#7
D Jeffrey Newport, Amy L Hostetter, Sarah H Juul, Sunny M Porterfield, Bettina T Knight, Zachary N Stowe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association, if any, of prenatal mental illness and psychotropic exposure with the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: A case-cohort analysis was conducted of 686 pregnant women participating in prospective, longitudinal observational studies in a tertiary referral center between January 1998 and May 2012. Risk estimates were produced using multivariate logistic regression modeling. Medication- and diagnosis-specific data were utilized to conduct post hoc confirmatory analyses of the risk estimates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075498/tamoxifen-and-its-active-metabolites-inhibit-dopamine-transporter-function-independently-of-the-estrogen-receptors
#8
Sarah R Mikelman, Bipasha Guptaroy, Margaret Gnegy
As one of the primary mechanisms by which dopamine signaling is regulated, the dopamine transporter (DAT) is an attractive pharmacological target for the treatment of diseases based in dopaminergic dysfunction. In this work we demonstrate for the first time that the commonly prescribed breast cancer therapeutic tamoxifen and its major metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen, inhibit DAT function. Tamoxifen inhibits [(3) H]dopamine uptake into hDAT-N2A cells via an uncompetitive or mixed mechanism. Endoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, asymmetrically inhibits DAT function in hDAT-N2A cells, showing a preference for the inhibition of amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux as compared to dopamine uptake...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073796/comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-pharmacological-interventions-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#9
Samuele Cortese, Nicoletta Adamo, Christina Mohr-Jensen, Adrian J Hayes, Sahar Bhatti, Sara Carucci, Cinzia Del Giovane, Lauren Z Atkinson, Tobias Banaschewski, Emily Simonoff, Alessandro Zuddas, Corrado Barbui, Marianna Purgato, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Farhad Shokraneh, Jun Xia, Andrea Cipriani, David Coghill
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major public health issue. Pharmacological treatments play an important role in the multimodal treatment of ADHD. Currently, there is a lack of up-to-date and comprehensive evidence on how available ADHD drugs compare and rank in terms of efficacy and tolerability, in children or adolescents as well as in adults. We will conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA), integrating direct and indirect comparisons from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), to rank pharmacological treatments for ADHD according to their efficacy and tolerability profiles...
January 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067045/neurotoxicity-of-%C3%AE-keto-amphetamines-deathly-mechanisms-elicited-by-methylone-and-mdpv-in-human-dopaminergic-sh-sy5y-cells
#10
Maria Joao Valente, Maria Lourdes Bastos, Eduarda Fernandes, Félix Carvalho, Paola Guedes de Pinho, Marcia Carvalho
Synthetic cathinones (β-keto amphetamines) act as potent CNS stimulants similarly to classical amphetamines, which raise concerns about their potential neurotoxic effects. The present in vitro study aimed to explore and compare the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of two commonly abused cathinone derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), with those of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), using undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells...
January 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065841/the-neurotoxic-mechanisms-of-amphetamine-step-by-step-for-striatal-dopamine-depletion
#11
Che-Se Tung, Shang-Tang Chang, Chuen-Lin Huang, Nai-Kuei Huang
Amphetamine (AMPH) is a commonly abused psychostimulant that induces neuronal cell death/degeneration in humans and experimental animals. Although multiple neurotoxic mechanisms of AMPH have been intensively investigated, the interplay between these mechanisms has remained elusive. In this study, we used a rat model of AMPH-induced long-lasting striatal dopamine (DA) depletion and identified mechanisms of neurotoxicity, energy failure, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Pretreatment with nicotinamide (NAM, a co-factor for the electron transport chain) blocked AMPH-induced free radical formation, energy failure, and striatal DA decrease...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063587/indirect-chiral-separation-of-8-novel-amphetamine-derivatives-as-potential-new-psychoactive-compounds-by-gc-ms-and-hplc
#12
Jennifer A Weiß, Kian Kadkhodaei, Martin G Schmid
Amphetamine and its derivatives gained high popularity on the illegal drug market. In the last few years, a lot of new psychoactive compounds structurally related to amphetamine, such as 4-fluoroamphetamine and 4-fluoromethamphetamine swamped the drug market. They were designed to circumvent prohibition of amphetamine and N-methylamphetamine and are distributed via the Internet. Often, a halogen atom is introduced into the phenyl ring of amphetamine to turn the illegal amphetamine legal. Since amphetamines possess a chiral centre, two enantiomers are available, which might differ in activity...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062254/the-effects-of-d-govadine-on-conditioned-place-preference-with-d-amphetamine-or-food-reward
#13
Maya O Nesbit, Carine Dias, Anthony G Phillips
Tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPB) have a high affinity for dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors and may provide a novel treatment for drug addiction. We assessed the effects of the THPB d-govadine on the acquisition, expression, extinction and reinstatement of d-amphetamine-(1.5mg/kg, i.p.) induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Furthermore, the effects of d-govadine on conditioned association between contextual stimuli and a natural reward were examined using food-induced CPP. In separate experiments, rats received d-govadine (0, 0...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062232/interactions-between-estradiol-and-haloperidol-on-perseveration-and-reversal-learning-in-amphetamine-sensitized-female-rats
#14
Anne Almey, Lauren Arena, Joshua Oliel, Nada Hafez, Cynthia Mancinelli, Lukas Henning, Aleks Tsanev, Wayne G Brake
There are sex differences associated with schizophrenia, as women exhibit later onset of the disorder, less severe symptomatology, and better response to antipsychotic medications. Estrogens are thought to play a role in these sex differences; estrogens facilitate the effects of antipsychotic medications to reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear whether estrogens protect against the cognitive symptoms of this disorder. Amphetamine sensitization is used to model some symptoms of schizophrenia in rats, including cognitive deficits like excessive perseveration and slower reversal learning...
January 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057530/effects-of-nucleus-accumbens-amphetamine-administration-on-performance-in-a-delay-discounting-task
#15
Caitlin A Orsini, Marci R Mitchell, Sara C Heshmati, Kristy G Shimp, Megan S Spurrell, Jennifer L Bizon, Barry Setlow
Chronic administration of cocaine can cause pronounced and enduring cognitive alterations such as increases in impulsive choice. Chronic cocaine can also result in enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to reward-related cues. It is possible that this enhanced DA release in the NAc is a mechanism by which cocaine increases impulsive choice. To date, however, the specific role of DA in the NAc in impulsive choice is unclear. To begin to address this, rats received acute microinjections of the indirect DA agonist amphetamine directly into the NAc prior to testing in a delay discounting task in which rats chose between a small, immediate and a large, delayed food reward...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#16
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057079/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-use-of-khat-a-survey-of-patients-entering-hiv-treatment-programs-in-ethiopia
#17
Alan R Lifson, Sale Workneh, Tibebe Shenie, Desalegn Admassu Ayana, Zenebe Melaku, Lemlem Bezabih, Hiwot Tekle Waktola, Behailu Dagne, Rose Hilk, Ken C Winters, Lucy Slater
BACKGROUND: Khat, a plant native to East Africa, has psychoactive constituents similar to amphetamine. Chronic khat use can lead to psychological dependence with multiple physical and mental health harms, complicating clinical management of people living with HIV. In two Ethiopian cities where khat is common, we evaluated prevalence and correlates of khat use among patients new to HIV care. METHODS: During 2013-2014, we surveyed 322 patients recently enrolled in HIV clinics in Dire Dawa and Harar about khat use, demographics, smoking and alcohol use, clinical illness, food insecurity, and social support...
January 6, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056000/adverse-health-effects-associated-with-living-in-a-former-methamphetamine-drug-laboratory-victoria-australia-2015
#18
Jackie Wright, Michaela E Kenneally, John W Edwards, G Stewart Walker
The manufacture of methamphetamine in clandestine drug laboratories occurs in various locations, including residential houses and apartments. Unlike the controlled manufacture of chemicals and drugs, clandestine manufacture results in the uncontrolled storage, use, generation, and disposal of a wide range of chemicals and the deposit of methamphetamine drug residues on indoor surfaces (1). These residues have been found at high levels on porous and nonporous surfaces and have been shown to persist for months to years (1)...
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053019/biological-mechanisms-whereby-social-exclusion-may-contribute-to-the-etiology-of-psychosis-a-narrative-review
#19
Jean-Paul Selten, Jan Booij, Bauke Buwalda, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
The purpose of this review is to examine whether a contribution of social exclusion to the pathogenesis of psychosis is compatible with the dopamine hypothesis and/or the neurodevelopmental hypothesis. Humans experience social exclusion as defeating. An animal model for defeat is the resident-intruder paradigm. The defeated animal shows evidence of an increased sensitivity to amphetamine, increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and increased firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area...
January 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051838/mixed-amphetamine-salts-increase-abstinence-from-marijuana-in-patients-with-co-occurring-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-cocaine-dependence
#20
Daniel P Notzon, John J Mariani, Martina Pavlicova, Andrew Glass, Amy L Mahony, Daniel J Brooks, John Grabowski, Frances R Levin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of ADHD is greater in substance use disorders than the general population, and ADHD and substance use disorders share neurobiological features such as dysregulation of reward circuitry. We tested the hypothesis that stimulants would decrease marijuana use in a randomized controlled trial of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) for treatment of co-occurring ADHD and cocaine use disorders. METHODS: Marijuana users were defined as participants reporting use in the 30 days before study initiation, collected with timeline follow-back...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
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