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Opioid Precursor

Ashlee Van't Veer, Karen L Smith, Bruce M Cohen, William A Carlezon, Anita J Bechtholt
INTRODUCTION: Studies in laboratory animals and humans indicate that endogenous opioids play an important role in regulating the rewarding value of various drugs, including ethanol (EtOH). Indeed, opioid antagonists are currently a front-line treatment for alcoholism in humans. Although roles for mu- and delta-opioid receptors have been characterized, the contribution of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) is less clear. There is evidence that changes in KOR system function can decrease or increase EtOH drinking, depending on test conditions...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Xianwei Cui, Yun Li, Lei Yang, Lianghui You, Xing Wang, Chunmei Shi, Chenbo Ji, Xirong Guo
Breastfeeding is associated with a lower incidence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. While macrosomic infants have a higher risk of developing obesity and other metabolic disorders. Breast milk may contain special nutrients to meet the different growth needs of different infants. Whether mothers make breast milk different to meet the requirement of macrosomic infants is still unknown. Here, we conducted a comparison between mothers delivering macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants in colostrum endogenous peptides...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
R Matthew Gladden, Pedro Martinez, Puja Seth
In March and October 2015, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and CDC, respectively, issued nationwide alerts identifying illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) as a threat to public health and safety (1,2). IMF is unlawfully produced fentanyl, obtained through illicit drug markets, includes fentanyl analogs, and is commonly mixed with or sold as heroin (1,3,4). Starting in 2013, the production and distribution of IMF increased to unprecedented levels, fueled by increases in the global supply, processing, and distribution of fentanyl and fentanyl-precursor chemicals by criminal organizations (3)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Torben Breindahl, Andreas Kimergård, Mette Findal Andreasen, Daniel Sejer Pedersen
Among the new psychoactive substances (NPS) that have recently emerged on the market, many of the new synthetic opioids have shown to be particularly harmful. A new synthetic analogue of fentanyl, N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenethyl)piperidin-4-yl]prop-2-enamide (acrylfentanyl), was identified in powder from a seized capsule found at a forensic psychiatric ward in Denmark. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified a precursor to synthetic fentanyls, N-phenyl-1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-amine; however, the precursor 1-(2-phenethyl)piperidin-4-on, was not detected...
August 1, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Feng Mei, Sonia R Mayoral, Hiroko Nobuta, Fei Wang, Caroline Desponts, Daniel S Lorrain, Lan Xiao, Ari J Green, David Rowitch, Jennifer Whistler, Jonah R Chan
UNLABELLED: Remyelinating therapies seek to promote restoration of function and normal cellular architecture following demyelination in diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Functional screening for small molecules or novel targets for remyelination is a major hurdle to the identification and development of rational therapeutics for MS. Recent findings and technical advances provide us with a unique opportunity to provide insight into the cell autonomous mechanisms for remyelination and address this unmet need...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Cleo J L M Smeets, Justyna Zmorzyńska, Manuel N Melo, Anita Stargardt, Colette Dooley, Georgy Bakalkin, Jay McLaughlin, Richard J Sinke, Siewert-Jan Marrink, Eric Reits, Dineke S Verbeek
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 23 (SCA23) is caused by missense mutations in prodynorphin (PDYN), encoding the precursor protein for the opioid neuropeptides α-neoendorphin, Dynorphin (Dyn) A, and Dyn B, leading to neurotoxic elevated mutant Dyn A levels. Dyn A acts on opioid receptors to reduce pain in the spinal cord, but its cerebellar function remains largely unknown. Increased concentration of or prolonged exposure to Dyn A is neurotoxic and these deleterious effects are very likely caused by an NMDA-mediated non-opioid mechanism as Dyn A peptides were shown to bind NMDA receptors and potentiate their glutamate-evoked currents...
June 3, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Mohammad Hafiz Abdul Rahim, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mohd Hijaz Mohd Sani, Maizatul Hasyima Omar, Yusnita Yakob, Manraj Singh Cheema, Siew Mooi Ching, Zuraini Ahmad, Arifah Abdul Kadir
The objectives of the present study were to determine the mechanisms of antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) leaves (MECN) using various animal nociceptive models. The antinociceptive activity of orally administered 10% DMSO, 100 mg/kg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 5 mg/kg morphine, or MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was determined using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction (ACT), formalin-induced paw licking (FT), and hot plate tests (HPT). The role of opioid and nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) systems was also investigated...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Bernhard Gutmann, Ulrich Weigl, D Phillip Cox, C Oliver Kappe
14-Hydroxymorphinone is converted to noroxymorphone, the immediate precursor of important opioid antagonists, such as naltrexone and naloxone, in a three-step reaction sequence. The initial oxidation of the N-methyl group in 14-hydroxymorphinone with in situ generated colloidal palladium(0) as the catalyst and molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant constitutes the key transformation in this new route. This oxidation results in the formation of an unexpected oxazolidine ring structure. Subsequent hydrolysis of the oxazolidine under reduced pressure followed by hydrogenation in a packed-bed flow reactor using palladium(0) as the catalyst provides noroxymorphone in high purity and good overall yield...
July 18, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Siavash Parvardeh, Mahsa Moghimi, Pegah Eslami, Alireza Masoudi
OBJECTIVES: Dependence and tolerance to opioid analgesics are major problems limiting their clinical application. α-Terpineol is a monoterpenoid alcohol with neuroprotective effects which is found in several medicinal plants such as Myrtus communis, Laurus nobilis, and Stachys byzantina. It has been shown that some of these medicinal plants such as S. byzantina attenuate dependence and tolerance to morphine. Since α-terpineol is one of the bioactive phytochemical constituent of these medicinal plants, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of α-terpineol on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance in mice...
February 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Kay Jüngling, Peter Blaesse, Lena Goedecke, Hans-Christian Pape
The Neuropeptide S system, consisting of the 20-amino acid peptide neuropeptide S (NPS) and its G-protein coupled receptor (NPSR), modulates arousal, wakefulness, anxiety, and fear-extinction in mice. In addition, recent evidence indicates that the NPS system attenuates stress-dependent impairment of fear extinction, and that NPS-expressing neurons in close proximity to the locus coeruleus region (LC; pericoerulear, periLC) are activated by stress. Furthermore, periLC NPS neurons receive afferents from neurons of the centrolateral nucleus of the amygdala (CeL), of which a substantial population expresses the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) ligand precursor prodynorphin...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Lova Segerström, Jenny Gustavsson, Ingrid Nylander
Enzymatic degradation is a major concern in peptide analysis. Postmortem metabolism in biological samples entails considerable risk for measurements misrepresentative of true in vivo concentrations. It is therefore vital to find reliable, reproducible, and easy-to-use procedures to inhibit enzymatic activity in fresh tissues before subjecting them to qualitative and quantitative analyses. The aim of this study was to test a benchtop thermal stabilization method to optimize measurement of endogenous opioids in brain tissue...
April 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Carla Marinelli, Thomas Bertalot, Morena Zusso, Stephen D Skaper, Pietro Giusti
Oligodendrogenesis and oligodendrocyte precursor maturation are essential processes during the course of central nervous system development, and lead to the myelination of axons. Cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage are generated in the germinal zone from migratory bipolar oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and acquire cell surface markers as they mature and respond specifically to factors which regulate proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Loss of myelin underlies a wide range of neurological disorders, some of an autoimmune nature-multiple sclerosis probably being the most prominent...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Erika Castrignanò, Anneke Lubben, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
This paper proposes a novel multi-residue enantioselective method utilising a CBH (cellobiohydrolase) column, for the analysis of 56 drug biomarkers in wastewater. These are: opioid analgesics, amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, stimulants, anaesthetics, sedatives, anxiolytics, designer drugs, phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, amphetamine and methamphetamine drug precursors. Satisfactory enantiomeric separation was obtained for 18 pairs of enantiomers including amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) and its metabolites HMA (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine) and HMMA (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-methamphetamine), PMA (para-methoxyamphetamine), MDA ((±)- 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) and mephedrone...
March 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Carla Ghelardini, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Enrica Bianchi
An opioid is a chemical that binds to opioid receptors, which are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. The different effects elicited by activation of these receptors are due to their specific neuronal and extraneuronal distribution. The painkiller effect of opioids is induced by the synergy of the two events, namely reduction of pain threshold and emotional detachment from pain. The opioid effects transcending analgesia include sedation, respiratory depression, constipation and a strong sense of euphoria...
September 2015: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
Fanni Tóth, Jayapal Reddy Mallareddy, Dirk Tourwé, Andrzej W Lipkowski, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrozny, Sándor Benyhe, Steven Ballet, Géza Tóth, Patrycja Kleczkowska
Neurotensin (NT) and its analog neuromedin N (NN) are formed by the processing of a common precursor in mammalian brain tissue and intestines. The biological effects mediated by NT and NN (e.g. analgesia, hypothermia) result from the interaction with G protein-coupled receptors. The goal of this study consisted of the synthesis and radiolabeling of NN, as well as the determination of the binding characteristics of [(3)H]NN and G protein activation by the cold ligand. In homologous displacement studies a weak affinity was determined for NN, with IC50 values of 454nM in rat brain and 425nM in rat spinal cord membranes...
June 2016: Neuropeptides
Louise M Collins, Giorgia Dal Bo, Mariangela Calcagno, Jimena Monzón-Sandoval, Aideen M Sullivan, Humberto Gutierrez, Michele Morari, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an opioid-like neuropeptide that binds and signals through a G-protein-coupled receptor called the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor. N/OFQ and the NOP receptor are expressed in the midbrain and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Genetic removal of the N/OFQ precursor partially protects midbrain dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-induced toxicity, suggesting that endogenous N/OFQ may be detrimental to dopaminergic neurons. However, whether N/OFQ directly affects the survival and growth of dopaminergic neurons is unknown...
December 21, 2015: Molecular Neurobiology
I Urizar-Arenaza, H Estomba, I Muñoa-Hoyos, R Matorras, A Esposito, L Candenas, F M Pinto, A Valdivia, J Irazusta, N Subirán
The acrosome reaction occurs in vivo following sperm capacitation and is essential for the acquisition of sperm fertilization ability. However, little is known about the molecular identity of the physiological acrosome reaction regulators. In addition to progesterone, which is produced by cumulus oophorus cells and known to regulate acrosome reaction by activating the specific calcium channel CatSper, endogenous opioid peptides such as beta-endorphin and met-enkephalin are present at high concentrations in the follicular fluid suggesting that the opioid system may be involved in the mechanisms regulating the acrosome reaction in humans...
January 2016: Andrology
Mahsa Hassanipour, Armin Shirzadian, Mahdi Mashhadi-Akbar Boojar, Aminreza Abkhoo, Alireza Abkhoo, Sina Delazar, Shayan Amiri, Nastaran Rahimi, Sattar Ostadhadi, Ahmad-Reza Dehpour
Chloroquine has long been used for the treatment of malaria and rheumatological disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests potential use of chloroquine as a neuroprotective agent. Several studies have reported that endogenous opioids and nitric oxide (NO) system mediate the chloroquine effects. In the present study, the involvements of endogenous opioids and NO in the modulatory effects of chloroquine on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures were assessed in mice. Chloroquine 5mg/kg significantly increased the seizure threshold, but this effect was reversed with naltrexone 1mg/kg...
March 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Tomáš Mackuľak, Lucia Birošová, Miroslav Gál, Igor Bodík, Roman Grabic, Jozef Ryba, Jaroslav Škubák
The estimation of medication use is based on the statistical data from pharmacies and hospitals. Excessive use or misuse of some compounds, especially psychoactive medications, has not yet been monitored in Slovakia. Wastewater analysis provides useful data about the medication use and misuse in individual regions. This study is focused on the analysis of 23 substances in the wastewaters of Slovakia. The monitoring programme has included stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, drug precursors and their metabolites...
January 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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