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Danielle Aguiar Diniz, Júlia Alvarenga Petrocchi, Larissa Caldeira Navarro, Tâmara Cristina Souza, Marina Gomes Miranda E Castor, Igor Dimitri Gama Duarte, Thiago Roberto Lima Romero
PURPOSE: Studies conducted since 1969 have shown that the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord contributes to opioid analgesia. In the present study, the participation of the opioidergic system in antinociceptive effect serotonin at the peripheral level was examined. METHODS: The paw pressure test was used with mice (Swiss, males from 35 g) which had increased pain sensitivity by intraplantar injection of PGE2 (2 μg). Serotonin (250 ng), administered locally to the right paw of animals, produces antinociception in this model...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Juliana Perazzo, Carla Lima, Montserrat Heras, Eduard Bardají, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira, Miguel Castanho
Neuropeptide kyotorphin (KTP) is a potent analgesic if administered directly into the brain. In contrast, KTP-amide (KTP-NH2 ) is analgesic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory following systemic administration, albeit its mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to shed light on the mechanism of action of KTP-NH2 at the molecular level. KTP-NH2 does not inhibit the enkephalinases angiotensin-converting-enzyme and dipeptidyl-peptidase 3. Intravital microscopy showed that KTP-NH2 decreased the number of rolling leukocytes in a mouse model of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Jennifer R Deuis, Zoltan Dekan, Joshua S Wingerd, Jennifer J Smith, Nehan R Munasinghe, Rebecca F Bhola, Wendy L Imlach, Volker Herzig, David A Armstrong, K Johan Rosengren, Frank Bosmans, Stephen G Waxman, Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Pierre Escoubas, Michael S Minett, Macdonald J Christie, Glenn F King, Paul F Alewood, Richard J Lewis, John N Wood, Irina Vetter
Human genetic studies have implicated the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1.7 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. A novel peptide, μ-theraphotoxin-Pn3a, isolated from venom of the tarantula Pamphobeteus nigricolor, potently inhibits NaV 1.7 (IC50 0.9 nM) with at least 40-1000-fold selectivity over all other NaV subtypes. Despite on-target activity in small-diameter dorsal root ganglia, spinal slices, and in a mouse model of pain induced by NaV 1.7 activation, Pn3a alone displayed no analgesic activity in formalin-, carrageenan- or FCA-induced pain in rodents when administered systemically...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Olivia Marini, Sara Costa, Dalila Bevilacqua, Federica Calzetti, Nicola Tamassia, Cecilia Spina, Donata De Sabata, Elisa Tinazzi, Claudio Lunardi, Maria T Scupoli, Chiara Cavallini, Elisa Zoratti, Ilaria Tinazzi, Antonio Marchetta, Aurora Vassanelli, Maurizio Cantini, Giorgio Gandini, Andrea Ruzzenente, Alfredo Guglielmi, Francesco Missale, William Vermi, Cristina Tecchio, Marco A Cassatella, Patrizia Scapini
The identification of discrete neutrophil populations, as well as the characterization of their immunoregulatory properties, is an emerging topic under extensive investigation. In such regard, the presence of circulating CD66b+ neutrophil populations, exerting either immunosuppressive or proinflammatory functions, has been described in several acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, due to the lack of specific markers, the precise phenotype and maturation status of these neutrophil populations remain unclear...
March 9, 2017: Blood
Elżbieta Kamysz, Maciej Sałaga, Małgorzata Sobocińska, Artur Giełdoń, Jakub Fichna
AIM: The pharmacotherapy of inflammatory bowel disease is difficult and currently available treatments bring mostly poor and unsatisfactory results. RESULTS: The purpose of this work was the synthesis of opiorphin, sialorphin, spinorphin and a series of their analogs and the in vitro characterization of their effect on degradation of enkephalin by neutral endopeptidase and aminopeptidase N. Consequently, we investigated in vivo the anti-inflammatory effect of the most active inhibitors selected in the in vitro studies (Pal-KKQRFSR & Pal-KKQHNPR)...
December 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Korinna Ulbricht, Peter Layer, Viola Andresen
Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Bernard P Roques
Very few discoveries in the neurosciences have triggered clinical speculation and experimentation regarding the etiology of psychiatric illness to the same extent as that following identification of the opiate receptor(s) and subsequent isolation of endogenous morphine-like peptides. There is overwhelming evidence in animals and in human that opioids are involved in behaviorally relevant issues such as the modulation of pain, the response to stress, motivation, addiction, sexuality, food intake, etc., but our knowledge on the possible relation between opioids and mental illness is still very limited...
July 15, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Elisabeth Bonnard, Hervé Poras, Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski, Bernard P Roques
Neuropathic pain remains difficult to treat due to the involvement of various pathophysiological mechanisms in its pathogeny. Among the different opioidergic systems the enkephalinergic one is primarily recruited via activation of delta opioid receptor (DOP) in chronic pain and of mu opioid receptor (MOP) in acute pain. To investigate the role of their endogenous ligands Met and Leu-enkephalin in neuropathic pain control, a dual inhibitor of their degrading enzymes, PL265, which acts restrictively at the level of peripheral nociceptors, was administered per os to assess its efficacy in pain prevention and alleviation using a partial sciatic nerve ligation model (PSNL) in mice...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Vishnuvardhan Chiguru, Allakonda Lingesh, Srinivas R, Satheeshkumar N
Racecadotril, an enkephalinase inhibitor, was subjected to hydrolysis (acidic and alkaline), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per ICH specified conditions. The drug showed extensive degradation under acidic, basic hydrolysis and oxidative stress conditions whereas, it was stable under other stress conditions. A total of seven degradation products (DPs) were observed. The chromatographic separation was optimized on Acquity HSS Cyano (100×2.1mm, 1.8μ) column using 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase in gradient mode...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Solomon Tesfaye
Solomon Tesfaye speaks to Nick Ward, Commissioning Editor: Solomon Tesfaye, MB ChB, MD, FRCP, speaks about PL37; the first orally administered dual inhibitor of enkephalinases and its potential role in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Solomon Tesfaye is a Consultant Physician/Endocrinologist at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals and Honorary Professor of Diabetic Medicine at the University of Sheffield. His research projects include the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, CNS involvement and treatment of diabetic neuropathy and neuropathic pain...
April 2016: Pain Management
Edward C Emery, Ana Paula Luiz, John N Wood
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain is a massive clinical problem. We discuss the potential of subtype selective sodium channel blockers that may provide analgesia with limited side effects. AREAS COVERED: Sodium channel subtypes have been linked to human pain syndromes through genetic studies. Gain of function mutations in Nav1.7, 1.8 and 1.9 can cause pain, whilst loss of function Nav1.7 mutations lead to loss of pain in otherwise normal people. Intriguingly, both human and mouse Nav1...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Ana Belén Segarra, Joaquín Hernández, Isabel Prieto, Marc de Gasparo, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of acute restraint stress (ARS) on plasma enkephalinase and oxytocinase activities. ARS modifies basal activities in cortico-limbic regions of rats and induces changes in the correlations observed between these regions. The interactions between plasma and cortico-limbic activities will be also evaluated. METHODS: Enkephalinase (AlaAP and LeuAP) and oxytocinase (P-LeuAP) activities were fluorometrically determined in plasma of control and stressed rats using aminoacyl-β-naphthylamides (aaNNap), AlaNNap and LeuNNap as substrates...
August 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Mònica Rosa, Filipa Marcelo, Luis P Calle, Catherine Rougeot, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Gemma Arsequell, Gregorio Valencia
The dual inhibitory action of the pain related peptide opiorphin (H-Gln-Arg-Phe-Ser-Arg-OH) against neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and aminopeptidase N (AP-N) was further investigated by a SAR study involving minor modifications on the polar side chains of Arg residues and glycosylation with monosaccharides at Ser. None of them exerted dual or individual inhibitory potency superior than opiorphin. However, the correlations deduced offer further proof for the key role of these residues upon the binding and bioactive conformational stabilization of opiorphin...
November 15, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Joseph Vamecq, Karine Mention-Mulliez, Francis Leclerc, Dries Dobbelaere
Recently, propranolol was suggested to prevent hyperlactatemia in a child with hypovolemic shock through β-adrenergic blockade. Though it is a known inhibitor of glycolysis, propranolol, outside this observation, has never been reported to fully protect against lactate overproduction. On the other hand, literature evidence exists for a cross-talk between β-adrenergic receptors (protein targets of propranolol) and δ-opioid receptor. In this literature context, it is hypothesized here that anti-diarrheic racecadotril (a pro-drug of thiorphan, an inhibitor of enkephalinases), which, in the cited observation, was co-administered with propranolol, might have facilitated the β-blocker-driven inhibition of glycolysis and resulting lactate production...
September 25, 2015: Pharmaceuticals
Hervé Poras, Elisabeth Bonnard, Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski, Bernard P Roques
The endogenous opioid system, essentially constituted by two opioid receptors which are stimulated by the natural internal effectors enkephalins (Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin), is present at the different sites (peripheral, spinal, central) of the control of pain. We have demonstrated that the protection of the enkephalin inactivation by the two metallopeptidases (neprilysin and neutral aminopeptidase) increases their local concentration selectively induced by pain stimuli triggering analgesic responses...
September 18, 2015: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Alexandra Bocsik, Zsuzsanna Darula, Géza Tóth, Mária A Deli, Mária Wollemann
Opioid peptides are potent analgesics with therapeutic potential in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Their efficacy is limited by peptidases (enkephalinases). Opiorphin pentapeptide (QRFSR) is the first characterized human endogenous inhibitor of enkephalinases. The peptide is able to increase the binding and affinity of endogenous opiates to mu opioid receptors; thus, the mechanism of opiorphin may provide a new therapeutic approach in pain management. The analgesic effect of opiorphin was proven in several earlier published in vitro and in vivo studies...
August 2015: Archives of Medical Research
John J V McMurray
This review describes the role of neprilysin (also known as neutral endopeptidase or enkephalinase) in the degradation of natriuretic and other vasoactive peptides, including bradykinin and adrenomedullin. The initial development of neprilysin inhibitors, then angiotensin converting enzyme-neprilysin inhibitors and, most recently, the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) LCZ696 (sacubitril valsartan) as an extension of the nurohumoral basis for the treatment of heart failure is also summarised. Finally, the implications of the compelling benefits of LCZ696 compared with enalapril in the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF) is discussed...
March 2015: European Journal of Heart Failure
Elisabeth Bonnard, Hervé Poras, Xavier Nadal, Rafael Maldonado, Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski, Bernard P Roques
The peripheral endogenous opioid system is critically involved in neuropathic and inflammatory pain generation as suggested by the modulation of opioid receptors expression and enkephalins (ENKs) release observed in these painful conditions. Accordingly, an innovative approach in the treatment of these nocifensive events is to increase and maintain high local concentrations of extracellular pain-evoked ENKs, by preventing their physiological enzymatic inactivation by two Zn metallopeptidases, the neutral endopeptidase (NEP, neprilysin, EC 3...
March 2015: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Hervé Poras, Elisabeth Bonnard, Emilie Dangé, Marie-Claude Fournié-Zaluski, Bernard P Roques
Protecting enkephalins, endogenous opioid peptides released in response to nociceptive stimuli, is an innovative approach for acute and neuropathic pain alleviation. This is achieved by inhibition of their enzymatic degradation by two membrane-bound Zn-metallopeptidases, neprilysin (NEP, EC and aminopeptidase N (APN, EC Selective and efficient inhibitors of both enzymes, designated enkephalinases, have been designed that markedly increase extracellular concentrations and half-lives of enkephalins, inducing potent antinociceptive effects...
July 10, 2014: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Josie Resende Torres da Silva, Marcelo Lourenço da Silva, Wiliam Alves Prado
We examined the effects of intrathecal injection of desipramine and fluoxetine (selective inhibitors of norepinephrine and 5-HT uptake, resp.), thiorphan and neostigmine (inhibitors of enkephalinase and acetylcholinesterase, resp.), gabapentin (a GABA releaser), and vigabatrin (an inhibitor of GABA-transaminase) on the antinociception induced by 2 Hz, 100 Hz, or 2/100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) applied bilaterally to the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupoints using the rat tail-flick test. We show that 2 Hz EA antinociception lasts longer after the administration of drugs that increase the spinal availability of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or GABA; 100 Hz EA antinociception lasts longer after drug that increases the spinal availability of norepinephrine; 2/100 Hz EA antinociception lasts longer after drugs that increase the spinal availability of endogenous opioids or GABA...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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