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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325757/the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-their-endocannabinoid-like-derivatives-in-the-molecular-regulation-of-appetite
#1
REVIEW
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324640/heart-rate-variability-frequency-domain-alterations-among-healthy-nurses-exposed-to-prolonged-work-stress
#2
Rossana Borchini, Giovanni Veronesi, Matteo Bonzini, Francesco Gianfagna, Oriana Dashi, Marco Mario Ferrario
The deregulation of the autonomic nervous system assessed through the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a promising pathway linking work stress and cardiovascular diseases. We aim to investigate the associations between HRV High Frequency (HF) and Low Frequency (LF) powers and work stress in a sample of 36 healthy nurses. Perceived work stress was assessed twice one year apart, using the Job Content and Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaires. This allows to classify nurses in three exposure groups: "prolonged high stress" (PHS), "recent high stress" (RHS) and "stable low stress" (SLS)...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324369/early-life-social-stress-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-postpartum-rat-anterior-cingulate-circuits
#3
Benjamin C Nephew, Marcelo Febo, Wei Huang, Luis M Colon-Perez, Laurellee Payne, Guillaume L Poirier, Owen Greene, Jean A King
INTRODUCTION: Continued development and refinement of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) fMRI techniques in both animal and clinical studies has enhanced our comprehension of the adverse effects of stress on psychiatric health. The objective of the current study was to assess both maternal behavior and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) changes in these animals when they were dams caring for their own young. It was hypothesized that ECSS exposed dams would express depressed maternal care and exhibit similar (same networks), yet different specific changes in RSFC (different individual nuclei) than reported when they were adult females...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318708/cocaine-conditioned-place-preference-unexpected-suppression-of-preference-due-to-testing-combined-with-strong-conditioning
#4
Lucile Marion-Poll, Antoine Besnard, Sophie Longueville, Emmanuel Valjent, Olivia Engmann, Jocelyne Caboche, Denis Hervé, Jean-Antoine Girault
Conditioned place preference (CPP) is widely used for evaluating the rewarding effects of drugs. Like other memories, CPP is proposed to undergo reconsolidation during which it is unstable and sensitive to pharmacological inhibition. Previous studies have shown that cocaine CPP can be apparently erased by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway inhibition during cocaine reconditioning (re-exposure to the drug-paired environment in the presence of the drug). Here, we show that blockade of D1 receptors during reconditioning prevented ERK activation and induced a loss of CPP...
January 10, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317484/chemogenetic-excitation-of-accumbens-projecting-infralimbic-cortical-neurons-blocks-toluene-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#5
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304042/periaqueductal-efferents-to-dopamine-and-gaba-neurons-of-the-vta
#6
Niels R Ntamati, Meaghan Creed, Ridouane Achargui, Christian Lüscher
Neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) modulate threat responses and nociception. Activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the other hand can cause reinforcement and aversion. While in many situations these behaviors are related, the anatomical substrate of a crosstalk between the PAG and VTA remains poorly understood. Here we describe the anatomical and electrophysiological organization of the VTA-projecting PAG neurons. Using rabies-based, cell type-specific retrograde tracing, we observed that PAG to VTA projection neurons are evenly distributed along the rostro-caudal axis of the PAG, but concentrated in its posterior and ventrolateral segments...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290921/gut-brain-crosstalk-regulates-craving-for-fatty-food
#7
REVIEW
Rajendra Raghow
Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery elicit striking loss of body weight. Anatomical re-structuring of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, leading to reduced caloric intake and changes in food preference, are thought to be the primary drivers of weight loss in bariatric surgery patients. However, the mechanisms by which RYGB surgery causes a reduced preference for fatty foods remain elusive. In a recent report, Hankir et al described how RYGB surgery modulated lipid nutrient signals in the intestine of rats to blunt their craving for fatty food...
December 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280617/synaptic-plasticity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-lessons-learned-from-experience
#8
Brandon D Turner, Daniel T Kashima, Kevin M Manz, Carrie A Grueter, Brad A Grueter
Synaptic plasticity contributes to behavioral adaptations. As a key node in the reward pathway, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is important for determining motivation-to-action outcomes. Thus, the NAc is a model system to elucidate mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity at the synaptic level. Across animal models of motivation including addiction, depression, anxiety, and hedonic feeding, selective recruitment of neuromodulatory signals and plasticity mechanisms have been a focus of physiologists and behaviorists alike...
December 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275596/-structural-changes-of-brain-gray-matter-in-male-long-term-smokers-under-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Y Zhang, A K Dong, J L Cheng, Y L Li, C D Zhu, K Xu
Objective: To evaluate gray matter structure changes in long-term male smokers by voxel-based morphological method. Methods: Fifty long-term smokers and 37 non-smoking healthy volunteers were scanned with Siemens Skyro 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner from August 2014 to August 2016. The subjects underwent routine MRI (excluding intracranial lesions) sequences and 3D-T1 structural sequences (3D-mprage). SPM8 pretreatment based on Matlab was used to analyze the structural data. All of the data were analyzed by SPM8 software...
December 5, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275025/-genetic-factors-in-alcohol-dependence
#10
Nicolas Ramoz, Philip Gorwood
Genetic factors are involved in the predisposition to alcohol dependence with an heritability of about 0.5. Sequencing or analysis of the polymorphisms of genes or the whole human genome allow to identify genetic markers of alcohol dependence. Genes of the brain pathway of motivation and reward, including DRD2 and ANKK1, are associated with alcohol dependence. Genes encoding the gabaergic receptors show variants link to alcohol dependence. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the enzymes alcohol desydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde-dehydrogenases (ALDH) are associated to the susceptibility or the protection of alcohol dependence...
December 20, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251597/activation-of-the-dopaminergic-pathway-from-vta-to-the-medial-olfactory-tubercle-generates-odor-preference-and-reward
#11
Zhijian Zhang, Qing Liu, Pengjie Wen, Jiaozhen Zhang, Xiaoping Rao, Ziming Zhou, Hongruo Zhang, Xiaobin He, Juan Li, Zheng Zhou, Xiaoran Xu, Xueyi Zhang, Rui Luo, Guanghui Lv, Haohong Li, Pei Cao, Liping Wang, Fuqiang Xu
Odor-preferences are usually influenced by life experiences. However, the neural circuit mechanisms remain unclear. The medial olfactory tubercle (mOT) is involved in both reward and olfaction, while the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are considered to be engaged in reward and motivation. Here, we found that the VTA (DAergic)-mOT pathway could be activated by different types of naturalistic rewards as well as odors in DAT-cre mice. Optogenetic activation of the VTA-mOT DAergic fibers was able to elicit preferences for space, location and neutral odor, while pharmacological blockade of the dopamine receptors in the mOT fully prevented the odor-preference formation...
December 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246771/antagonism-of-the-d1-and-d2-like-dopamine-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-attenuates-forced-swim-stress-and-morphine-priming-induced-reinstatement-of-extinguished-rats
#12
Zahra Farzinpour, Zahra Mousavi, Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Abbas Haghparast
Dopaminergic pathways from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) play a critical role in reward-related phenomena as well as in the reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Stress is a major trigger for inducing reinstatement, however, the interaction between stress and the dopaminergic system is not well known. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors within the NAc in forced swim stress (FSS)- and priming-induced reinstatement of morphine-seeking behaviors...
December 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243529/avolition-apathy-and-white-matter-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-reduced-fractional-anisotropy-between-amygdala-and-insular-cortex
#13
Antonella Amodio, Mario Quarantelli, Armida Mucci, Anna Prinster, Andrea Soricelli, Annarita Vignapiano, Giulia Maria Giordano, Eleonora Merlotti, Alessia Nicita, Silvana Galderisi
The avolition/apathy domain of negative symptoms includes motivation- and pleasure-related impairments. In people with schizophrenia, structural and functional abnormalities were reported in key regions within the motivational reward system, including ventral-tegmental area (VTA), striatum (especially at the level of the nucleus accumbens, NAcc), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as amygdala (Amy) and insular cortex (IC). However, the association of the reported abnormalities with avoliton-apathy is still controversial...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237566/chronic-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-modulation-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-rat-lateral-basolateral-amygdala-is-duration-input-and-sex-dependent
#14
Melissa Morales, Molly M McGinnis, Stacey L Robinson, Ann M Chappell, Brian A McCool
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) controls numerous behaviors, like anxiety and reward seeking, via the activity of glutamatergic principal neurons. These BLA neurons receive excitatory inputs primarily via two major anatomical pathways - the external capsule (EC), which contains afferents from lateral cortical structures, and the stria terminalis (ST), containing synapses from more midline brain structures. Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure/withdrawal produces distinct alterations in these pathways...
December 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232577/attachment-and-motivational-systems-relevance-of-sensitivity-to-punishment-for-eating-disorder-psychopathology
#15
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Valentina Cardi, Umberto Volpe, Giovanna Fico, Valeria Ruzzi, Francesca Pellegrino, Giovanni Castellini, Palmiero Monteleone, Mario Maj
An altered balance of reward and inhibition systems may explain Eating Disorder (ED) behaviors and could be related to difficulties in socio-emotional processing. According to attachment theory, early interaction with caregivers affects the ability to regulate emotion in adult interpersonal situation. The aim of our study was to investigate if insecure attachment may be related to ED symptomatology through changes in reward and inhibition systems. Seventy-eight people affected by EDs and 45 healthy controls (HC) filled in the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), the Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS-BAS) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) questionnaire...
December 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225043/neurogranin-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-regulates-nmda-receptor-tolerance-and-motivation-for-ethanol-seeking
#16
Ashlie N Reker, Alfredo Oliveros, John M Sullivan, Lailun Nahar, David J Hinton, Taehyun Kim, Robert C Bruner, Doo-Sup Choi, Nicholas E Goeders, Hyung W Nam
Dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Neurogranin (Ng), a calmodulin-binding protein, is exclusively expressed in the post-synapse, and mediates NMDAR driven synaptic plasticity by regulating the calcium-calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM) pathway. To study the functional role of Ng in AUD, we administrated behavior tests including Pavlovian instrument transfer (PIT), operant conditioning, and rotarod test using Ng null mice (Ng-/- mice)...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206881/deletion-of-lynx1-reduces-the-function-of-%C3%AE-6-nicotinic-receptors
#17
Rell L Parker, Heidi C O'Neill, Beverley M Henley, Charles R Wageman, Ryan M Drenan, Michael J Marks, Julie M Miwa, Sharon R Grady, Henry A Lester
The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit is an attractive drug target for treating nicotine addiction because it is present at limited sites in the brain including the reward pathway. Lynx1 modulates several nAChR subtypes; lynx1-nAChR interaction sites could possibly provide drug targets. We found that dopaminergic cells from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) express lynx1 mRNA transcripts and, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, α6 receptors form stable complexes with lynx1 protein, although co-transfection with lynx1 did not affect nicotine-induced currents from cell lines transfected with α6 and β2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203671/early-childhood-stress-exposure-reward-pathways-and-adult-decision-making
#18
Rasmus M Birn, Barbara J Roeber, Seth D Pollak
Individuals who have experienced chronic and high levels of stress during their childhoods are at increased risk for a wide range of behavioral problems, yet the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. We measured the life circumstances of a community sample of school-aged children and then followed these children for a decade. Those from the highest and lowest quintiles of childhood stress exposure were invited to return to our laboratory as young adults, at which time we reassessed their life circumstances, acquired fMRI data during a reward-processing task, and tested their judgment and decision making...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199137/brodmann-area-10-collating-integrating-and-high-level-processing-of-nociception-and-pain
#19
REVIEW
Ke Peng, Sarah C Steele, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Multiple frontal cortical brain regions have emerged as being important in pain processing, whether it be integrative, sensory, cognitive, or emotional. One such region, Brodmann Area 10 (BA 10), is the largest frontal brain region that has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of functions including risk and decision making, odor evaluation, reward and conflict, pain, and working memory. BA 10, also known as the anterior prefrontal cortex, frontopolar prefrontal cortex or rostral prefrontal cortex, is comprised of at least two cytoarchitectonic sub-regions, medial and lateral...
November 30, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197408/the-sleep-and-circadian-modulation-of-neural-reward-pathways-a-protocol-for-a-pair-of-systematic-reviews
#20
Jamie E M Byrne, Greg Murray
BACKGROUND: Animal research suggests that neural reward activation may be systematically modulated by sleep and circadian function. Whether humans also exhibit sleep and circadian modulation of neural reward pathways is unclear. This area is in need of further research, as it has implications for the involvement of sleep and circadian function in reward-related disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pair of systematic literature reviews to synthesise existing literature related to (1) sleep and (2) circadian modulation of neural reward pathways in healthy human populations...
December 2, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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