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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773910/the-l-type-calcium-channel-blocker-isradipine-attenuates-cue-induced-cocaine-seeking-by-enhancing-dopaminergic-activity-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-to-nucleus-accumbens-pathway
#1
Nii A Addy, Eric J Nunes, Shannon M Hughley, Keri M Small, Sarah J Baracz, Joshua L Haight, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Previous preclinical and clinical investigations have focused on the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) as a potential therapeutic target for substance abuse. While some clinical studies have examined the ability of LTCC blockers to alter cocaine's subjective effects, very few LTCC studies have examined cocaine relapse. Here, we examined whether ventral tegmental area (VTA)-specific or systemic administration of the LTCC inhibitor, isradipine, altered cocaine-seeking behavior in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats first received 10 days of cocaine self-administration training (2 h sessions), where active lever depression resulted in delivery of a ∼0...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770746/-express-chronic-inflammatory-pain-decreases-the-glutamate-vesicles-in-presynaptic-terminals-of-the-nucleus-accumbens
#2
Chuchu Qi, Baolin Guo, Keke Ren, Han Yao, Mengmeng Wang, Tangna Sun, Guohong Cai, Haiying Liu, Rui Li, Ceng Luo, Wenting Wang, Sheng-Xi Wu
Reward system has been proved to be important to nociceptive behavior, and the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node in reward circuitry. It has been further revealed that dopamine system modulates the NAc to influence the pain sensation, whereas the role of glutamatergic projection in the NAc in the modulation of chronic pain is still elusive. In this study, we used a Complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) -induced chronic inflammatory pain model to explore the changes of the glutamatergic terminals in the NAc, and we found that following the chronic inflammation, the protein level of vesicular glutamate transporters1 (VGLUT1) was significant decreased in the NAc...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761610/pathways-and-mechanisms-linking-dietary-components-to-cardiometabolic-disease-thinking-beyond-calories
#3
REVIEW
K L Stanhope, M I Goran, A Bosy-Westphal, J C King, L A Schmidt, J-M Schwarz, E Stice, A C Sylvetsky, P J Turnbaugh, G A Bray, C D Gardner, P J Havel, V Malik, A E Mason, E Ravussin, M Rosenbaum, J A Welsh, C Allister-Price, D M Sigala, M R C Greenwood, A Astrup, R M Krauss
Calories from any food have the potential to increase risk for obesity and cardiometabolic disease because all calories can directly contribute to positive energy balance and fat gain. However, various dietary components or patterns may promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease by additional mechanisms that are not mediated solely by caloric content. Researchers explored this topic at the 2017 CrossFit Foundation Academic Conference 'Diet and Cardiometabolic Health - Beyond Calories', and this paper summarizes the presentations and follow-up discussions...
May 14, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753648/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-regulates-cocaine-reward-through-sirtuin-1
#4
Jueying Kong, Changman Du, Linhong Jiang, Wei Jiang, Pengchi Deng, Xue Shao, Baolai Zhang, Yan Li, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Zhao, Dengqi Fu, Hui Gu, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis in mammals, converts nicotinamide into nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN is subsequently converted to NAD, a component that is critical for cell energy metabolism and survival. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, plays an important role in mediating memory and synaptic plasticity. Here, we found that NAMPT was significantly upregulated in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of cocaine-conditioned mice...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753117/pharmacological-inhibition-of-receptor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-ptprz1-modulates-behavioral-responses-to-ethanol
#5
Rosalía Fernández-Calle, Marta Vicente-Rodríguez, Miryam Pastor, Esther Gramage, Bruno Di Geronimo, José María Zapico, Claire Coderch, Carmen Pérez-García, Amy W Lasek, Beatriz de Pascual-Teresa, Ana Ramos, Gonzalo Herradón
Pleiotrophin (PTN) and Midkine (MK) are neurotrophic factors that are upregulated in the prefrontal cortex after alcohol administration and have been shown to reduce ethanol drinking and reward. PTN and MK are the endogenous inhibitors of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (RPTP) β/ζ (a.k.a. PTPRZ1, RPTPβ, PTPζ), suggesting a potential role for this phosphatase in the regulation of alcohol effects. To determine if RPTPβ/ζ regulates ethanol consumption, we treated mice with recently developed small-molecule inhibitors of RPTPβ/ζ (MY10, MY33-3) before testing them for binge-like drinking using the drinking in the dark protocol...
May 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752382/a-neural-pathway-controlling-motivation-to-exert-effort
#6
Christophe D Proulx, Sage Aronson, Djordje Milivojevic, Cris Molina, Alan Loi, Bradley Monk, Steven J Shabel, Roberto Malinow
The neural mechanisms conferring reduced motivation, as observed in depressed individuals, is poorly understood. Here, we examine in rodents if reduced motivation to exert effort is controlled by transmission from the lateral habenula (LHb), a nucleus overactive in depressed-like states, to the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a nucleus that inhibits dopaminergic neurons. In an aversive test wherein immobility indicates loss of effort, LHb→RMTg transmission increased during transitions into immobility, driving LHb→RMTg increased immobility, and inhibiting LHb→RMTg produced the opposite effects...
May 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740351/pain-therapy-guided-by-purpose-and-perspective-in-light-of-the-opioid-epidemic
#7
REVIEW
Amie L Severino, Arash Shadfar, Joshua K Hakimian, Oliver Crane, Ganeev Singh, Keith Heinzerling, Wendy M Walwyn
Prescription opioid misuse is an ongoing and escalating epidemic. Although these pharmacological agents are highly effective analgesics prescribed for different types of pain, opioids also induce euphoria, leading to increasing diversion and misuse. Opioid use and related mortalities have developed in spite of initial claims that OxyContin, one of the first opioids prescribed in the USA, was not addictive in the presence of pain. These claims allayed the fears of clinicians and contributed to an increase in the number of prescriptions, quantity of drugs manufactured, and the unforeseen diversion of these drugs for non-medical uses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740329/mechanisms-underlying-the-risk-to-develop-drug-addiction-insights-from-studies-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
REVIEW
Julia Ryvkin, Assa Bentzur, Shir Zer-Krispil, Galit Shohat-Ophir
The ability to adapt to environmental changes is an essential feature of biological systems, achieved in animals by a coordinated crosstalk between neuronal and hormonal programs that allow rapid and integrated organismal responses. Reward systems play a key role in mediating this adaptation by reinforcing behaviors that enhance immediate survival, such as eating or drinking, or those that ensure long-term survival, such as sexual behavior or caring for offspring. Drugs of abuse co-opt neuronal and molecular pathways that mediate natural rewards, which under certain circumstances can lead to addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727859/action-and-learning-shape-the-activity-of-neuronal-circuits-in-the-visual-cortex
#9
REVIEW
Janelle Mp Pakan, Valerio Francioni, Nathalie L Rochefort
Nonsensory variables strongly influence neuronal activity in the adult mouse primary visual cortex. Neuronal responses to visual stimuli are modulated by behavioural state, such as arousal and motor activity, and are shaped by experience. This dynamic process leads to neural representations in the visual cortex that reflect stimulus familiarity, expectations of reward and object location, and mismatch between self-motion and visual-flow. The recent development of genetic tools and recording techniques in awake behaving mice has enabled the investigation of the circuit mechanisms underlying state-dependent and experience-dependent neuronal representations in primary visual cortex...
May 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720947/a-fly-s-eye-view-of-natural-and-drug-reward
#10
REVIEW
Eve G Lowenstein, Norma A Velazquez-Ulloa
Animals encounter multiple stimuli each day. Some of these stimuli are innately appetitive or aversive, while others are assigned valence based on experience. Drugs like ethanol can elicit aversion in the short term and attraction in the long term. The reward system encodes the predictive value for different stimuli, mediating anticipation for attractive or punishing stimuli and driving animal behavior to approach or avoid conditioned stimuli. The neurochemistry and neurocircuitry of the reward system is partly evolutionarily conserved...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720647/a-midline-thalamic-circuit-determines-reactions-to-visual-threat
#11
Lindsey D Salay, Nao Ishiko, Andrew D Huberman
How our internal state is merged with our visual perception of an impending threat to drive an adaptive behavioural response is not known. Mice respond to visual threats by either freezing or seeking shelter. Here we show that nuclei of the ventral midline thalamus (vMT), the xiphoid nucleus (Xi) and nucleus reuniens (Re), represent crucial hubs in the network controlling behavioural responses to visual threats. The Xi projects to the basolateral amygdala to promote saliency-reducing responses to threats, such as freezing, whereas the Re projects to the medial prefrontal cortex (Re→mPFC) to promote saliency-enhancing, even confrontational responses to threats, such as tail rattling...
May 2, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713268/lateral-hypothalamus-as-a-motivation-cognition-interface-in-the-control-of-feeding-behavior
#12
REVIEW
Gorica D Petrovich
Converging evidence for an essential function of the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) in the control of feeding behavior has been accumulating since the classic work conducted almost 80 years ago. The LHA is also important in reward and reinforcement processes and behavioral state control. A unifying function for the LHA across these processes has not been fully established. Nonetheless, it is considered to integrate motivation with behavior. More recent work has demonstrated that the LHA is also required when cognitive processes, such as associative learning and memory control feeding behavior, suggesting it may serve as a motivation-cognition interface...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706583/serotonergic-signaling-controls-input-specific-synaptic-plasticity-at-striatal-circuits
#13
Anna Cavaccini, Marta Gritti, Andrea Giorgi, Andrea Locarno, Nicolas Heck, Sara Migliarini, Alice Bertero, Maddalena Mereu, Giulia Margiani, Massimo Trusel, Tiziano Catelani, Roberto Marotta, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Jocelyne Caboche, Alessandro Gozzi, Massimo Pasqualetti, Raffaella Tonini
Monoaminergic modulation of cortical and thalamic inputs to the dorsal striatum (DS) is crucial for reward-based learning and action control. While dopamine has been extensively investigated in this context, the synaptic effects of serotonin (5-HT) have been largely unexplored. Here, we investigated how serotonergic signaling affects associative plasticity at glutamatergic synapses on the striatal projection neurons of the direct pathway (dSPNs). Combining chemogenetic and optogenetic approaches reveals that impeding serotonergic signaling preferentially gates spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) at thalamostriatal synapses...
April 25, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705534/increasing-kynurenine-brain-levels-reduces-ethanol-consumption-in-mice-by-inhibiting-dopamine-release-in-nucleus-accumbens
#14
Pablo Giménez-Gómez, Mercedes Pérez-Hernández, María Dolores Gutiérrez-López, Rebeca Vidal, Cristina Abuin-Martínez, Esther O'Shea, María Isabel Colado
Recent research suggests that ethanol (EtOH) consumption behaviour can be regulated by modifying the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, although the mechanisms involved have not yet been well elucidated. To further explore the implication of the kynurenine pathway in EtOH consumption we inhibited kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) activity with Ro 61-8048 (100 mg/kg, i.p.), which shifts the KYN metabolic pathway towards kynurenic acid (KYNA) production. KMO inhibition decreases voluntary binge EtOH consumption and EtOH preference in mice subjected to "drinking in the dark" (DID) and "two-bottle choice" paradigms, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704424/the-role-of-corticostriatal-hypothalamic-neural-circuits-in-feeding-behaviour-implications-for-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Rachel E Clarke, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Zane B Andrews
Emerging evidence from human imaging studies suggests that obese individuals have altered connectivity between the hypothalamus, the key brain region controlling energy homeostasis, and cortical regions involved in decision making and reward processing. Historically, animal studies have demonstrated that the lateral hypothalamus is the key hypothalamic region involved in feeding and reward. The lateral hypothalamus is a heterogeneous structure comprised of several distinct types of neurons which are scattered throughout...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703788/primary-tactile-thalamus-spiking-reflects-cognitive-signals
#16
Christian Waiblinger, Clarissa J Whitmire, Audrey Sederberg, Garrett B Stanley, Cornelius Schwarz
Little is known about whether information transfer at primary sensory thalamic nuclei is modified by behavioral context. Here we studied the influence of previous decisions/rewards on current choices and preceding spike responses of ventro-posterior medial thalamus (VPm, the primary sensory thalamus in the rat whisker-related tactile system). We trained head-fixed rats to detect a ramp-like deflection of one whisker interspersed within ongoing white noise stimulation. Using generative modeling of behavior, we identify two task-related variables that are predictive of actual decisions...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686613/essential-control-of-the-function-of-the-striatopallidal-neuron-by-pre-coupled-complexes-of-adenosine-a-2a-dopamine-d-2-receptor-heterotetramers-and-adenylyl-cyclase
#17
Sergi Ferré, Jordi Bonaventura, Wendy Zhu, Candice Hatcher-Solis, Jaume Taura, César Quiroz, Ning-Sheng Cai, Estefanía Moreno, Verónica Casadó-Anguera, Alexxai V Kravitz, Kimberly R Thompson, Dardo G Tomasi, Gemma Navarro, Arnau Cordomí, Leonardo Pardo, Carme Lluís, Carmen W Dessauer, Nora D Volkow, Vicent Casadó, Francisco Ciruela, Diomedes E Logothetis, Daniel Zwilling
The central adenosine system and adenosine receptors play a fundamental role in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. This is mostly achieved by the strategic co-localization of different adenosine and dopamine receptor subtypes in the two populations of striatal efferent neurons, striatonigral and striatopallidal, that give rise to the direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, respectively. With optogenetic techniques it has been possible to dissect a differential role of the direct and indirect pathways in mediating "Go" responses upon exposure to reward-related stimuli and "NoGo" responses upon exposure to non-rewarded or aversive-related stimuli, respectively, which depends on their different connecting output structures and their differential expression of dopamine and adenosine receptor subtypes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686048/fear-memory-recall-potentiates-opiate-reward-sensitivity-through-dissociable-dopamine-d1-vs-d4-receptor-dependent-memory-mechanisms-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Jing Jing Li, Hanna Szkudlarek, Justine Renard, Roger Hudson, Walter Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Disturbances in prefrontal cortical (PFC) dopamine (DA) transmission are well-established features of psychiatric disorders involving pathological memory processing, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid addiction. Transmission through PFC DA D4 receptors (D4R) has been shown to potentiate the emotional salience of normally non-salient emotional memories whereas transmission through PFC DA D1 receptors (D1R) has been demonstrated to selectively block recall of reward or aversion-related associative memories...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684476/the-dorsal-diencephalic-conduction-system-in-reward-processing-spotlight-on-the-anatomy-and-functions-of-the-habenular-complex
#19
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The dorsal diencephalic conduction system (DDC) is a highly conserved pathway in vertebrates that provides a route for the neural information to flow from forebrain to midbrain structures. It contains the bilaterally paired habenular nuclei along with two fiber tracts, the stria medullaris and the fasciculus retroflexus. The habenula is the principal player in mediating the dialogue between forebrain and midbrain regions, and functional abnormalities in this structure have often been attributed to pathologies like mood disorders and substance use disorder...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684471/glucocorticoid-receptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-mediated-the-restraint-stress-induced-reinstatement-of-methamphetamine-seeking-behaviors-in-rats
#20
Zahra Taslimi, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Abbas Haghparast
Methamphetamine (METH) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. It is a common psychiatric disease and stress has an important role in the drug seeking and relapse behaviors. The involvement of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in effects of stress on the reward pathway has been discussed in several studies. In this study, we tried to find out the involvement of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the BLA in stress-induced reinstatement of the extinguished METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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