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Neurotransmitter Precursor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667161/diversity-of-neuropeptide-cell-cell-signaling-molecules-generated-by-proteolytic-processing-revealed-by-neuropeptidomics-mass-spectrometry
#1
Vivian Hook, Christopher B Lietz, Sonia Podvin, Tomas Cajka, Oliver Fiehn
Neuropeptides are short peptides in the range of 3-40 residues that are secreted for cell-cell communication in neuroendocrine systems. In the nervous system, neuropeptides comprise the largest group of neurotransmitters. In the endocrine system, neuropeptides function as peptide hormones to coordinate intercellular signaling among target physiological systems. The diversity of neuropeptide functions is defined by their distinct primary sequences, peptide lengths, proteolytic processing of pro-neuropeptide precursors, and covalent modifications...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665128/a-role-for-astrocyte-derived-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-in-the-degeneration-of-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
A Kodam, D Ourdev, M Maulik, J Hariharakrishnan, M Banerjee, Y Wang, S Kar
Kainic acid, an analogue of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, can trigger seizures and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and other limbic structures in a manner that mirrors the neuropathology of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying mechanisms associated with the neurotoxicity remain unclear. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease, can mediate toxicity by activating glutamatergic NMDA receptors, it is likely that the enhanced glutamatergic transmission that renders hippocampal neurons vulnerable to kainic acid treatment may involve Aβ peptides...
April 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627381/restorative-effect-of-l-dopa-treatment-against-ochratoxin-a-induced-neurotoxicity
#3
Pratiksha V Bhat, T Anand, Manu T Mohan, Farhath Khanum
The toxic effects of Ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal secondary metabolite of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) a Parkinson inducing drug were investigated to evaluate the neurotoxic effects exerted by OTA. OTA is known to contaminate food and feedstuff leading to a wide range of toxicity like nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. However, due to the dearth of available information on the possible mechanisms of OTA neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration the current study was undertaken...
April 5, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611347/activation-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-suppresses-mouse-white-adipose-tissue-hyperplasia-through-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptor
#4
Mary K Schneider, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi
Adipose tissue (AT) expands via both hypertrophy and hyperplasia during the development of obesity. While AT hypertrophy involves the increase in size of existing adipocytes, hyperplasia is the process of creating new adipocytes from the pool of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs), which includes adipocyte progenitor cells and preadipocytes. Prior studies have implicated a role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in regulation of hyperplasia in white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, we aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying SNS regulation of APC proliferation in mouse WAT...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600729/astroglial-5-ht-2b-receptor-in-mood-disorders
#5
Liang Peng, Dan Song, Baoman Li, Alexei Verkhratsky
Astroglia represent the main cellular homeostatic system of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are intimately involved in regulation and maintenance of neurotransmission by regulating neurotransmitters removal and turnover and by supplying neurons with neurotransmitters precursors. Astroglial cells are fundamental elements of monoaminergic transmission in the brain and in the spinal cord. Astrocytes receive monoaminergic inputs and control catabolism of monoamines through dedicated transporters and intracellular enzymatic pathways...
March 30, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599484/prophylactic-ketamine-alters-nucleotide-and-neurotransmitter-metabolism-in-brain-and-plasma-following-stress
#6
Josephine C McGowan, Collin Hill, Alessia Mastrodonato, Christina T LaGamma, Alexander Kitayev, Rebecca A Brachman, Niven R Narain, Michael A Kiebish, Christine A Denny
Recently, we have shown that ketamine given prior to stress exposure protects against the development of depressive-like behavior in mice. These data suggest that it may be possible to prevent the induction of affective disorders before they develop by administering prophylactic pharmaceuticals, a relatively nascent and unexplored strategy for psychiatry. Here, we performed metabolomics analysis of brain and plasma following prophylactic ketamine treatment in order to identify markers of stress resilience enhancement...
March 29, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557284/amino-acid-transporters-as-disease-modifiers-and-drug-targets
#7
Stefan Bröer
Amino acids perform a variety of functions in cells and organisms, particularly in the synthesis of proteins, as energy metabolites, neurotransmitters, and precursors for many other molecules. Amino acid transport plays a key role in all these functions. Inhibition of amino acid transport is pursued as a therapeutic strategy in several areas, such as diabetes and related metabolic disorders, neurological disorders, cancer, and stem cell biology. The role of amino acid transporters in these disorders and processes is well established, but the implementation of amino acid transporters as drug targets is still in its infancy...
April 2018: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524228/antibiotics-induced-modulation-of-large-intestinal-microbiota-altered-aromatic-amino-acid-profile-and-expression-of-neurotransmitters-in-the-hypothalamus-of-piglets
#8
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Chun-Long Mu, Yu Peng, Zan Huang, Wei-Yun Zhu
The evidence of gut microbiota-mediated modulation of brain function has been widely recognized from studies using germ-free rodents or animals with oral antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion. Since the number of bacteria in the large intestine greatly exceeds that found within the small intestine, large intestinal microbiota may play a crucial role in the modulation of brain function. In the present study, twelve piglets (12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned to two groups (n=6) for ileal infusion of either saline (control group) or antibiotics (antibiotic group)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502536/metabolomics-analysis-of-serum-in-a-rat-heroin-self-administration-model-undergoing-reinforcement-based-on-1-h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectra
#9
Tingting Ning, Changlong Leng, Lin Chen, Baomiao Ma, Xiaokang Gong
BACKGROUND: Understanding the process of relapse to abused drugs and ultimately developing treatments that can reduce the incidence of relapse remains the primary goal for the study of substance dependence. Therefore, exploring the metabolite characteristics during the relapse stage is valuable. METHODS: A heroin self-administered rat model was employed, and analysis of the1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics was performed to investigate the characteristic metabolite profile upon reintroduction to the drug after abstinence...
March 5, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452610/the-plasma-membrane-calcium-pumps-the-old-and-the-new
#10
REVIEW
Asma Zaidi, Mercy Adewale, Lauren McLean, Paul Ramlow
The plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) pumps play a critical role in the maintenance of calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis, crucial for optimal neuronal function and cell survival. Loss of Ca 2+ homeostasis is a key precursor in neuronal dysfunction associated with brain aging and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, we review evidence showing age-related changes in the PMCAs in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) and lipid raft microdomains isolated from rat brain. Both PMCA activity and protein levels decline progressively with increasing age...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417469/association-between-systemic-leptin-and-neurotensin-concentration-in-adult-individuals-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
I Barchetta, G Ciccarelli, F A Cimini, V Ceccarelli, M Orho-Melander, O Melander, M G Cavallo
PURPOSE: Leptin is an adipokine which regulates appetite and energy balance through a mechanism partially mediated by neurotensin (NT) in central nervous system. Besides acting as a neurotransmitter, NT is expressed in human intestine where it promotes fat absorption and its circulating levels associate with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. Whether a relation exists between circulating leptin and NT levels has not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of an association between plasma leptin and NT concentration in adults with or without T2DM...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384407/effect-of-aucubin-on-neural-precursor-cell-survival-during-neuronal-differentiation
#12
Miyeoun Song, Maeum Han, Yunhee Kim Kwon
Aucubin (ACB) is an iridoid glycoside with various biological activities. Previously it is reported that ACB reduces cell survival and proliferation in many human tumors, whereas it facilitates cell survival and neuroprotection in damaged neuronal cells and disease models. However, its effects on cell survival in the non-proliferating or differentiated neurons are not known. We examined whether ACB facilitated cell survival in differentiating neural precursor cells, HiB5, compared with the proliferating HiB5 cells at various concentrations...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378432/nanocarrier-for-levodopa-parkinson-therapeutic-drug-comprehensive-benserazide-analysis
#13
Mehdi Yoosefian, Elham Rahmanifar, Nazanin Etminan
Loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in the midbrain causes Parkinson's disease. L-DOPA, the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, crosses vast majority of physiological and biochemical barriers that dopamine cannot. But most levodopa is decarboxylated to dopamine before it reaches the brain. This causes to little therapeutic gain with strong peripheral side effects. Benserazide is an irreversible inhibitor of peripheral aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase that prevents the breakdown of levodopa in the bloodstream...
January 29, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368666/tryptophan-supplementation-and-serotonin-function-genetic-variations-in-behavioural-effects
#14
E L Gibson
The neurotransmitter serotonin has a role in affective disorders such as depression and anxiety, as well as sleep, cognitive function and appetite. This review examines the evidence that serotonin-related genotypes may moderate the behavioural effects of supplementation with the serotonin precursor amino acid l-tryptophan (TRP), on which synthesis of serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) depends. However, 95 % of serotonin is synthesised and used in the periphery, and TRP is also metabolised via non-5-HT routes such as the kynurenine pathway...
January 25, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351866/bioanalysis-of-a-panel-of-neurotransmitters-and-their-metabolites-in-plasma-samples-obtained-from-pediatric-patients-with-neuroblastoma-and-wilms-tumor
#15
Lucyna Konieczna, Anna Roszkowska, Teresa Stachowicz-Stencel, Anna Synakiewicz, Tomasz Bączek
This paper details the quantitative analysis of neurotransmitters, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and serotonin (5-HT), along with their respective precursors and metabolites in children with solid tumors: Wilms' tumor (WT) and neuroblastoma (NB). A panel of neurotransmitters was determined with the use of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique combined with liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in plasma samples obtained from a group of pediatric subjects with solid tumors and a control group of healthy children...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306937/the-effects-of-stress-and-meditation-on-the-immune-system-human-microbiota-and-epigenetics
#16
Ayman Mukerji Househam, Christine Tara Peterson, Paul J Mills, Deepak Chopra
Context • Globally, more than 25% of individuals are affected by anxiety and depression disorders. Meditation is gaining popularity in clinical settings and its treatment efficacy is being studied for a wide array of psychological and physiological ailments. An exploration of stress physiology is an essential precursor to delineation of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of meditation practices. Objective • The review outlines a model of interconnected physiological processes that might support the continued inclusion and expansion of meditation in the treatment of diverse medical conditions and to investigate the role that gut microbiota may play in realizing well-being through meditation...
October 2017: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299835/a-caenorhabditis-elegans-mass-spectrometric-resource-for-neuropeptidomics
#17
Sven Van Bael, Sven Zels, Kurt Boonen, Isabel Beets, Liliane Schoofs, Liesbet Temmerman
Neuropeptides are important signaling molecules used by nervous systems to mediate and fine-tune neuronal communication. They can function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in neural circuits, or they can be released as neurohormones to target distant cells and tissues. Neuropeptides are typically cleaved from larger precursor proteins by the action of proteases and can be the subject of post-translational modifications. The short, mature neuropeptide sequences often entail the only evolutionarily reasonably conserved regions in these precursor proteins...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274379/cortical-and-spinal-conditioned-media-modify-the-inward-ion-currents-and-excitability-and-promote-differentiation-of-human-striatal-primordium
#18
Eglantina Idrizaj, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Rachele Garella, Maria Caterina Baccari, Pasquale Gallina, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Fabio Francini, Roberta Squecco
Human striatal precursor cells (HSPs) isolated from ganglionic eminence may differentiate in electrophysiologically functional excitable neuron-like cells and a number of endogenous molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters or growth factors can actually regulate neuronal growing and differentiation. The purpose of this research was to assess, by electrophysiological and immunocytochemical analysis, if the type of culture medium could specifically impact on the neuronal differentiation potential of HSPs...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224485/assessment-of-dietary-factors-dietary-practices-and-exercise-on-mental-distress-in-young-adults-versus-matured-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Lina Begdache, Maher Chaar, Nasim Sabounchi, Hamed Kianmehr
The importance of the diet in modulating mental health is uncovering as many dietary factors have been described to alter brain chemistry. Brain maturation may not complete until the age of 30 which may explain the differential emotional control, mindset, and resilience between young adults and matured adults. As a result, dietary factors may influence mental health differently in these two populations. OBJECTIVES: To study dietary intake, dietary practices and exercise in young adults (YA) (18-29 years) versus matured adults (MA) (30 years and older) in relation to mental distress...
December 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178045/considering-choline-as-methionine-precursor-lipoproteins-transporter-hepatic-promoter-and-antioxidant-agent-in-dairy-cows
#20
REVIEW
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Rab N Soomro, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mervat A Abdel-Latif, Wen Li, Ren Hao, Feifei Sun, Bello M Bodinga, Khawar Hayat, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
During the transition period, fatty liver syndrome may be caused in cows undergo negative energy balance, ketosis or hypocalcemia, retained placenta or mastitis problems. During the transition stage, movement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) increases into blood which declines the hepatic metabolism or reproduction and consequently, lactation performance of dairy cows deteriorates. Most of studies documented that, choline is an essential nutrient which plays a key role to decrease fatty liver, NEFA proportion, improve synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, maintain lactation or physiological function and work as anti-oxidant in the transition period of dairy cows...
November 25, 2017: AMB Express
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