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Neurotransmitter Precursor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795438/a-specific-gabaergic-synapse-onto-oligodendrocyte-precursors-does-not-regulate-cortical-oligodendrogenesis
#1
Maddalena Balia, Najate Benamer, María Cecilia Angulo
In the brain, neurons establish bona fide synapses onto oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), but the function of these neuron-glia synapses remains unresolved. A leading hypothesis suggests that these synapses regulate OPC proliferation and differentiation. However, a causal link between synaptic activity and OPC cellular dynamics is still missing. In the developing somatosensory cortex, OPCs receive a major type of synapse from GABAergic interneurons that is mediated by postsynaptic γ2-containing GABAA receptors...
August 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794131/heterogeneous-clinical-spectrum-of-dnajc12-deficient-hyperphenylalaninemia-from-attention-deficit-to-severe-dystonia-and-intellectual-disability
#2
Francjan J van Spronsen, Nastassja Himmelreich, Véronique Rüfenacht, Nan Shen, Danique van Vliet, Mohammed Al-Owain, Khushnooda Ramzan, Salwa M Alkhalifi, Roelineke J Lunsing, Rebecca M Heiner-Fokkema, Anahita Rassi, Corinne Gemperle-Britschgi, Georg F Hoffmann, Nenad Blau, Beat Thöny
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive mutations in DNAJC12, encoding a cochaperone of HSP70 with hitherto unknown function, were recently described to lead to hyperphenylalaninemia, central monoamine neurotransmitter (dopamine and serotonin) deficiency, dystonia and intellectual disability in six subjects affected by homozygous variants. OBJECTIVE: Patients exhibiting hyperphenylalaninemia in whom deficiencies in hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase and tetrahydrobiopterin cofactor metabolism had been excluded were subsequently analysed for DNAJC12 variants...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770114/human-app-gene-expression-alters-active-zone-distribution-and-spontaneous-neurotransmitter-release-at-the-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junction
#3
Ekaterina A Saburova, Alexander N Vasiliev, Violetta V Kravtsova, Elena V Ryabova, Andrey L Zefirov, Olga I Bolshakova, Svetlana V Sarantseva, Igor I Krivoi
This study provides further insight into the molecular mechanisms that control neurotransmitter release. Experiments were performed on larval neuromuscular junctions of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster lines with different levels of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) production. To express human genes in motor neurons of Drosophila, the UAS-GAL4 system was used. Human APP gene expression increased the number of synaptic boutons per neuromuscular junction. The total number of active zones, detected by Bruchpilot protein puncta distribution, remained unchanged; however, the average number of active zones per bouton decreased...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703738/abnormally-increased-secretion-in-olfactory-neuronal-precursors-from-a-case-of-schizophrenia-is-modulated-by-melatonin-a-pilot-study
#4
Montserrat G Cercós, Tania Galván-Arrieta, Marcela Valdés-Tovar, Héctor Solís-Chagoyán, Jesús Argueta, Gloria Benítez-King, Citlali Trueta
The alterations that underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) include the dysregulation of structural and functional properties of neurons. Among these, the secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones, which plays a key role for neuronal communication and development, is altered. Neuronal precursors from the human olfactory epithelium have been recently characterized as a reliable model for studying the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Our previous work has shown that melatonin enhances the development of morphological and functional features of cloned olfactory neuronal precursors (ONPs) from a healthy subject...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701930/biogenic-amines-in-insect-antennae
#5
REVIEW
Marianna I Zhukovskaya, Andrey D Polyanovsky
Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA) and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA) affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA) modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701731/bloc-1-deficiency-causes-alterations-in-amino-acid-profile-and-in-phospholipid-and-adenosine-metabolism-in-the-postnatal-mouse-hippocampus
#6
S M van Liempd, D Cabrera, F Y Lee, E González, E C Dell'Angelica, C A Ghiani, J M Falcon-Perez
Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) is a protein complex involved in the formation of endosomal tubular structures that mediates the sorting of protein cargoes to specialised compartments. In this study, we present insights into the metabolic consequences caused by BLOC-1 deficiency in pallid mice, which carry a null mutation in the Bloc1s6 gene encoding an essential component of this complex. The metabolome of the hippocampus of pallid mice was analysed using an untargeted, liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometric approach...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697973/traffic-jam-hypothesis-relationship-between-endocytic-dysfunction-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Kimura, Katsuhiko Yanagisawa
Membrane trafficking pathways, like the endocytic pathway, carry out fundamental cellular processes that are essential for normal functioning. One such process is regulation of cell surface receptor signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that β-amyloid protein (Aβ) plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Cleavage of Aβ from its precursor, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), occurs through the endocytic pathway in neuronal cells. In early-stage AD, intraneuronal accumulation of abnormally enlarged endosomes is common, indicating that endosome trafficking is disrupted...
July 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641988/wavy-multistratified-amacrine-cells-in-the-monkey-retina-contain-immunoreactive-secretoneurin
#8
Andrea S Bordt, Ye Long, Nobuo Kouyama, Elizabeth S Yamada, Jens Hannibal, David W Marshak
The goals of this study were to describe the morphology, neurotransmitter content and synaptic connections of neurons in primate retinas that contain the neuropeptide secretoneurin. Amacrine cells were labeled with antibodies to secretoneurin in macaque and baboon retinas. Their processes formed three distinct plexuses in the inner plexiform layer: one in the outermost stratum, one in the center and one in the innermost stratum. In light microscopic double immunolabeling experiments, GABA was colocalized with secretoneurin in these cells, but glycine transporter 1 and Substance P were not...
August 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638366/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-and-its-role-in-the-enteric-nervous-system
#9
REVIEW
Bodil Ohlsson
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone orchestrate the reproduction cycle and regulate the sex steroid secretion from the gonads. In mammals, GnRH1 is secreted as a hormone from the hypothalamus, whereas both GnRH1 and GnRH2 are present as neurotransmitters/peptides in various tissues, where the peptides exert many different effects. mRNA coding for GnRH1 and GnRH2 have been described in the human gastrointestinal tract, and GnRH has been found in both submucosal and myenteric neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626522/study-of-para-quinone-methide-precursors-toward-the-realkylation-of-aged-acetylcholinesterase
#10
Ryan J Yoder, Qinggeng Zhuang, Jeremy M Beck, Andrew Franjesevic, Travis G Blanton, Sydney Sillart, Tyler Secor, Leah Guerra, Jason D Brown, Carolyn Reid, Craig A McElroy, Özlem Doğan Ekici, Christopher S Callam, Christopher M Hadad
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme that can be targeted by organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including nerve agents. Following exposure to OPs, AChE becomes phosphylated (inhibited) and undergoes a subsequent aging process where the OP-AChE adduct is dealkylated. The aged AChE is unable to hydrolyze acetylcholine, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and elsewhere. Current therapeutics are only capable of reactivating inhibited AChE. There are no known therapeutic agents to reverse the aging process or treat aged AChE...
June 8, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624333/l-theanine-prevent-quinolinic-acid-induced-motor-deficit-and-striatal-neurotoxicity-reduction-in-oxido-nitrosative-stress-and-restoration-of-striatal-neurotransmitters-level
#11
Sumit Jamwal, Shamsher Singh, Jaskamal Singh Gill, Puneet Kumar
L-theanine has been documented to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential in various animal models of neurological disorders. The present study was anticipated to investigate the effect of L-theanine against quinolinic acid induced motor deficits, oxido-nitrosative stress, neuro-inflammation and neurotransmitters alteration in rats. Rats were stereotaxically injected QA (200 nmol/2µl saline; intrastriatal); bilaterally on 0day and L-theanine (25 & 50mg/kg; p.o.) was administered for 21 days starting from day 1 of QA injection...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621566/glutamate-dehydrogenase-is-essential-to-sustain-neuronal-oxidative-energy-metabolism-during-stimulation
#12
Michaela C Hohnholt, Vibe H Andersen, Jens V Andersen, Sofie K Christensen, Melis Karaca, Pierre Maechler, Helle S Waagepetersen
The enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; Glud1) catalyzes the (reversible) oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate accompanied by a reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. GDH connects amino acid, carbohydrate, neurotransmitter and oxidative energy metabolism. Glutamine is a neurotransmitter precursor used by neurons to sustain the pool of glutamate, but glutamine is also vividly oxidized for support of energy metabolism. This study investigates the role of GDH in neuronal metabolism by employing the Cns- Glud1(-/-) mouse, lacking GDH in the brain (GDH KO) and metabolic mapping using (13)C-labelled glutamine and glucose...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608247/tryptophan-status-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-the-influence-of-supplementation-on-its-level
#13
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Jagoda Jóźwik-Pruska, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund
Recent reports show that the worldwide incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is dramatically increasing, although ASD etiology and pathogenesis are still far to be fully elucidated. Some dietary-derived essential compounds, such as the amino acid tryptophan, appear to be impaired in patients with ASD. Tryptophan (Trp) plays a significant role in the human organism and serves as a precursor for a wide range of bioactive compounds, including major neurotransmitters. Research indicates that tryptophan might be deficient in subjects with ASD...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601995/harmful-impact-on-presynaptic-glutamate-and-gaba-transport-by-carbon-dots-synthesized-from-sulfur-containing-carbohydrate-precursor
#14
Tatiana Borisova, Mariia Dekaliuk, Natalia Pozdnyakova, Artem Pastukhov, Marina Dudarenko, Arsenii Borysov, Sandor G Vari, Alexander P Demchenko
Carbon nanoparticles that may be potent air pollutants with adverse effects on human health often contain heteroatoms including sulfur. In order to study in detail their effects on different physiological and biochemical processes, artificially produced carbon dots (CDs) with well-controlled composition that allows fluorescence detection may be of great use. Having been prepared from different types of organic precursors, CDs expose different atoms at their surface suggesting a broad variation of functional groups...
July 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578427/influences-of-glutamine-administration-on-response-selection-and-sequence-learning-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Bryant J Jongkees, Maarten A Immink, Lorenza S Colzato
Precursors of neurotransmitters are increasingly often investigated as potential, easily-accessible methods of neuromodulation. However, the amino-acid glutamine, precursor to the brain's main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, remains notably little investigated. The current double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study provides first evidence 2.0 g glutamine administration in healthy adults affects response selection but not motor sequence learning in a serial reaction time task...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546123/distribution-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-viviparous-fish-gambusia-affinis
#16
Shilpa K Bhat, C B Ganesh
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the common precursor enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of the catecholaminergic neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine. In this investigation, the neuroanatomical distribution of TH-immunoreactivity was studied in the brain of the female mosquitofish Gambusia affinis. Numerous intensely stained TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were scattered in the olfactory bulb with their fibres extending towards the medial olfactory tract, whereas few telencephalic TH-ir cells with distinct fibres were observed in the dorsal nucleus of area ventralis telencephali and the posterior nucleus of area ventralis telencephali regions...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502117/passive-membrane-penetration-of-the-serotonin-precursor-5-hydroxytryptophan-is-controlled-by-its-zwitterion
#17
Károly Mazák, Béla Noszál
Species-specific partition coefficients in the octanol/water system were determined for the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) and its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). The pH-independent partition coefficients (p) of the individual microspecies were determined by combination of experimentally measured distribution constants and a custom-tailored evaluation method, using highly similar auxiliary compounds. Experimental microscopic partition coefficients for triprotic molecules have only been reported before for thyroxine and its derivatives...
May 14, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484025/common-general-anesthetic-propofol-impairs-kinesin-processivity
#18
Brandon M Bensel, Stephanie Guzik-Lendrum, Erin M Masucci, Kellie A Woll, Roderic G Eckenhoff, Susan P Gilbert
Propofol is the most widely used i.v. general anesthetic to induce and maintain anesthesia. It is now recognized that this small molecule influences ligand-gated channels, including the GABAA receptor and others. Specific propofol binding sites have been mapped using photoaffinity ligands and mutagenesis; however, their precise target interaction profiles fail to provide complete mechanistic underpinnings for the anesthetic state. These results suggest that propofol and other common anesthetics, such as etomidate and ketamine, may target additional protein networks of the CNS to contribute to the desired and undesired anesthesia end points...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438641/improving-therapeutics-in-anorexia-nervosa-with-tryptophan
#19
REVIEW
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
A growing body of evidence suggests that our diet is an important contributing factor in the development, management and prevention of a number of psychiatric illnesses. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the sole precursor of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin). Administration of tryptophan can boost serotonin neurotransmission to produce therapeutically important effects in serotonin deficiency disorders. Anorexia nervosa (AN) an eating disorder associated with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity including psychosis, hyperactivity, depression and anxiety has highest lethality of all psychiatric illnesses...
June 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426993/a-new-combined-method-of-stable-isotope-labeling-derivatization-ultrasound-assisted-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-the-determination-of-neurotransmitters-in-rat-brain-microdialysates-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass
#20
Longfang Zheng, Xian-En Zhao, Shuyun Zhu, Yanduo Tao, Wenhua Ji, Yanling Geng, Xiao Wang, Guang Chen, Jinmao You
In this work, for the first time, a new hyphenated technique of stable isotope-labeling derivatization-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the simultaneous determination of monoamine neurotransmitters (MANTs) and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites. The developed method was based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection using multiple-reaction monitoring mode. A pair of mass spectrometry sensitizing reagents, d0-10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride and d3-10-methyl-acridone-2-sulfonyl chloride, as stable isotope probes was utilized to facilely label neurotransmitters, respectively...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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