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Azathioprine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326566/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-comparative-efficacy-of-biologics-for-induction-and-maintenance-of-mucosal-healing-in-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis-controlled-trials
#1
REVIEW
A Cholapranee, G S Hazlewood, G G Kaplan, L Peyrin-Biroulet, A N Ananthakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Mucosal healing is an important therapeutic endpoint in the management of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Limited data exist regarding the comparative efficacy of various therapies in achieving this outcome. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of biologics for induction and maintenance of mucosal healing in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) examining mucosal healing as an endpoint of immunosuppressives, anti-tumour necrosis factor α (anti-TNF) or anti-integrin monoclonal antibody therapy for moderate-to-severe CD or UC...
March 22, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326206/chronic-hepatitis-with-liver-granulomas-in-a-patient-with-granuloma-annulare-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Majid Alsahafi, Mohammed I AlJasser, Sunil Kalia, H M Yang, Alnoor Ramji
Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign granulomatous skin disorder of unknown etiology. GA is rarely associated with liver diseases. We report a unique case of chronic hepatitis with liver granulomas in a patient with GA. Despite an extensive workup, no clear etiology for the hepatitis was found. Based on the possible immune pathophysiology of GA and the presence of liver granulomas, the patient was treated with prednisone and azathioprine which resulted in complete normalization of the liver enzymes and concurrent improvement of GA...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325178/corticosteroids-and-immune-suppressive-therapies-in-horses
#3
REVIEW
Mathilde Leclere
Immune suppressive therapies target exaggerated and deleterious responses of the immune system. Triggered by exogenous or endogenous factors, these improper responses can lead to immune or inflammatory manifestations, such as urticaria, equine asthma, or autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases. Glucocorticoids are the most commonly used immune suppressive drugs and the only ones supported by robust evidence of clinical efficacy in equine medicine. In some conditions, combining glucocorticoids with other pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, such as azathioprine, antihistamine, bronchodilators, environmental management, or desensitization, can help to decrease dosages and associated side effects...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323276/open-capsule-budesonide-for-refractory-celiac-disease
#4
Saurabh S Mukewar, Ayush Sharma, Alberto Rubio-Tapia, Tsung-Teh Wu, Bana Jabri, Joseph A Murray
OBJECTIVES: Refractory celiac disease (RCD) is a rare condition often associated with poor prognosis. Various immunosuppressive medications (IMs) have been used with modest success. We describe outcomes in patients treated with open-capsule budesonide (OB), including those for whom IM treatment failed. METHODS: We identified RCD patients treated with OB at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota from 2003 to 2015. Demographic, serologic, and clinical variables were analyzed...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321091/azacitidine-therapy-for-low-risk-myelodysplastic-syndrome-developing-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#5
Hiroaki Inoue, Yasuyoshi Morita, Shinya Rai, Hiroaki Kakutani, Yasuyo Ohyama, Yasuhiro Taniguchi, Hirokazu Tanaka, Takahiro Shimada, Yoichi Tatsumi, Takashi Ashida, Itaru Matsumura
Immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation is known to be a risk factor for the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Herein, we report 2 patients, both of whom developed low-risk MDS after solid organ transplantation and were successfully treated with azacitidine (AZA). The 1st case was a 74-year-old man who had received liver transplantation. The initial immunosuppressive therapy consisted of cyclosporine and prednisolone. Nine years after transplantation, he was diagnosed as having MDS (RCMD)...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318610/pharmacogenetics-of-immunosuppressants-state-of-the-art-and-clinical-implementation%C3%A2-%C3%A2-recommendations-from-the-french-national-network-of-pharmacogenetics-rnpgx
#6
Jean-Baptiste Woillard, Laurent Chouchana, Nicolas Picard, Marie-Anne Loriot
Therapeutic drug monitoring is already widely used for immunosuppressive drugs due to their narrow therapeutic index. This article summarizes evidence reported in the literature regarding the pharmacogenetics of (i) immunosuppressive drugs used in transplantation and (ii) azathioprine used in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The conditions of use of currently available major pharmacogenetic tests are detailed and recommendations are provided based on a scale established by the RNPGx scoring tests as "essential", "advisable" and "potentially useful"...
January 30, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306595/update-on-maintenance-therapy-for-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis
#7
Ora Singer, W Joseph McCune
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are a group of rare systemic diseases. The past several years have seen major therapeutic advances in the treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). The success rate in induction of remission is high, but reducing the high incidence of relapses remains a therapeutic challenge. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown no improvement in relapse rates in GPA and MPA over the past 2 decades...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296824/multicentric-case-control-study-on-azathioprine-dose-and-pharmacokinetics-in-early-onset-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Gabriele Stocco, Stefano Martelossi, Serena Arrigo, Arrigo Barabino, Marina Aloi, Massimo Martinelli, Erasmo Miele, Daniela Knafelz, Claudio Romano, Samuele Naviglio, Diego Favretto, Eva Cuzzoni, Raffaella Franca, Giuliana Decorti, Alessandro Ventura
BACKGROUND: Early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally aggressive, with a high probability of complications and need of surgery. Despite the introduction of highly effective biological drugs, treatment with azathioprine continues to be important even for early-onset IBD; however, in these patients azathioprine response seems to be reduced. This study evaluated azathioprine doses, metabolite concentrations, and their associations with patients' age in children with IBD treated at 6 tertiary pediatric referral centers...
April 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295192/state-of-the-art-how-i-manage-immune-thrombocytopenia
#9
REVIEW
Nichola Cooper
The management of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is rapidly evolving. Over the last 15 years, a number of novel treatments have improved practice, with many steroid-sparing agents and a reduction in the progression to splenectomy. Although this has improved clinical care, many therapeutic challenges remain. There is no diagnostic test, no biomarkers to direct treatment and few comparative studies to help management decisions. Development of up to date guidelines is difficult with little high-grade evidence...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293459/refractory-optic-perineuritis-due-to-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-successfully-treated-with-methotrexate-and-mycophenolate-mofetil-combination-therapy
#10
Yoshitaka Kimura, Kurumi Asako, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Hajime Kono
Optic perineuritis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of the optic sheath that causes visual loss or eye pain. There are few case reports of optic perineuritis associated with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Herein we report the case of a 37-year-old male with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and who presented with headache, blurred vision in the right eye, diplopia, and numbness in the right forehead. Brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) findings revealed hypertrophic pachymeningitis and refractory optic perineuritis...
March 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288505/the-use-of-immunosuppression-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-current-literature-review
#11
Angela Cropley, Martin Weltman
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an organ specific autoimmune condition which can manifest at any age of life. The heterogeneous nature of this condition means that great variation can be seen in severity, progression of disease and response to treatment within this patient group. Since the 1980s prednisolone and azathioprine have been used for induction and remission of the disease and remain the mainstay of treatment. Other immunosuppressive agents have been employed in difficult to treat cases. While there is less published data regarding these agents compared with the conventional treatments of steroid and azathioprine, there is mounting evidence to support the use of mycophenolate mofetil as a second-line agent...
March 14, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286554/trend-towards-dose-reduction-of-azathioprine-as-monotherapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-what-about-for-combination-therapy
#12
EDITORIAL
Nicolas Williet, Xavier Roblin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276819/is-there-a-role-for-thioguanine-therapy-in-ibd-in-2017-and-beyond
#13
Kirstin M Taylor, Mark G Ward, Paul A Blaker, Miles P Sparrow
Conventional thiopurines are effective for the maintenance of remission of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, however, up to half of patients are intolerant or unresponsive to these medications. Thioguanine is an alternative thiopurine that has shown efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease, and is particularly useful to circumvent certain side effects associated with conventional thiopurines, for example, pancreatitis. Its association with nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver has hindered its widespread use...
February 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273887/csf-1-regulates-the-function-of-monocytes-in-crohn-s-disease-patients-in-remission
#14
Juan Camilo Nieto, Carlos Zamora, Elisabet Cantó, Esther Garcia-Planella, Jordi Gordillo, Maria Angels Ortiz, Cándido Juárez, Silvia Vidal
During the flare-ups of Crohn's disease (CD) patients, circulating leukocytes actively migrate toward the inflamed sites. During the remission, the lack of symptoms does not necessarily imply immunological remission. To decipher inflammatory mechanisms still operating during CD remission, we compared the expression of chemokine receptors on monocytes from CD and healthy donors (HD), and how these differences could modulate monocyte maturation and cytokine production. Flow cytometry analysis showed a higher expression of CCR5 on monocytes from CD patients than those from HD after 24 h...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272159/outcomes-in-pediatric-autoimmune-hepatitis-and-significance-of-azathioprine-metabolites
#15
Melissa A Sheiko, Shikha S Sundaram, Kelley E Capocelli, Zhaoxing Pan, Annette M McCoy, Cara L Mack
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a common pediatric liver disease and long-term remission is usually maintained with azathioprine (AZA). There is no consensus on the target range for AZA active metabolite 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) levels in pediatric AIH. The aim of this study was to characterize the outcomes of pediatric patients with AIH and determine correlations between AZA dosing or 6-TGN metabolite levels and biochemical remission. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed and data on presentation, laboratories including AZA metabolite levels, medication use and outcomes was collected...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270229/rituximab-versus-azathioprine-as-therapy-for-maintenance-of-remission-for-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasm-antibody-associated-vasculitis-ritazarem-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Seerapani Gopaluni, Rona M Smith, Michelle Lewin, Carol A McAlear, Kim Mynard, Rachel B Jones, Ulrich Specks, Peter A Merkel, David R W Jayne
BACKGROUND: Rituximab is effective as therapy for induction of remission in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). However, the effect of rituximab is not sustained, and subsequent relapse rates are high, especially in patients with a history of relapse. There is a need to identify whether maintenance therapy with rituximab is superior to the current standard of azathioprine or methotrexate for prevention of relapse following induction with rituximab...
March 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262113/azathioprine-induced-hypersensitivity-reaction-presenting-as-erythema-nodosum
#17
M González-Olivares, R Khedaoui, C Martínez-Morán, J Borbujo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260425/optimizing-immunosuppressive-regimens-among-living-donor-renal-transplant-recipients
#18
Mohamed Adel Bakr, Ayman Maher Nagib, Osama Ashry Gheith, Ahmed Farouk Hamdy, Ayman Fathi Refaie, Ahmed Farouk Donia, Ahmed Hassan Neamatalla, Khaled Farouk Eldahshan, Ahmed Abdelfattah Denewar, Mohamed Hamed Abbas, Amany Ismail Mostafa, Mohamed Ahmed Ghoneim
OBJECTIVES: We review different immunosuppressant protocols used for living-donor kidney transplant recipients at our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Many prospective randomized studies from our center have been reported between March 1976 and 2016, with more than 2700 renal transplant procedures conducted. The first study was a prospective randomized trial of azathioprine versus cyclosporine. The second study compared triple therapy (prednisolone + azathioprine + cyclosporine) versus conventional therapy (prednisolone + azathioprine)...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260120/long-term-outcomes-of-refractory-neurosarcoidosis-treated-with-infliximab
#19
Fleur Cohen Aubart, Diane Bouvry, Damien Galanaud, Caroline Dehais, Guillaume Mathey, Dimitri Psimaras, Julien Haroche, Corinne Pottier, Miguel Hie, Alexis Mathian, Hervé Devilliers, Hilario Nunes, Dominique Valeyre, Zahir Amoura
Central nervous system localizations of sarcoidosis may be refractory to conventional treatment such as steroids and immunosuppressive drugs. Infliximab, a TNF-α antagonist chimeric antibody, has been shown to be effective for treatment of these localizations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety, in particular the long-term outcomes, of the use of infliximab for the treatment of neurosarcoidosis. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with neurosarcoidosis who had been treated with infliximab between 2009 and 2015...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251541/profile-of-pediatric-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies-from-a-tertiary-care-center-of-eastern-india
#20
Sumantra Sarkar, Tanushree Mondal, Arpan Saha, Rakesh Mondal, Supratim Datta
OBJECTIVES: To report data on Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) from eastern India. METHODS: All IIM patients diagnosed over the last 5 y (2011-2016) were included through a retrospective review of records from the hospital and specialty clinic at Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (I.P.G.M.E.&R.), Kolkata. RESULTS: Out of the 11 IIM patients, 9 had Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) and 2 had overlap myositis (OM) [with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and scleroderma]...
March 2, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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