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Alan D Brailsford, Christiaan Bartlett, Andrew T Kicman, David A Cowan
The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
E E Jansen, K R Vogel, G S Salomons, P L Pearl, J-B Roullet, K M Gibson
We hypothesized that blood levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), biomarkers of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), would correlate with age. GABA and GHB were quantified in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) from 18 patients (age range 5-41 years; median 8). Both metabolites negatively correlated with age (P < 0.05). Plasma and RBC GHB declined with age, reaching a nadir and approximate steady state by 10 years. Declining plasma GABA achieved this approximate steady state at 30-40 years of age...
November 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Anne Lingford-Hughes, Yash Patel, Owen Bowden-Jones, Mike J Crawford, Paul I Dargan, Fabiana Gordon, Steve Parrott, Tim Weaver, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and its pro-drugs GBL (gamma-butyrolactone) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are central nervous system depressants whose street names include 'G' and 'liquid ecstasy'. They are used recreationally predominately for their stimulant and pro-sexual effects or for sedation to help with sleep and/or to 'come down' after using stimulant recreational drugs. Although overall population prevalence is low (0.1 %), in some groups such as men who have sex with men, GHB/GBL use may reach 20 %...
September 27, 2016: Trials
Emma My Tay, Robert I Graham, Richard O Day
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
A B Klein, T Bay, I S Villumsen, C B Falk-Petersen, A Marek, B Frølund, R P Clausen, H D Hansen, G M Knudsen, P Wellendorph
GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) is a compound endogenous to mammalian brain with high structural resemblance to GABA. GHB possesses nanomolar-micromolar affinity for a unique population of binding sites, but the exact nature of these remains elusive. In this study we utilized the highly selective GHB analogue, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) as a tritiated version ((3)H-HOCPCA) to radioactively label the specific GHB high-affinity binding site and gain further insight into the density, distribution and developmental profile of this protein...
September 8, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Michel Maitre, Christian Klein, Ayikoe G Mensah-Nyagan
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem(R)) is frequently used in humans for several clinical indications, including anesthesia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, and alcohol-withdrawal symptoms. Pharmacological effects induced in the brain by therapeutic doses of Xyrem(R) are generally GABAergic-dependent. These effects allow sedation, stress/anxiety reduction, deep sleep induction, decrease of neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection. Furthermore, Xyrem(R) promotes the expression of pivotal genes reducing toxic proteinopathies, as demonstrated in laboratory animal models...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Evangelia Liakoni, Fabio Walther, Christian H Nickel, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with dose-dependent sedative effects. Systematic data on the acute toxicity of GHB from emergency department (ED) presentations over a long period of time are currently missing from the literature. The present study described the clinical features of GHB toxicity. METHODS: Retrospective case series of GHB intoxications seen in an urban ED. RESULTS: From January 2002 to September 2015, 78 GHB-related intoxication cases were recorded (71 % male patients)...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Nele Sadones, Elien Van Bever, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan, Luc Van Bortel, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and analysis is increasingly being applied in bioanalysis. Although the use of DBS has many advantages, it is also associated with some challenges. E.g. given the limited amount of available material, highly sensitive detection techniques are often required to attain sufficient sensitivity. In gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), derivatization can be helpful to achieve adequate sensitivity. Because this additional sample preparation step is considered as time-consuming, we introduce a new derivatization procedure, i...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
A Bocedi, R Fabrini, O Lai, L Alfieri, C Roncoroni, A Noce, J Z Pedersen, G Ricci
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Z Ottaway, Fionnuala Finnerty, Aliza Amlani, Nicolas Pinto-Sander, Joshua Szanyi, Daniel Richardson
The sexualised use of recreational drugs (Mephedrone, GBL/GHB, Crystal Meth) generally known as 'chemsex' in men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be associated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition; however there is little data showing a direct relationship. We reviewed 130 randomly selected cases of MSM with an STI attending our STI service and 130 controls (MSM attending the STI service who did not have an STI) between 5 May 2015 and 2 November 2015. Reported condomless anal sex was significantly higher in cases 90/121 (74%) compared with controls 65/122 (53%); (χ(2 )= 11...
August 19, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Vincent W Wong, Shanley Chong, Sahil Mediratta, Bin Jalaludin
BACKGROUND: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is an important tool for assessing glycaemic status in patients with diabetes, but its usefulness in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is unclear. AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether HbA1c in women with GDM is valuable in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of women with GDM who had HbA1c measured at diagnosis of GDM (GHb-diag) and at 36 weeks gestation (GHb-36 weeks) was conducted...
August 8, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Kensuke Akiyoshi, Kazuhito Sekiguchi, Tomoko Okamoto, So-Ichi Suenobu, Tatsuro Izumi
Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) was performed for the treatment of pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency in a female pediatric patient at the age of 1 year 7 months, who had been in severe and frequent transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemia, despite red blood cell (RBC) PK activity 5.52 IU/gHb. pyruvate kinase-liver and RBC (PK-LR) had a compound heterozygous mutation located on exon 8: c.1044G > T/c.1076G > A (K348N/R359H). Hemoglobin and RBC PK corrected to 13.5 g/dL and 9.00 IU/gHb, respectively, with gene correction at 6 months after CBT...
July 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Rasmus Telving, Jørgen Bo Hasselstrøm, Mette Findal Andreasen
A broad targeted screening method based on broadband collision-induced dissociation (bbCID) ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOF-MS) was developed and evaluated for toxicological screening of whole blood samples. The acidic, neutral and basic substances covered by the method were identified in postmortem and antemortem whole blood samples from forensic autopsy cases, clinical forensic cases and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases by a reverse target database search...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Rama M Kamal, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Gerdien H de Weert-van Oene, Josja A M van Duren, Cornelis A J De Jong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Understanding the psychiatric state and psychological distress level of patients with GHB dependence is important to develop effective detoxification and relapse management methods. Our aim is to assess the prevalence among GHB-dependent individuals of psychiatric comorbidity and psychological distress levels and their association with the individuals' pattern of misuse and quality of life. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients were tested with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-plus (MINI-plus), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Depression Anxiety Stress scale (DASS) and EuroQol-5D as a part of the Dutch GHB detoxification monitor in seven addiction treatment centers...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
Carole Jamey, Pascal Kintz, Laurent Martrille, Jean-Sébastien Raul
We reported the case of 69-year-old man who was discovered dead at a friend's home. 3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) and poppers (alkyl nitrites) were found at the scene by the police. Autopsy specimens including peripheral and cardiac blood, urine, gastric content, bile and hair were sent to our laboratory to document a possible death involving abuse of drugs. Routine toxicological analysis was performed with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-MS...
September 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Mohammed A K Mahdy, Reyadh Saif-Ali, Sameer A Alkubati, Abdulhabib R Alqubaty, Abdullah A Al-Mikhlafy, Samira M Al-Eryani, Abdusalam M Al-Mekhlafi, Ali Alhaj
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common genetic enzymopathy worldwide, is associated with an acute haemolytic anaemia in individuals exposed to primaquine. The present study aimed to determine G6PD deficiency among Yemeni children in malaria-endemic areas as well as to assess the performance of the CareStart™ G6PD rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for its detection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study recruiting 400 children from two rural districts in Hodeidah governorate was conducted...
2016: Malaria Journal
Rama M Kamal, Boukje A G Dijkstra, Anton J Loonen, Cornelis A J De Jong
OBJECTIVES: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) withdrawal is a complex syndrome which can be potentially life-threatening. Additionally, GHB-dependent patients frequently report co-occurring substance use of other psychoactive drugs. We assessed the add-on effect of co-use on GHB withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, pretest-posttest design study with 95 patients selected from 229 inpatients admitted for detoxification, who were divided into GHB only (GO, n = 40), GHB plus sedatives (GSE, n = 38), and GHB plus stimulants (GST, n = 17) groups...
July 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
M C Strand, H Gjerde, J Mørland
Experimental studies on the impairing effects of drugs of relevance to driving-related performance published between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed. Studies with on-the-road driving, driving simulators, and performance tests were included for benzodiazepines and related drugs, cannabis, opioids, stimulants, GHB, ketamine, antihistamines, and antidepressants. The findings in these experimental studies were briefly discussed in relation to a review of epidemiological studies published recently. The studies mainly concluded that there may be a significant psychomotor impairment after using benzodiazepines or related drugs, cannabis, opioids, GHB, or ketamine...
July 2016: Forensic Science Review
Dinushka Wickremasinghe, Hemantha Peiris, Lal Gotabhaya Chandrasena, Vajira Senaratne, Rasika Perera
BACKGROUND: Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX-1) activity was reported to be useful marker for monitoring cardiovascular disease. However, accurate assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) using GPX-1 polymorphism is limited for South Asian population. Present study aim to assess GPX-1activity and GPX-1 polymorphismin patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who were confirmed with coronary angiography findings and in apparently healthy subjects. METHODS: Case control study was carried out with 85 patients (58 males and 27 females) 40-60 years of age confirmed as having CAD on coronary angiography findings and 85 age and sex matched healthy volunteers as controls...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Odd Martin Vallersnes, Dag Jacobsen, Øivind Ekeberg, Mette Brekke
BACKGROUND: Procedures for the clinical assessment of acute poisoning by substances of abuse should identify patients in need of hospital admission and avoid hazardous discharges, while keeping the observation time short. We assess the safety of a systematic procedure developed at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC). METHODS: All patients 12 years and older treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse at the OAEOC were included consecutively from October 2011 to September 2012...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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