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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923198/detoxification-with-titration-and-tapering-in-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-dependent-patients-the-dutch-ghb-monitor-project
#1
Boukje A G Dijkstra, Rama Kamal, Martijn S van Noorden, Hein de Haan, Anton J M Loonen, Cor A J De Jong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) detoxification procedures have been insufficiently studied for effectiveness and safety. Based on case reports, benzodiazepines are generally regarded as first-choice agents in GHB detoxification. Detoxification by titration and tapering (DeTiTap) with pharmaceutical GHB in an open-label consecutive case series of 23 GHB-dependent patients showed to be feasible, effective and safe. This study further explored the feasibility, effectiveness and safety of this detoxification procedure in a large group of patients...
November 21, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891231/a-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-and-metabolite-identification-of-the-ghb-receptor-antagonist-ncs-382-in-mouse-informs-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-ghb-intoxication
#2
Garrett R Ainslie, K Michael Gibson, Kara R Vogel
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter and precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzo-cyclohept-6-ylideneacetic acid), a known GHB receptor antagonist, has shown significant efficacy in a murine model of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), a heritable neurological disorder featuring chronic elevation of GHB that blocks the final step of GABA degradation. NCS-382 exposures and elimination pathways remain unknown; therefore, the goal of the present work was to obtain in vivo pharmacokinetic data in a murine model and to identify the NCS-382 metabolites formed by mouse and human...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845883/salivary-flow-rate-buffer-capacity-and-urea-concentration-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Ivana Maria Saes Busato, Carlos Cesar De Antoni, Thiago Calcagnotto, Sérgio Aparecido Ignácio, Luciana Reis Azevedo-Alanis
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to analyze salivary flow rate, urea concentration, and buffer capacity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in two different stages. METHODS: This study was performed on adolescents (14-19 years), allocated between two groups: type 1 DM group comprised 32 adolescents with type 1 DM, and non-type 1 DM group comprised 32 nondiabetics. The adolescents in type 1 DM group were evaluated at a baseline (T0) and after 15 months (T1), and those in non-type 1 DM group were only evaluated at T0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829545/a-novel-formula-sang-tong-jian-improves-glycometabolism-and-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-by-activating-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-type-2-diabetic-kkay-mice
#4
Meiyu Kuai, Yu Li, Xin Sun, Zhi Ma, Chao Lin, Yi Jing, Ying Lu, Qi Chen, Xiang Wu, Xueyun Kong, Huimin Bian
AIMS: Sang-Tong-Jian (STJ), a novel formula composed of flavonoids and alkaloids derived from mulberry leaf, has been found to reduce blood glucose levels in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in our previous studies. However, the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Insulin resistance is the main characteristic of T2DM, which may be due to impairment of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of STJ on glycometabolism and insulin resistance in KKAy mice...
November 6, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807735/-treatment-of-fibromyalgia-syndrome-with-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-a%C3%A2-randomized-controlled-study
#5
E Reuter, S Tafelski, K Thieme, C West, U Haase, L Beck, M Schäfer, C Spies
BACKGROUND: The etiology of fibromyalgia syndrome is not yet fully understood. Current hypotheses suggest a potential role of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in influencing endocrinological abnormalities in patients with fibromyalgia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether low dose GHB as a growth-hormone releasing substance reduces pain intensity and improves depressive mood, physical impairment and sleep quality in outpatients with fibromyalgia...
November 2, 2016: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788450/illicit-drug-use-among-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-44-cities-findings-from-the-european-msm-internet-survey-emis
#6
Axel J Schmidt, Adam Bourne, Peter Weatherburn, David Reid, Ulrich Marcus, Ford Hickson
BACKGROUND: Anecdotal evidence suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are increasingly combining sex and illicit drugs (an activity referred to as 'chemsex'), in particular GHB/GBL, ketamine, crystal meth, or mephedrone (here called 4-chems). Use of such drugs has been associated with mental health and sexual health harms. We aim to compare patterns of illicit drug use among MSM in 44 European urban centres. METHODS: In 2010, EMIS recruited 174,209 men from 38 countries to an anonymous online questionnaire in 25 languages...
October 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755988/eight-years-of-psychiatric-examination-of-detainees-by-forensic-physicians-in-the-netherlands
#7
Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755562/selenium-and-zinc-status-in-chronic-myofascial-pain-serum-and-erythrocyte-concentrations-and-food-intake
#8
João Araújo Barros-Neto, Adelmir Souza-Machado, Durval Campos Kraychete, Rosangela Passos de Jesus, Matheus Lopes Cortes, Michele Dos Santos Lima, Mariana Carvalho Freitas, Tascya Morganna de Morais Santos, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa Viana, José Antonio Menezes-Filho
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional disorders have been reported to be important causal factors that can intensify or cause a painful response in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. AIM: To assess the habitual intake of and the serum and erythrocyte levels of selenium and zinc in patients with chronic myofascial pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study of 31 patients with chronic myofascial pain (group I) and 31 subjects without pain (group II)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744373/increases-in-serum-growth-hormone-concentrations-associated-with-ghb-administration
#9
Alan D Brailsford, Christiaan Bartlett, Andrew T Kicman, David A Cowan
The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686230/correlation-of-blood-biomarkers-with-age-informs-pathomechanisms-in-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency-ssadhd-a-disorder-of-gaba-metabolism
#10
E E Jansen, K R Vogel, G S Salomons, P L Pearl, J-B Roullet, K M Gibson
We hypothesized that blood levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), biomarkers of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), would correlate with age. GABA and GHB were quantified in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) from 18 patients (age range 5-41 years; median 8). Both metabolites negatively correlated with age (P < 0.05). Plasma and RBC GHB declined with age, reaching a nadir and approximate steady state by 10 years. Declining plasma GABA achieved this approximate steady state at 30-40 years of age...
November 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677382/improving-ghb-withdrawal-with-baclofen-study-protocol-for-a-feasibility-study-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Anne Lingford-Hughes, Yash Patel, Owen Bowden-Jones, Mike J Crawford, Paul I Dargan, Fabiana Gordon, Steve Parrott, Tim Weaver, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) and its pro-drugs GBL (gamma-butyrolactone) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are central nervous system depressants whose street names include 'G' and 'liquid ecstasy'. They are used recreationally predominately for their stimulant and pro-sexual effects or for sedation to help with sleep and/or to 'come down' after using stimulant recreational drugs. Although overall population prevalence is low (0.1 %), in some groups such as men who have sex with men, GHB/GBL use may reach 20 %...
September 27, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627929/severe-ghb-withdrawal-delirium-managed-with-dexmedetomidine
#12
Emma My Tay, Robert I Graham, Richard O Day
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615059/autoradiographic-imaging-and-quantification-of-the-high-affinity-ghb-binding-sites-in-rodent-brain-using-3-h-hocpca
#13
A B Klein, T Bay, I S Villumsen, C B Falk-Petersen, A Marek, B Frølund, R P Clausen, H D Hansen, G M Knudsen, P Wellendorph
GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) is a compound endogenous to mammalian brain with high structural resemblance to GABA. GHB possesses nanomolar-micromolar affinity for a unique population of binding sites, but the exact nature of these remains elusive. In this study we utilized the highly selective GHB analogue, 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) as a tritiated version ((3)H-HOCPCA) to radioactively label the specific GHB high-affinity binding site and gain further insight into the density, distribution and developmental profile of this protein...
September 8, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601032/a-proposed-preventive-role-for-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-xyrem-r-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Michel Maitre, Christian Klein, Ayikoe G Mensah-Nyagan
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem(R)) is frequently used in humans for several clinical indications, including anesthesia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, and alcohol-withdrawal symptoms. Pharmacological effects induced in the brain by therapeutic doses of Xyrem(R) are generally GABAergic-dependent. These effects allow sedation, stress/anxiety reduction, deep sleep induction, decrease of neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection. Furthermore, Xyrem(R) promotes the expression of pivotal genes reducing toxic proteinopathies, as demonstrated in laboratory animal models...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581664/presentations-to-an-urban-emergency-department-in-switzerland-due-to-acute-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-toxicity
#15
Evangelia Liakoni, Fabio Walther, Christian H Nickel, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with dose-dependent sedative effects. Systematic data on the acute toxicity of GHB from emergency department (ED) presentations over a long period of time are currently missing from the literature. The present study described the clinical features of GHB toxicity. METHODS: Retrospective case series of GHB intoxications seen in an urban ED. RESULTS: From January 2002 to September 2015, 78 GHB-related intoxication cases were recorded (71 % male patients)...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578413/microwave-assisted-on-spot-derivatization-for-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-determination-of-polar-low-molecular-weight-compounds-in-dried-blood-spots
#16
Nele Sadones, Elien Van Bever, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan, Luc Van Bortel, Willy E Lambert, Christophe P Stove
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and analysis is increasingly being applied in bioanalysis. Although the use of DBS has many advantages, it is also associated with some challenges. E.g. given the limited amount of available material, highly sensitive detection techniques are often required to attain sufficient sensitivity. In gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), derivatization can be helpful to achieve adequate sensitivity. Because this additional sample preparation step is considered as time-consuming, we introduce a new derivatization procedure, i...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551520/erythrocyte-glutathione-transferase-a-general-probe-for-chemical-contaminations-in-mammals
#17
A Bocedi, R Fabrini, O Lai, L Alfieri, C Roncoroni, A Noce, J Z Pedersen, G Ricci
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are enzymes devoted to the protection of cells against many different toxins. In erythrocytes, the isoenzyme (e-GST) mainly present is GSTP1-1, which is overexpressed in humans in case of increased blood toxicity, as it occurs in nephrophatic patients or in healthy subjects living in polluted areas. The present study explores the possibility that e-GST may be used as an innovative and highly sensitive biomarker of blood toxicity also for other mammals. All distinct e-GSTs from humans, Bos taurus (cow), Sus scrofa (pig), Capra hircus (goat), Equus caballus (horse), Equus asinus (donkey) and Ovis aries (sheep), show very similar amino acid sequences, identical kinetics and stability properties...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542697/men-who-have-sex-with-men-diagnosed-with-a-sexually-transmitted-infection-are-significantly-more-likely-to-engage-in-sexualised-drug-use
#18
Z Ottaway, Fionnuala Finnerty, Aliza Amlani, Nicolas Pinto-Sander, Joshua Szanyi, Daniel Richardson
The sexualised use of recreational drugs (Mephedrone, GBL/GHB, Crystal Meth) generally known as 'chemsex' in men who have sex with men (MSM) is thought to be associated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition; however there is little data showing a direct relationship. We reviewed 130 randomly selected cases of MSM with an STI attending our STI service and 130 controls (MSM attending the STI service who did not have an STI) between 5 May 2015 and 2 November 2015. Reported condomless anal sex was significantly higher in cases 90/121 (74%) compared with controls 65/122 (53%); (χ(2 )= 11...
August 19, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501522/measuring-glycated-haemoglobin-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-how-useful-is-it
#19
Vincent W Wong, Shanley Chong, Sahil Mediratta, Bin Jalaludin
BACKGROUND: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is an important tool for assessing glycaemic status in patients with diabetes, but its usefulness in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is unclear. AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether HbA1c in women with GDM is valuable in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of women with GDM who had HbA1c measured at diagnosis of GDM (GHb-diag) and at 36 weeks gestation (GHb-36 weeks) was conducted...
August 8, 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460399/cord-blood-transplantation-in-a-young-child-with-pyruvate-kinase-deficiency
#20
Kensuke Akiyoshi, Kazuhito Sekiguchi, Tomoko Okamoto, So-Ichi Suenobu, Tatsuro Izumi
Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) was performed for the treatment of pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency in a female pediatric patient at the age of 1 year 7 months, who had been in severe and frequent transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemia, despite red blood cell (RBC) PK activity 5.52 IU/gHb. pyruvate kinase-liver and RBC (PK-LR) had a compound heterozygous mutation located on exon 8: c.1044G > T/c.1076G > A (K348N/R359H). Hemoglobin and RBC PK corrected to 13.5 g/dL and 9.00 IU/gHb, respectively, with gene correction at 6 months after CBT...
July 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
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