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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220733/a-fast-method-for-ghb-gluc-quantitation-in-whole-blood-by-gc-ms-ms-tqd-for-forensic-purposes
#1
Ana S Dias, André L Castro, Paula Melo, Sónia Tarelho, Pedro Domingues, João Miguel Franco
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a historical use, both in licit and illicit terms. Importantly, the post-mortem behavior of GHB has been studied due to the possibility of using this compound as a biomarker for estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI). However, the post-mortem behavior of the recently discovered glucuronated GHB metabolite (GHB-GLUC) has not been studied. Nevertheless, GHB-GLUC may also have potential both to assist in PMI determination and also to increase the window of detection of GHB consumption...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219048/sodium-oxybate-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-and-the-maintenance-of-alcohol-abstinence
#2
Carmen Mannucci, Simona Pichini, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Fabrizio Calapai, Sebastiano Gangemi, Michele Navarra, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or sodium oxybate) is both an exogenous and endogenous molecule with neuromodulator properties. In the United States, GHB is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults. In some European Union countries, sodium oxybate is applied for the treatment of opioid and alcohol withdrawal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to describe the state of art of the pre-clinical research and the clinical evidence related to GHB used alone or in combination with other treatments in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and alcohol abstinence maintenance...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198063/baclofen-in-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-withdrawal-patterns-of-use-and-online-availability
#3
Christopher N Floyd, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan
PURPOSE: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal is a life-threatening condition that does not always respond to standard treatment with benzodiazepines. Baclofen has potential utility as a pharmacological adjunct and anecdotal reports suggest that it is being used by drug users to self-manage GHB withdrawal symptoms. Here, we investigate current patterns of use and the online availably of baclofen. METHODS: Data triangulation techniques were applied to published scientific literature and publicly accessible Internet resources (grey literature) to assess the use of baclofen in GHB withdrawal...
December 3, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190073/response-to-comment-on-direct-monitoring-of-exogenous-ghb-in-body-fluids-by-nmr-spectroscopy-several-issues-to-consider-when-quantifying-ghb-in-biological-matrices
#4
Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Alan David Brailsford, Teodor Parella, Míriam Pérez-Trujillo
In response to the letter from Pichini and Busardò, we would like to stress that we do not suggest NMR as an alternative technique to GC-MS or LC-MS, but complementary to them (which could provide additional valuable information), as was stated in the last sentence of the conclusions of the published article.
November 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190070/comment-on-direct-monitoring-of-exogenous-ghb-in-body-fluids-by-nmr-spectroscopy-several-issue-to-consider-when-quantifying-ghb-in-biological-matrices
#5
Simona Pichini, Francesco Paolo Busardò
We have read with great interest the article of Palomino-Schätzlein and colleagues [1] entitled "Direct monitoring of exogenous GHB in body fluids by NMR spectroscopy", where the authors investigated the feasibility and suitability of NMR spectroscopy for the identification and quantification of exogenous GHB in urine and serum. In addition, the potential of NMR-based metabolomics for the identification of biomarkers indicative of GHB consumption was also evaluated. In our opinion, the study of Palomino-Schätzlein et al...
November 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175521/structural-analysis-of-the-interaction-between-free-glycated-and-fructated-hemoglobin-with-propolis-nanoparticles-a-spectroscopic-study
#6
Fatemeh Kazemi, Adeleh Divsalar, Ali Akbar Saboury
Non enzymatic Glycation is the main causes of diabetic complications. Propolis is a natural product of different plant exudates and buds which has different biological properties such as anti-hyperglycemia. In attention to better performance of nanoparticles in treatment, we synthesized propolis nanoparticles (PNP) and analyzed their physicochemical properties by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Zeta potential and FTIR analyses. Then, the structural changes of human hemoglobin (Hb), in three different forms of free, glycated and fructated Hb upon interaction with PNP at two temperatures of 25 and 37°C were investigated using fluorescence and far-UV circular dichoroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122285/determination-of-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-in-human-urine-samples-by-ion-exclusion-and-ion-exchange-two-dimensional-chromatography-system
#7
Junwei Liu, Zhifen Deng, Zuoyi Zhu, Yong Wang, Guoqing Wang, Yu-An Sun, Yan Zhu
A two-dimensional ion chromatography system was developed for the determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine samples. Ion exclusion chromatography was used in the first dimensional separation for elimination of urine matrices and detection of GHB above 10mgL(-1), ion exchange chromatography was used in the second dimensional separation via column-switching technique for detection of GHB above 0.08mgL(-1). Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the ion exclusion and ion exchange chromatography separation system exhibited satisfactory repeatability (RSD<3...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119924/deaths-in-the-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-united-kingdom-communities-associated-with-ghb-and-precursors
#8
John M Corkery, Barbara Loi, Hugh Claridge, Christine Goodair, Fabrizio Schifano
Background Misuse of gammahydroxybutrate (GHB) and its prodrugs gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4 butanediol (1,4-BD) has increased greatly since the early 1990s, particularly amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals in recreational and sexual settings, e.g. 'chemsex'. Objective and method This paper presents an overview of GHB pharmacotoxicology and provides analyses of cases in the LGBT population associated with use of these substances extracted from the UK's National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database, to which notification is voluntary...
November 8, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103326/polymerized-human-placenta-haemoglobin-attenuates-myocardial-injury-and-aortic-endothelial-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-severe-burns
#9
Zhenyu Zhang, Yingyi Zhang, Yan Deng, Shen Li, Wentao Zhou, Chengmin Yang, Xuewen Xu, Tao Li
This study was designed to investigate the effect of polymerized human placenta haemoglobin (PolyPHb) on cardiac dysfunction after severe burns. A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Sham, Burn and Burn + PolyPHb groups. Rats were subjected to third-degree burns to 30% of total body surface area and the haemodynamics, cardiac enzyme release and aortic endothelium ultrastructure/function were measured. PolyPHb (0.5 gHb/kg) greatly improved mean arterial pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), maximum LVDP increase and decrease rate and reduced left ventricular end-diastolic pressure as compared to the Burn group...
November 6, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053743/in-vitro-modeling-of-experimental-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency-ssadhd-using-brain-derived-neural-stem-cells
#10
Kara R Vogel, Garrett R Ainslie, Erwin E Jansen, Gajja S Salomons, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, K Michael Gibson
We explored the utility of neural stem cells (NSCs) as an in vitro model for evaluating preclinical therapeutics in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (SSADHD) mice. NSCs were obtained from aldh5a1+/+ and aldh5a1-/- mice (aldh5a1 = aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 = SSADH). Multiple parameters were evaluated including: (1) production of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate), the biochemical hallmark of SSADHD; (2) rescue from cell death with the dual mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor, XL-765, an agent previously shown to rescue aldh5a1-/- mice from premature lethality; (3) mitochondrial number, total reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial superoxide production, all previously documented as abnormal in aldh5a1-/- mice; (4) total ATP levels and ATP consumption; and (5) selected gene expression profiles associated with epilepsy, a prominent feature in both experimental and human SSADHD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031482/toxicologic-transport-properties-of-ncs-382-a-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-ghb-receptor-ligand-in-neuronal-and-epithelial-cells-therapeutic-implications-for-ssadh-deficiency-a-gaba-metabolic-disorder
#11
K R Vogel, G R Ainslie, A McConnell, J-B Roullet, K M Gibson
We report the in vitro assessment of pharmacotoxicity for the high-affinity GHB receptor ligand, NCS-382, using neuronal stem cells derived from mice with a targeted deletion of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 gene (succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase(SSADH)-deficient mice). These animals represent a phenocopy of the human disorder of GABA metabolism, SSADH deficiency, that metabolically features accumulation of both GABA and the GABA-analog γ-hydroxybutyric acid in conjunction with a nonspecific neurological phenotype...
October 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028338/molecular-hybridization-of-potent-and-selective-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyric-acid-ghb-ligands-design-synthesis-binding-studies-and-molecular-modeling-of-novel-3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic-acid-hocpca-and-trans-%C3%AE-hydroxycrotonic-acid-t-hca-analogs
#12
Jacob Krall, Claus Hatt Jensen, Francesco Bavo, Christina Birkedal Falk-Petersen, Anne Stæhr Haugaard, Stine Byskov Vogensen, Yongsong Tian, Mia Nittegaard-Nielsen, Sara Björk Sigurdardóttir, Jan Kehler, Kenneth Thermann Kongstad, David E Gloriam, Rasmus Prætorius Clausen, Kasper Harpsøe, Petrine Wellendorph, Bente Frølund
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a neuroactive substance with specific high-affinity binding sites. To facilitate target identification and ligand optimization, we herein report a comprehensive structure-affinity relationship study for novel ligands targeting these binding sites. A molecular hybridization strategy was used based on the conformationally restricted 3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA) and the linear GHB analog trans-4-hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA). In general, all structural modifications performed on HOCPCA led to reduced affinity...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938889/intoxication-with-ghb-gbl-characteristics-and-trends-from-ambulance-attended-overdoses
#13
Desiree Madah-Amiri, Lars Myrmel, Guttorm Brattebø
BACKGROUND: Overdoses from so-called "club drugs" (GHB/GBL) have become a more frequent cause of overdoses attended by ambulance services. Given its availability, affordability, and lack of awareness of risks, there is a common misconception among users that the drug is relatively safe. METHODS: This study reviewed ambulance records in Bergen, Norway between 2009 and 2015 for cases of acute poisonings, particularly from suspected GHB/GBL intoxication. RESULTS: In total, 1112 cases of GHB and GBL poisoning were identified...
September 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869822/potential-of-ghb-phase-ii-metabolites-to-complement-current-approaches-in-ghb-post-administration-detection
#14
Thomas Piper, Lena-Maria Mehling, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
Recently, phase-II-metabolites of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), namely GHB-β-O-glucuronide and GHB-4-sulfate, were implemented in the scope of drug testing methods The clearance of GHB from the circulation is extremely fast due to its incorporation into the metabolic pathway of the citrate cycle. The elimination half-life of GHB from blood was reported to be dose dependent between 30 and 50min resulting in narrow detection windows of less than 12h after illicit administration or cases of drug facilitated sexual assault regardless of the biological matrix used...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844014/changes-in-smoking-status-among-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-vancouver-canada
#15
Helia Shariati, Heather L Armstrong, Zishan Cui, Nathan J Lachowsky, Julia Zhu, Praney Anand, Eric A Roth, Robert S Hogg, Greg Oudman, Christina Tonella, David M Moore
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is common among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and most of the mortality gap between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals is attributable to smoking. METHODS: We recruited sexually active HIV-positive and HIV-negative GBMSM age ≥16 years using respondent-driven sampling. Study visits occurred every six months for up to four years and included a computer-assisted self-interview and clinical assessment...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830220/exploring-strategies-for-prep-adherence-and-dosing-preferences-in-the-context-of-sexualized-recreational-drug-use-among-msm-a-qualitative-study
#16
Elizabeth F Closson, Jennifer A Mitty, Jowanna Malone, Kenneth H Mayer, Matthew J Mimiaga
The use of recreational drugs while having sex is associated with increased HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). Taking a daily antiretroviral pill, or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical intervention to prevent HIV. However, the efficacy of PrEP is closely tied with high levels of adherence. While PrEP has the potential to reduce HIV acquisition, the use of recreational drugs may impede adherence. We explored perceptions of PrEP utilization and regimen preferences among 40 HIV-negative, MSM who reported concurrent recreational drug use and condomless anal sex with a man...
August 22, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811136/determination-of-ghb-and-ghb-%C3%AE-o-glucuronide-in-hair-of-three-narcoleptic-patients-comparison-between-single-and-chronic-ghb-exposure
#17
Lena-Maria Mehling, Xin Wang, Sys-Stybe Johansen, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can be used as a knock-out drug in drug facilitated crime (DFC). Due to its rapid metabolism and resulting narrow detection window, uncovering GHB use in DFC still constitutes a problem. In this experiment we determined the GHB and GHB-β-O-glucuronide (GHB-Gluc) concentrations in hair samples after single and chronic GHB exposures. Hair samples of three narcoleptic patients therapeutically taking sodium oxybate (GHB-sodium-salt) were collected. Patients 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) took the medication for nine and six years, respectively...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763296/hair-testing-of-ghb-an-everlasting-issue-in-forensic-toxicology
#18
REVIEW
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini, Simona Zaami, Roberta Pacifici, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: In this paper, the authors present a critical review of different studies regarding hair testing of endogenous γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), concentrations in chronic users, and values measured after a single GHB exposure in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases together with the role of a recently identified GHB metabolite, GHB-glucuronide. CONTENT: The following databases (up to March 2017) PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were used, searching the following key words: γ-hydroxybutyrate, GHB, GHB glucuronide, hair...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745845/sedative-hypnotic-drug-withdrawal-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment-digest
#19
Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo, Jeremy Kim
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 22, 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714673/direct-monitoring-of-exogenous-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-body-fluids-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#20
Martina Palomino-Schätzlein, Yaoyao Wang, Alan D Brailsford, Teodor Parella, David A Cowan, Cristina Legido-Quigley, Míriam Pérez-Trujillo
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a popular drug increasingly associated with cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Currently, expanding procedures of analysis and having forensic evidence of GHB intake in a long term are mandatory. Up to now, most studies have been performed using GC/MS and LC-MS as analytical platforms, which involve significant manipulation of the sample and, often, indirect measurements. In this work, procedures used in NMR-based metabolomics were applied to a GHB clinical trial on urine and serum...
August 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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