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Pituitary disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353438/examination-of-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-as-a-potential-biomarker-in-heart-failure-patients
#1
Zsolt Sarszegi, Dora Szabo, Balazs Gaszner, Attila Konyi, Dora Reglodi, Jozsef Nemeth, Beata Lelesz, Beata Polgar, Adel Jungling, Andrea Tamas
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide having neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and general cytoprotective actions in a variety of tissues based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Several studies have demonstrated its cardioprotective effects in vitro and in various animal models. However, few data are available on the presence of PACAP in human cardiac tissues and its role in the pathomechanism and progression of different cardiac disorders, particularly heart failure...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351706/micrornas-and-target-genes-in-pituitary-adenomas
#2
Yajuan Feng, Zhi-Gang Mao, Xin Wang, Qiu Du, Mengyao Jian, Dimin Zhu, Zheng Xiao, Hai-Jun Wang, Yong-Hong Zhu
Pituitary adenomas account for the top three primary intracranial tumors in terms of total incidence rates. The clinical symptoms presented by the disease are often characterized by a series of systemic endocrine disorders, severe occupational lesions, and even some malignant features, and therefore early diagnosis and predicting recurrence would be instructive for clinical treatment of pituitary adenomas. An increasing number of specific microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures have been identified in pituitary, and miRNAs are related with the pituitary tumorigenesis, dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and metastatic non-functioning pituitary carcinoma...
January 19, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348729/panax-ginseng-exerts-antidepressant-like-effects-by-suppressing-neuroinflammatory-response-and-upregulating-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-signaling-in-the-amygdala
#3
Jong Hee Choi, Min Jung Lee, Minhee Jang, Hak-Jae Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Sang Won Lee, Young Ock Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho
Background: Depression is one of the most commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric diseases, but the underlying mechanism and medicine are not well-known. Although Panax ginseng has been reported to exert protective effects in various neurological studies, little information is available regarding its antidepressant effects. Methods: Here, we examined the antidepressant effect and underlying mechanism of P. ginseng extract (PGE) in a chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression model in mice...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346554/functional-roles-of-sex-biased-growth-hormone-regulated-micrornas-mir-1948-and-mir-802-in-young-adult-mouse-liver
#4
Pengying Hao, David J Waxman
Sex-specific temporal patterns of pituitary GH secretion determine the sex-biased transcription of hundreds of genes in the liver and impart significant sex differences in liver physiology, metabolism and disease. Sex differences in hepatic gene expression vary widely, ranging from <2-fold to >1,000-fold in the mouse. Here, we use small RNA sequencing to discover 24 sex-biased mouse liver miRNAs, and then investigate the roles of two of these miRNAs in GH-regulated liver sex differences. Studies in pre-pubertal and young adult mice, and in mice where pituitary hormones are ablated or where sex-specific hepatic GH signaling is dysregulated, demonstrated that the male-biased miR-1948 and the female-biased miR-802 are both regulated by sex-specific pituitary GH secretory patterns, acquire sex specificity at puberty, and are dependent on the GH-activated transcription factor STAT5 for their sex-specific expression...
January 16, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346331/growth-hormone-gh-and-cardiovascular-system
#5
REVIEW
Diego Caicedo, Oscar Díaz, Pablo Devesa, Jesús Devesa
This review describes the positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on the cardiovascular system. We analyze why the vascular endothelium is a real internal secretion gland, whose inflammation is the first step for developing atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms by which GH acts on vessels improving oxidative stress imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. We also report how GH acts on coronary arterial disease and heart failure, and on peripheral arterial disease, inducing a neovascularization process that finally increases flow in ischemic tissues...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344020/a-case-of-immune-thrombocytopenia-as-a-rare-side-effect-of-an-immunotherapy-with-pd1-blocking-agents-for-metastatic-melanoma
#6
Claudia Pföhler, Hermann Eichler, Barbara Burgard, Nathalie Krecké, Cornelia S L Müller, Thomas Vogt
Background: Checkpoint blocking agents such as pembrolizumab or nivolumab may induce a diversity of mostly autoimmune-mediated side effects. These autoimmune phenomena mainly affect ductless glands such as the pituitary gland (hypophysitis), the thyroid gland (thyreoiditis), the skin (vitiligo and rash), the colon (colitis), and the lung (pneumonitis). Furthermore, many other organs or organ systems may be affected. Case Report: This work describes a case of an immune thrombocytopenia that developed or rather became clinically significant shortly after initiation of a systemic therapy with first nivolumab and later pembrolizumab given due to metastatic melanoma...
November 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341046/reduced-growth-hormone-secretion-is-associated-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children
#7
Shuang Liang, Zhen Yu, Xiaobo Song, Yu Wang, Meng Li, Jiang Xue
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between arginine-levodopa-induced growth hormone (GH) secretion and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. This study includes a total of 84 obese and 43 normal weight children. The obese subjects are divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of NAFLD. Clinical examination, anthropometric and laboratory examinations, and liver ultrasonography are assessed for all participants. The obese group had significantly lower peak stimulated GH (p<0...
January 16, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340973/reference-intervals-for-thyrotropin-in-an-area-of-northern-italy-the-pordenone-thyroid-study-tripp
#8
R Tozzoli, F D'Aurizio, P Metus, A Steffan, C Mazzon, M Bagnasco
PURPOSE: Thyrotropin (TSH) is the most accurate marker of thyroid dysfunction in the absence of pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Studies on TSH reference intervals (RIs) showed wide inter-individual variability and prompted an intense debate about the best estimation of TSH RIs. DESIGN: We performed a population study on TSH RIs, using current data stored in the laboratory information system (LIS), at the Hospital Department of Laboratory Medicine, Pordenone (Italy), historically an area of mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a relatively high goiter prevalence...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338944/histological-and-morphofunctional-parameters-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-system-are-sensitive-to-daidzein-treatment-in-the-adult-rat
#9
Svetlana Trifunović, Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Nataša Ristić, Branka Šošić-Jurjević, Lazo Pendovski, Verica Milošević
The isoflavone, daidzein is a biologically active, plant-derived compound that interacts with estrogen receptors. Data from previous studies have suggested that daidzein exerts beneficial effects in many diseases; however, as an endocrine disrupter, it may also alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Data regarding the effect of daidzein on the morphofunctional and histological parameters of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is still lacking. Therefore, using the newCAST stereological software, we investigated the effects of chronic (21 days) daidzein treatment on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons within the hypothalamus and corticotropes (ACTH cells) in the pituitary, while image analysis was employed to-examine the intensity of fluorescence of CRH in the median eminence (ME) and adrenocorticotropin hormone in the pituitary in adult orchidectomized (Ovx) rats...
January 12, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331929/sex-related-differential-response-to-dexamethasone-in-endocrine-and-immune-measures-in-depressed-in-patients-and-healthy-controls
#10
Carina Rampp, Andreas Eichelkraut, Johanna Best, Darina Czamara, Monika Rex-Haffner, Manfred Uhr, Elisabeth B Binder, Andreas Menke
Although sex differences in major depression have been reported repeatedly, the underlying mechanisms are still disputed. The rapidly changing gonadal steroid concentrations of the postpartum period or during menopause have been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms and to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, which is implicated in depression. The sample comprised of 128 depressed in-patients (36.7% women) and 166 healthy controls (30.0% women). Blood was collected at baseline (at 6pm) and then 3 h as well as 21 h after ingestion of 1...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331049/prenatal-maternal-psychosocial-stress-and-offspring-s-asthma-and-allergic-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Catherine Flanigan, Aziz Sheikh, Audrey DunnGalvin, Bronwyn K Brew, Catarina Almqvist, Bright I Nwaru
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal stress may influence offspring's atopic risk through sustained cortisol secretion resulting from activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA), leading to Th2-biased cell differentiation in the fetus. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the relationship between prenatal maternal psychosocial stress and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring. METHODS: We searched 11 electronic databases from 1960 to 2016, search the grey literature, and contacted experts in the field...
January 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330228/treatment-of-aggressive-pituitary-tumours-and-carcinomas-results-of-a-european-society-of-endocrinology-ese-survey-2016
#12
Ann I McCormack, Olaf Dekkers, Stephan Petersenn, Vera Popovic, Jacqueline Trouillas, Gerald Raverot, Pia Burman
OBJECTIVE: To collect outcome data in a large cohort of patients with aggressive pituitary tumours (APT)/carcinomas (PC), and specifically report effects of temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. DESIGN: Electronic survey to ESE members Dec 2015-Nov 2016. RESULTS: Reports on 165 patients (40 PC, 125 APT) were obtained. Median age at diagnosis was 43 (range 4-79) years. 69% of the tumours were clinically functioning, and the most frequent immunohistochemical subtype were corticotroph tumours (45%)...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329418/variability-of-late-night-salivary-cortisol-in-cushing-disease-a-prospective-study
#13
Zahrae Sandouk, Philip Johnston, Dustin Bunch, Sihe Wang, James Bena, Amir Hamrahian, Laurence Kennedy
Background: The frequency of variable hormonogenesis in patients with Cushing disease (CD) but without cyclical symptoms is unclear. Aim: To assess the frequency of variable hormonogenesis in patients presenting with Cushing disease. Methods: Over a 6-month period patients with confirmed or suspected Cushing disease provided late-night salivary samples for up to 42 consecutive nights. Results: Of 19 patients confirmed to have CD 16 provided at least seven consecutive salivary samples and 13 provided at least 21; these 16 patients are the subjects of this report...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319131/temozolomide-therapy-for-aggressive-pituitary-crooke-s-cells-corticotropinoma-causing-cushing-s-disease-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#14
Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska, Małgorzata Wilusz, Jacek Pantofliński, Renata Turek-Jabrocka, Grzegorz Sokołowski, Anna Sowa-Staszczak, Łukasz Kluczyński, Dorota Pach, Grzegorz Zieliński, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk
AbstractContext: Aggressive pituitary tumours causing Cushing's Disease are very rare, difficult to treat, and usually resistant to conventional therapy. There is growing evidence for the use of temozolomide (TZM), an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, as first line chemotherapy in tumours resistant to repeated neurosurgery, radiotherapy and adrenalectomy. OBJECTIVE: To present the response to TMZ in a rare case of an aggressive pituitary tumour in the course of Cushing's Disease and to review the literature referring to similar cases...
January 10, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313284/endocrinological-aspects-of-hiv-infection
#15
REVIEW
F S Mirza, P Luthra, L Chirch
PURPOSE: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer with effective antiretroviral therapies and are enjoying near normal life span. Therefore, they are encountering endocrine issues faced by the general population along with those specific to HIV infection. The purpose of this article is to review the common endocrine aspects of HIV infection, and the early detection and management strategies for these complications. METHODS: Recent literature on HIV and endocrine disease was reviewed...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313180/a-prospective-longitudinal-study-of-pasireotide-in-nelson-s-syndrome
#16
Eleni Daniel, Miguel Debono, Sharon Caunt, Constantine Girio-Fragkoulakis, Stephen J Walters, Scott A Akker, Ashley B Grossman, Peter J Trainer, John Newell-Price
PURPOSE: Nelson's syndrome is a challenging condition that can develop following bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease, with high circulating ACTH levels, pigmentation and an invasive pituitary tumor. There is no established medical therapy. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of pasireotide on plasma ACTH and tumor volume in Nelson's syndrome. METHODS: Open labeled multicenter longitudinal trial in three steps: (1) a placebo-controlled acute response test; (2) 1 month pasireotide 300-600 μg s...
January 8, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312650/nanoparticles-and-female-reproductive-system-how-do-nanoparticles-affect-oogenesis-and-embryonic-development
#17
REVIEW
Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Along with the increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in many walks of life, environmental exposure to NPs has raised considerable health concerns. When NPs enter a pregnant woman's body through inhalation, venous injection, ingestion or skin permeation, maternal toxic stress reactions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, apoptosis and endocrine dyscrasia are induced in different organs, particularly in the reproductive organs. Recent studies have shown that NPs disturb the developing oocyte by invading the protective barrier of theca cells, granulosa cell layers and zona pellucida...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310723/iatrogenic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-with-amyloid-%C3%AE-pathology-an-international-study
#18
Ignazio Cali, Mark L Cohen, Stéphane Haїk, Piero Parchi, Giorgio Giaccone, Steven J Collins, Diane Kofskey, Han Wang, Catriona A McLean, Jean-Philippe Brandel, Nicolas Privat, Véronique Sazdovitch, Charles Duyckaerts, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Ermias D Belay, Ryan A Maddox, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Maurizio Pocchiari, Ellen Leschek, Brian S Appleby, Jiri G Safar, Lawrence B Schonberger, Pierluigi Gambetti
The presence of pathology related to the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) has been recently reported in iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) acquired from inoculation of growth hormone (GH) extracted from human cadaveric pituitary gland or use of cadaveric dura mater (DM) grafts.To investigate this phenomenon further, a cohort of 27 iCJD cases - 21 with adequate number of histopathological sections - originating from Australia, France, Italy, and the Unites States, were examined by immunohistochemistry, amyloid staining, and Western blot analysis of the scrapie prion protein (PrPSc), and compared with age-group matched cases of sporadic CJD (sCJD), Alzheimer disease (AD) or free of neurodegenerative diseases (non-ND)...
January 8, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306856/mycophenolate-mofetil-treatment-in-a-patient-with-recurrent-lymphocytic-hypophysitis
#19
Hiroshi Sawachika, Shoko Kodama, Tomoyuki Mukai, Yoshitaka Morita
Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LHP) is a relatively rare disease characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the pituitary gland, resulting in pituitary dysfunction. LHP is generally responsive to corticosteroid therapy, but cases with recurrence require clinicians to select second-line therapy. We report here the case of a 58-year-old patient with LHP who developed panhypopituitarism and bitemporal hemianopia. He responded to prednisolone 40 mg/day but relapsed during tapering. The prednisolone dose was increased again and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was added...
January 6, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299820/malignant-transformation-in-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-pituitary-carcinoma
#20
REVIEW
Nèle Lenders, Ann McCormack
Non-functioning pituitary carcinomas (NFPC) are defined as tumours of adenophyseal origin with craniospinal or systemic dissemination, with the absence of a hormonal hypersecretion syndrome. These are a histologically heterogenous group of tumours, comprising gonadotroph, null cell, "silent" tumours of corticotroph, somatotroph or lactotroph cell lineages as well as plurihormonal Pit-1 tumours. NFPC are exceedingly rare, and hence few cases have been described. This review has identified 38 patients with NFPC reported in the literature...
January 3, 2018: Pituitary
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