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Pituitary disease

Stephan Petersenn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Giulio Innamorati, Thomas M Wilkie, Havish S Kantheti, Maria Teresa Valenti, Luca Dalle Carbonare, Luca Giacomello, Marco Parenti, Davide Melisi, Claudio Bassi
BACKGROUND: Mutations activating the α subunit of heterotrimeric Gs protein are associated with a number of highly specific pathological molecular phenotypes. One of the best characterized is the McCune Albright syndrome. The disease presents with an increased incidence of neoplasias in specific tissues. MAIN BODY: A similar repertoire of neoplasms can develop whether mutations occur spontaneously in somatic tissues during fetal development or after birth. Glands are the most "permissive" tissues, recently found to include the entire gastrointestinal tract...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Lea Ann Matura, Susan Malone, Rosario Jaime-Lara, Barbara Riegel
Fatigue, a commonly reported symptom, is defined as an overwhelming, debilitating, and sustained sense of exhaustion that decreases the ability to function and carry out daily activities. To date, cancer researchers have been in the forefront in investigating the possible biological mechanisms of fatigue, identifying inflammation, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and activation of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe fatigue and what is known about the biological mechanisms described in cancer in five chronic, noninfectious illnesses: heart failure, multiple sclerosis, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
John Russell, Emily Lodge, Cynthia Andoniadou
<br>As a central regulator of major physiological processes, the pituitary gland is a highly dynamic organ, capable of responding to hormonal demand and hypothalamic influence, through adapting secretion as well as remodelling cell numbers among its seven populations of differentiated cells. Stem cells of the pituitary have been shown to actively generate new cells during postnatal development but remain mostly quiescent during adulthood, where they persist as a long-lived population. Despite a significant body of research characterising attributes of anterior pituitary stem cells, the regulation of this population is poorly understood...
March 14, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Selin Elmaoğulları, Zeyra Aycan
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major gynecologic complaint of adolescents admitting to hospital. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is the most common clinical presentation of AUB. Anovulatory cycles owing to immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the leading etiology of HMB and there is an accompanying bleeding disorder in almost %20 of patients with HMB. Additionally, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are possible causes of AUB...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Dimitrios Askitis, Damianos Tsitlakidis, Nicolle Müller, Albrecht Waschke, Gunter Wolf, Ulrich Alfons Müller, Christof Kloos
INTRODUCTION: We retrospectively evaluated all patients with pituitary tumours treated in our department from 1/1/1997 to 01/11/2014. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifteen patients (124 females, 91 males, mean age 50.9 years) were treated because of pituitary tumours. All patients underwent basal hormonal analysis and when required dynamic testing in order to check for hormonal activity. Pituitary masses were divided into groups concerning their hormonal status and were further classified according to gender, age at diagnosis, tumour size, and the development of postoperative pituitary insufficiency when neurosurgical intervention was conducted...
March 12, 2018: Endocrine
Verica Lj Milošević, Walter B Severs, Nataša M Ristić, Milica N Manojlović-Stojanoski, Florina V Popovska-Perčinić, Branka T Šošić-Jurjević, Lazo B Pendovski, Svetlana L Trifunović, Marko Š Miler, Vladimir Z Ajdžanović
Genistein (G) and related soy phytoestrogens have been studied for potential usefulness in different chronic diseases, and may ameliorate signs of aging. They have a profound influence on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study utilized the rat model of mild andropause to thoroughly evaluate the effects of G and soy extract on the adrenal gland and related blood hormones. Adult male rats were orchidectomized (Orx) or sham operated (SO). Orx rats received daily subcutaneous injections for 3 weeks of solvent, or G (Orx+G, 30 mg/kg), or commercial soy extract (Orx+Soy, 30 mg/kg)...
March 12, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
N Cabezas-Llobet, L Vidal-Sancho, M Masana, A Fournier, J Alberch, D Vaudry, X Xifró
Deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity result in cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease (HD). Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that exerts neuroprotective actions, mainly through the PAC1 receptor. However, the role of PACAP in cognition is poorly understood, and no data exists in the context of Huntington's disease (HD). Here, we investigated the ability of PACAP receptor stimulation to enhance memory development in HD. First, we observed a hippocampal decline of all three PACAP receptor expressions, i...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Fumihiko Nishimura, Young-Su Park, Yasushi Motoyama, Ichiro Nakagawa, Shuichi Yamada, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: Xanthomatous pituitary diseases rarely occur in childhood. We report a rare pediatric case of a xanthogranuloma that developed in the sellar region resulting in visual disturbance that was successfully treated by endoscopic endonasal surgery. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: A 13-year-old boy came to us with a headache and visual disturbance that had occurred 1 month prior. Clinical examination findings showed that he was alert with signs of bitemporal hemianopsia, an endocrinological examination showed partial hypopituitarism, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cystic mass in the sellar turcica compressing the optic apparatus...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
N J C Stapelberg, R Pratt, D L Neumann, D H K Shum, S Brandis, V Muthukkumarasamy, B Stantic, M Blumenstein, J P Headrick
BACKGROUND: Biological pathways underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) can be viewed as systems biology networks. The psycho-immune-neuroendocrine (PINE) network comprises central nervous, immune, endocrine and autonomic systems, integrating biological mechanisms of MDD. Such networks exhibit recurrent motifs with specific functions, including positive and negative feedback loops, and are subject to critical transitions, influenced by feedback loop transitions (FLTs). AIMS: We aim to identify critical feedback loops and their FLTs, as well sentinel network nodes (SNNs), key network nodes that drive FLTs, within the PINE network...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Shanshan Shao, Zhenyu Yao, Jiayu Lu, Yongfeng Song, Zhao He, Chunxiao Yu, Xiaoming Zhou, Lifang Zhao, Jiajun Zhao, Ling Gao
Increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of it and expanded the scope of research in this field. Women are more resistant to NAFLD than men despite equal exposure to major risk factors, such as obesity or hyperlipidemia. Female resistance is hormone-dependent, as evidenced by the sharp increase in NAFLD incidence in post-menopausal women who do not take hormone replacement therapy. Here, we found that the estrogen-responsive pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), through specific PRL receptor (PRLR), down-regulates hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
R J T Mocking, J Assies, H G Ruhé, A H Schene
Continuous research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and schizophrenia, suggests an important role for metabolism. This narrative review will provide an up-to-date summary of how metabolism is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of these psychiatric disorders. We will focus on (I) the important role of fatty acids in these metabolic alterations, (II) whether fatty acid alterations represent epiphenomena or risk factors, and (III) similarities and dissociations in fatty acid alterations between different psychiatric disorders...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Thierry Brue, Vincent Amodru, Frédéric Castinetti
With fewer than 200 reported cases, Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In normal pregnancies, misleading signs may be observed such as striae or hypokalemia, while plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol may rise up to 2-3-fold. While the dexamethasone suppression test is difficult to use, reference values for salivary cortisol appear valid. The predominant cause is adrenal adenoma (sometimes without decreased ACTH), rather than Cushing's disease. There are considerable imaging pitfalls in Cushing's disease...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Ilonka Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Johannes Kohlmann, Bernadette Kleist, Ursula Hirschfelder, Rolf Buslei, Michael Buchfelder, Sonja Siegel
PURPOSE: Oro-dental pathologies (ODP) such as enlargement of the tongue, mandibular prognathism, and spaced teeth are characteristic features of acromegaly. Their frequency of occurrence during the course of the disease is largely unresolved. Purpose of this study was to assess ODP and oro-dental treatments in patients with acromegaly with regard to the length of the diagnostic process, tumor histology, and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Single-center retrospective survey study using questionnaires on dental symptoms, diagnostic process, and treatment in patients with acromegaly operated on a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma...
March 8, 2018: Endocrine
Natalie E Parks, Gaurav Goyal, Ronald S Go, Jay Mandrekar, W Oliver Tobin
Background: We describe the neuroradiologic features of a cohort of patients with Erdheim-Chester disease. Methods: We assessed patients at Mayo Clinic Rochester between January 1, 1990, and July 31, 2016, with pathologically confirmed Erdheim-Chester disease (n = 53). Results: Neuroimaging, including head CT (n = 17), brain MRI (n = 39), orbital MRI (n = 15), and spine MRI (n = 16), was available for 42 participants. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range 46-66) with higher male prevalence (33:20)...
February 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Mikkel Andreassen, Anders Juul, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Niels Joergensen
Gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)) are released from the pituitary gland and stimulate Leydig cells to produce testosterone and initiates spermatogenesis. Little is known about how and when the deterioration of semen quality occurs in patients with adult onset gonadotropin insufficiency Design and methods: A retrospective study comprising 20 testosterone deficient men (median age 29 years) with acquired pituitary disease, who delivered semen for cryopreservation before initiation of testosterone therapy...
March 7, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Jiaqi Li, Jianwei Li, Shu Jiang, Ruichao Yu, Yerong Yu
RATIONALE: Thyrotropin-secreting adenoma (TSHoma) is rare, diagnosis and treatment are often delayed if the condition coexists with Hashimoto thyroiditis. The enlarged pituitary adenoma may eventually induce panhypopituitarism, infertility, or the compression of optic nerves and optic chiasma. PATIENT CONCERNS: This patient was a 36-year-old man who had been referred to the pituitary disease multidisciplinary team (MDT) of the West China Hospital, due to infertility...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
(no author information available yet)
Pituitary abscess (PA) is a rare intrasellar infectious disease presented in less than one percent of all cases of pituitary disease.We reported a case of a 58-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) exhibited with headaches, nasal discharge, anosmia, diabetes insipidus and hypopituitarism due to PA, she was diagnosed based on clinical presentations, endocrine examination and MRI image features. She was treated with nasal wash and antibiotic therapy without surgical intervention. She has received hormone replacement therapy for one year and her condition has gradually become stabilized...
February 5, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Y Chen, Z H Liu, Z H Lin, X Z Shi
The eye is a vital sense organ related to vision, conveying the underlying physical and mental state of well-being of an individual. Eye signs are often associated with endocrinal disorders such as exophthalmos in thyro-toxicosis. However, a thorough eye evaluation may lead to the identification of the early features that help in the diagnosis of various endocrine disorders. This is of vital importance especially in the central nervous system lesions. This is observed more in cases of pituitary mass lesions, which often present with functional hormonal alterations rather than visual symptoms...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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