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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239924/cannabinoids-as-gastrointestinal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#1
REVIEW
A Fabisiak, J Fichna
In this mini-review, we focus on the potential of the endocannabinoid system as a target for novel therapies to treat gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. We discuss the organization of the endocannabinoid signaling and present possible pharmacological sites in the endocannabinoid system. We also refer to recent clinical findings in the field. Finally, we point at the potential use of cannabinoids at low, non-psychoactive doses to counteract non-inflammatory pathological events in the GI tract, like chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, as evidenced by Abalo et al...
March 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239898/early-signal-of-diverted-use-of-tropicamide-eye-drops-in-france
#2
Camille Ponté, Christian Pi, Aurore Palmaro, Emilie Jouanjus, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
BACKGROUND: Tropicamide is a mydriatic drug used as eye-drops for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. From 2013, a diverted use by intravenous route has been suspected in Eastern Europe in opioids users. To recent date, no signal of a misuse has been identified in France. PURPOSE: To investigate an early signal of a diverted use of tropicamide eye drops and to collect information regarding motives of misusing and tropicamide-induced effects. METHODS: Information was obtained at 1/ regional level (Midi-Pyrénées area): reimbursement data and pharmacists' reports on suspicious requests, 2/ national level: reimbursement data and prescriptions suggesting possible abuse from the OSIAP (Ordonnances Suspectes, Indicateur d'Abus Possible) survey and 3/ international level: VigiBase® reports and Web sources...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239897/population-pharmacokinetics-of-rituximab-in-patients-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-association-with-clinical-outcome
#3
S Rozman, I Grabnar, S Novaković, A Mrhar, B J Novaković
AIMS: Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies suggest that there is a room for improvement in clinical use of rituximab through more individualized treatment. The objective of this study was to characterize rituximab PK in 29 newly diagnosed patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and methylprednisolone every three weeks. We also evaluated the association of rituximab PK with clinical outcome. METHODS: Rituximab serum levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and evaluated by a population PK analysis applying non-linear mixed effects modelling...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239770/toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-a-child-with-lupus-associated-pancreatitis
#4
REVIEW
Stevic Marija, Budic Ivana, Ristic Nina, Nenadic Dragan, Bokun Zlatko, Jovanovic Branislav, Pejanovic Jelena, Simic Dusica
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening dermatological conditions that are characterized by mucosal erosions, epidermal detachments and erosions. The most common causes of SJS and TEN are drugs; other causes such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), vaccinations and infections have been rarely implicated. We present the case of a 14-year-old female patient with acute pancreatitis as an initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, complicated by the toxic epidermal necrolysis with a fatal outcome...
February 26, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239601/public-versus-private-drug-insurance-and-outcomes-of-patients-requiring-biologic-therapies-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Amir Rumman, Roberto Candia, Justina J Sam, Kenneth Croitoru, Mark S Silverberg, A Hillary Steinhart, Geoffrey C Nguyen
Background. Antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is a highly effective but costly treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of IBD patients who were prescribed anti-TNF therapy (2007-2014) in Ontario. We assessed if the insurance type was a predictor of timely access to anti-TNF therapy and nonroutine health utilization (emergency department visits and hospitalizations). Results. There were 268 patients with IBD who were prescribed anti-TNF therapy...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239497/predictive-factors-for-a-long-hospital-stay-in-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#6
Wasana Ko-Iam, Trichak Sandhu, Sahattaya Paiboonworachat, Paisal Pongchairerks, Anon Chotirosniramit, Narain Chotirosniramit, Kamtone Chandacham, Tidarat Jirapongcharoenlap, Sunhawit Junrungsee
Background. Although the advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over open cholecystectomy are immediately obvious and appreciated, several patients need a postoperative hospital stay of more than 24 hours. Thus, the predictive factors for this longer stay need to be investigated. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of a long hospital stay after LC. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study with 500 successful elective LC patients being included in the analysis. Short hospital stay was defined as being discharged within 24 hours after the operation, whereas long hospital stay was defined as the need for a stay of more than 24 hours after the operation...
2017: International Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239323/metronidazole-induced-encephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-crohn-s-disease
#7
Jihye Kim, Jaeyoung Chun, Jae Yong Park, Seung Wook Hong, Joo Young Lee, Jin Woo Kang, Seongjun Hwang, Sang-Bae Ko, Jong Pil Im, Joo Sung Kim
Metronidazole is a widely used antibiotic for the treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy (MIEP) is a rare but potentially reversible disease. The mechanism of MIEP remains unclear, and differences in the neurotoxic effects of oral versus intravenous (IV) metronidazole administration have not yet been determined. We report the case of a Crohn's disease (CD) patient who experienced encephalopathy immediately after a single IV dose of metronidazole following long-term exposure to the oral form of the drug...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238946/involvement-of-pregnane-x-receptor-in-the-suppression-of-carboxylesterases-by-metformin-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-mediated-by-the-activation-of-ampk-and-jnk-signaling-pathway
#8
Enfang Shan, Zhu Zhu, Shuangcheng He, Dongbao Chu, Dinghao Ge, Yunran Zhan, Wei Liu, Jian Yang, Jing Xiong
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a complex metabolic disorder requiring polypharmacy treatment in clinic, with metformin being widely used antihyperglycemic drug. However, the mechanisms of metformin as a perpetrator inducing potential drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions are scarcely known to date. Carboxylesterases (CESs) are major hydrolytic enzymes highly expressed in the liver, including mouse carboxylesterase 1d (Ces1d) and Ces1e. In the present study, experiments are designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of metformin on Ces1d and Ces1e in vivo and in vitro...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238916/antiresorptive-and-anti-angiogenetic-octacalcium-phosphate-functionalized-with-bisphosphonates-an-in-vitro-tri-culture-study
#9
Lucia Forte, Paola Torricelli, Elisa Boanini, Massimo Gazzano, Milena Fini, Adriana Bigi
: Development of new materials for the local administration of bisphosphonates (BPs) is aimed to avoid the negative side effects of prolonged systemic use of these potent drugs. In this work, we synthesized octacalcium phosphate (OCP) in the presence of two potent BPs and obtained a single crystalline phase up to a zoledronate and alendronate content of 3.5 wt% and 5.2 wt%, respectively. Both BPs provoke minor structural modifications and a reduction of the crystal dimensions of OCP, which suggests a preferential interaction of the BPs with the structure of the calcium phosphate...
February 23, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238870/clinical-considerations-for-optimal-use-of-the-polymyxins-a-focus-on-agent-selection-and-dosing
#10
REVIEW
Jason Pogue, Keith Kaye
Polymyxins have remained the drug of choice for treatment due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Unfortunately, the utility of these agents has been limited by a lack of pharmacokinetic understanding, a high toxicity rate, and an extremely narrow therapeutic index. Significant advancements have been achieved in the understanding of the polymyxins over the past decade, and have led to the recognition of several differences between available intravenous formulations. The purpose of this review is to discuss the implications of these differences, assess comparative efficacy and safety of the polymyxins, and provide recommendations for polymyxin dosing and selection...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238791/selol-an-organic-selenium-donor-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-reaction-in-the-rat-brain
#11
Agnieszka Dominiak, Anna Wilkaniec, Henryk Jęśko, Grzegorz A Czapski, Anna M Lenkiewicz, Eliza Kurek, Piotr Wroczyński, Agata Adamczyk
Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are key intertwined pathological factors in many neurological, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disorders as well as autism. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of Selol, an organic selenium donor, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation in rat brain. The results demonstrated that the peripheral administration of LPS in a dose of 100 μg/kg b.w. evoked typical pathological reaction known as systemic inflammatory response...
February 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238767/evaluation-of-the-cart-peptide-expression-in-morphine-sensitization-in-male-rats
#12
Atefeh Bakhtazad, Nasim Vousooghi, Behzad Garmabi, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast
The importance of Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in reinforcing effects of addictive drugs specially alcohol and psychostimulants has been stablished. Involvement of CART peptide in rewarding effects of opioids in brain has recently been reported. Here we have studied the expression of CART mRNA and peptide in the reward pathway in morphine-induced sensitization phenomenon and also evaluated the peptide level fluctuations in CSF and plasma. Male Wistar rats received 7-day morphine injection (20mg/kg) and then after a 7-day washout period, a challenge dose of 10mg/kg morphine was administered and locomotor activity and oral stereotypical behaviors were recorded...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238621/psychiatric-and-behavioral-side-effects-of-anti-epileptic-drugs-in-adolescents-and-children-with-epilepsy
#13
B Chen, K Detyniecki, H Choi, L Hirsch, A Katz, A Legge, R Wong, A Jiang, R Buchsbaum, P Farooque
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to compare the psychiatric and behavioral side effect (PBSE) profiles of both older and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in children and adolescent patients with epilepsy. METHOD: We used logistic regression analysis to test the correlation between 83 non-AED/patient related potential predictor variables and the rate of PBSE. We then compared for each AED the rate of PBSEs and the rate of PBSEs that led to intolerability (IPBSE) while controlling for non-AED predictors of PBSEs...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238158/acute-kidney-injury-during-a-pediatric-sickle-cell-vaso-occlusive-pain-crisis
#14
Sujatha Baddam, Inmaculada Aban, Lee Hilliard, Thomas Howard, David Askenazi, Jeffrey D Lebensburger
BACKGROUND: Patients who develop sickle cell disease (SCD) nephropathy are at a high risk for mortality. The pathophysiology of vaso-occlusive pain crisis may contribute to acute kidney injury (AKI). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, known inducers of AKI, are used to treat pain crises. Multiple gaps exist in the knowledge about the impact of AKI in SCD. METHODS: We conducted a 2-year retrospective review of AKI events in patients admitted for vaso-occlusive crisis...
February 25, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238078/phase-i-study-of-pazopanib-plus-th-302-in-advanced-solid-tumors
#15
Richard F Riedel, Kellen L Meadows, Paula H Lee, Michael A Morse, Hope E Uronis, Gerard C Blobe, Daniel J George, Jeffrey Crawford, Donna Niedzwiecki, Christel N Rushing, Christy C Arrowood, Herbert I Hurwitz
PURPOSE: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase II dose (RPTD), and assess safety and tolerability for the combination of pazopanib plus TH-302, an investigational hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP), in adult patients with advanced solid tumors. METHODS: This was an open-label, non-randomized, single-center, phase I trial consisting 2 stages. Stage 1 was a standard "3 + 3" dose escalation design to determine safety and the RPTD for TH-302 plus pazopanib combination...
February 25, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237943/kinome-profiling-identifies-druggable-targets-for-novel-hcmv-antivirals
#16
Kyle C Arend, Erik M Lenarcic, Heather A Vincent, Naim Rashid, Eric Lazear, Ian M MacDonald, Thomas S K Gilbert, Michael P East, Laura E Herring, Gary L Johnson, Lee Graves, Nathaniel J Moorman
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a significant cause of disease in immunecompromised adults and immune naive newborns. No vaccine exists to prevent HCMV infection, and current antiviral therapies have toxic side effects that limit the duration and intensity of their use. There is thus an urgent need for new strategies to treat HCMV infection. Repurposing existing drugs as antivirals is an attractive approach to limit the time and cost of new antiviral drug development. Virus-induced changes in infected cells are often driven by changes in cellular kinase activity, which led us to hypothesize that defining the complement of kinases (the kinome), whose abundance or expression is altered during infection would identify existing kinase inhibitors that could be repurposed as new antivirals...
February 25, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237807/effects-of-paclitaxel-on-the-development-of-neuropathy-and-affective-behaviors-in-the-mouse
#17
Wisam Toma, S Lauren Kyte, Deniz Bagdas, Yasmin Alkhlaif, Shakir D Alsharari, Aron H Lichtman, Zhi-Jian Chen, Egidio Del Fabbro, John W Bigbee, David A Gewirtz, M Imad Damaj
Paclitaxel, one of the most commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, effectively extends the progression-free survival of breast, lung, and ovarian cancer patients. However, paclitaxel and other chemotherapy drugs elicit peripheral nerve fiber dysfunction or degeneration that leads to peripheral neuropathy in a large proportion of cancer patients. Patients receiving chemotherapy also often experience changes in mood, including anxiety and depression. These somatic and affective disorders represent major dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy...
February 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237804/s-adenosyl-methionine-sam-attenuates-the-development-of-tolerance-to-analgesic-activity-of-morphine-in-rats
#18
Jatinder Katyal, Hemant Kumar, Dinesh Joshi, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
BACKGROUND: Development of tolerance to analgesic effect, on chronic administration of morphine, limits its clinical usefulness in pain management. S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) used for arthritis and approved as a supplement in many countries including United States was evaluated for reducing morphine tolerance. METHODS: Male 'Wistar' rats were used. The analgesic activity was determined using tail flick analgesiometer (Columbus Instruments, USA). Rats given morphine (7mg/kg), intraperitoneally (ip), once daily for 5days developed tolerance to analgesic effect...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237766/n-acetylcysteine-inhibits-growth-adhesion-and-biofilm-formation-of-gram-positive-skin-pathogens
#19
Daria Eroshenko, Tatyana Polyudova, Vladimir Korobov
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a non-antibiotic drug with antimicrobial properties against biofilm phenotypes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our aim was to assess the effects of NAC on the growth of Gram-positive human skin and mucous membrane pathogens in the planktonic and biofilm phases. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of NAC against Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and 14 clinical strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) ranged from 0...
February 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237619/glutamate-affects-the-production-of-epoxyeicosanoids-within-the-brain-the-up-regulation-of-brain-cyp2j-through-the-mapk-creb-signaling-pathway
#20
Mingzhou Liu, Quanfei Zhu, Jinhua Wu, Xuming Yu, Mingbai Hu, Xianfei Xie, Zheqiong Yang, Jing Yang, Yu-Qi Feng, Jiang Yue
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and chronic glutamate excitotoxicity has been thought to be involved in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the effects of glutamate at concentrations lower than the usual extrasynaptic concentrations on the production of epoxyeicosanoids mediated by brain CYP2J. Glutamate increased CYP2J2 mRNA levels in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner, while an antagonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5 receptor) attenuated the glutamate-induced increases in CYP2J2 levels by glutamate...
February 22, 2017: Toxicology
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