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Transformative learning

Marc M Triola, Richard E Hawkins, Susan E Skochelak
Medical educators are not yet taking full advantage of the publicly available clinical practice data published by federal, state, and local governments, which can be attributed to individual physicians and evaluated in the context of where they attended medical school and residency training. Understanding how graduates fare in actual practice, both in terms of the quality of the care they provide and the clinical challenges they face, can aid educators in taking an evidence-based approach to medical education...
February 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Todd C Hollon, Daniel A Orringer
IDH mutation is of central importance in the diagnosis and treatment of gliomas. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, in combination with a supervised machine-learning approach, can be used to detect metabolic alterations induced by IDH1 mutations in a fraction of the time of conventional techniques.
February 13, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Julian Maier, Adam Naber, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Real-time inference of human motor volition has great potential for the intuitive control of robotic devices. Toward this end, myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) has shown promise in the control of prosthetic limbs. Interfering noise and susceptibility to motion artifacts have hindered the use of MPR outside controlled environments, and thus represent an obstacle for clinical use. Advanced signal processing techniques have been previously proposed to improve the robustness of MPR systems. However, the investigation of such techniques have been limited to offline implementations with long time windows, which makes real-time use unattainable...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Mustafa Bayram, Çağlar Gökırmaklı
Food and engineering sciences have tended to neglect the importance of human nutrition sciences and clinical study of new molecules discovered by food engineering community, and vice versa. Yet, the value of systems thinking and use of omics technologies in food engineering are rapidly emerging. Foodomics is a new concept and practice to bring about "precision nutrition" and integrative bioengineering studies of food composition, quality, and safety, and applications to improve health of humans, animals, and other living organisms on the planet...
February 12, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Jingchi Jiang, Jing Xie, Chao Zhao, Jia Su, Yi Guan, Qiubin Yu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The application of medical knowledge strongly affects the performance of intelligent diagnosis, and method of learning the weights of medical knowledge plays a substantial role in probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The purpose of this study is to investigate a discriminative weight-learning method based on a medical knowledge network (MKN). METHODS: We propose a training model called the maximum margin medical knowledge network (M3KN), which is strictly derived for calculating the weight of medical knowledge...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Álvaro Arcos-García, Juan A Álvarez-García, Luis M Soria-Morillo
This paper presents a Deep Learning approach for traffic sign recognition systems. Several classification experiments are conducted over publicly available traffic sign datasets from Germany and Belgium using a Deep Neural Network which comprises Convolutional layers and Spatial Transformer Networks. Such trials are built to measure the impact of diverse factors with the end goal of designing a Convolutional Neural Network that can improve the state-of-the-art of traffic sign classification task. First, different adaptive and non-adaptive stochastic gradient descent optimisation algorithms such as SGD, SGD-Nesterov, RMSprop and Adam are evaluated...
January 31, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Christoffel P S Badenhorst, Uwe T Bornscheuer
Applied biocatalysis is driven by environmental and economic incentives for using enzymes in the synthesis of various pharmaceutical and industrially important chemicals. Protein engineering is used to tailor the properties of enzymes to catalyze desired chemical transformations, and some engineered enzymes now outperform the best chemocatalytic alternatives by orders of magnitude. Unfortunately, custom engineering of a robust biocatalyst is still a time-consuming process, but an understanding of how enzyme function depends on amino acid sequence will speed up the process...
February 6, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Dennis Brueckner, Rainer Kiss, Thomas Muehlbauer
BACKGROUND: A well-learned motor skill is characterized by the efficient activation of muscles that are involved in movement execution. However, it is unclear if practice-related changes in motor performance correlate with those in quantitative markers of muscle activity and if so, whether the association is different with respect to the investigated muscle (i.e., agonist and antagonist) and quantitative myoelectric parameter. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and characterized associations between practice-related changes in motor performance and muscle activity in healthy individuals...
February 8, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Carole E Johnson, Anna Marie Jilla, Jeffrey L Danhauer
The number of people over 65 years of age is increasing, and many of those individuals will have sensorineural hearing loss in addition to other chronic health conditions. Future hearing health care providers need to be sensitive to the needs of elderly patients. The purpose of this article is to describe an experiential learning curriculum used in the Doctor of Audiology program in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. The curriculum uses simulations of sensory disorders common in the elderly to transform knowledge and active experience into patient-centered, empathetic counseling skills and strategies to use with older adults with hearing loss...
February 2018: Seminars in Hearing
Arusa Lakhani, Rafat Jan, Marina Baig, Kiran Mubeen, Sadia Abbas Ali, Shahnaz Shahid, Karyn Kaufman
BACKGROUND: in 2012 the Aga Khan University in Karachi, Pakistan opened the country's first bachelor's degree program in midwifery for women who held diplomas in nursing and midwifery. The principal aims were to prepare midwives who would be competent to provide full-scope practice. For quality assurance, the programme was continuously monitored and assessed. As part of this ongoing evaluation process we sought in-depth feedback from the first graduates about their student experiences...
January 30, 2018: Midwifery
Gaofeng Pan, Limin Jiang, Jijun Tang, Fei Guo
DNA methylation is an important biochemical process, and it has a close connection with many types of cancer. Research about DNA methylation can help us to understand the regulation mechanism and epigenetic reprogramming. Therefore, it becomes very important to recognize the methylation sites in the DNA sequence. In the past several decades, many computational methods-especially machine learning methods-have been developed since the high-throughout sequencing technology became widely used in research and industry...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bridget C O'Brien
Transitions are both a blessing and a curse for learning and professional development. While transitions can afford valuable opportunities for growth, they can also burden learners in ways that stymie performance and development. In this Commentary, the author focuses on the transition to residency-a transition that many believe has tipped too far toward burden. The Commentary explores three ways of problematizing the transition to residency: as a transaction problem, as a transfer problem, and as a trajectory problem...
February 6, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Kai Simons
One of the promises of multiomic analysis was to transform the clinical diagnostics to deliver much more exact phenotyping of disease states. However, despite enormous investments, the transformation of clinical routine has not taken place. There are many reasons for this lack of success but one is the failure to deliver quantitative and reproducible data. This failure is not only impeding progress in clinical phenotyping but also in the application of omic science in systems biology. The focus in this Viewpoint will be on lipidomics but the lessons learned are generally applicable...
February 8, 2018: Proteomics
Danuta J Herzyk, Helen G Haggerty
The development of novel therapies that can harnass the immune system to eradicate cancer is an area of intensive research. Several new biopharmaceuticals that target the immune system rather than the tumor itself have recently been approved and fundamentally transformed treatment of many cancer diseases. This success has intensified the search for new targets and modalities that could be developed as even more effective therapeutic agents either as monotherapy or in combination. While great benefits of novel immunotherapies in oncology are evident, the safety of these therapies has to also be addressed as their desired pharmacology, immune activation, can lead to "exaggerated" effects and toxicity...
February 7, 2018: AAPS Journal
Marjanovic Sonja, Ghiga Ioana, Yang Miaoqing, Knack Anna
The potential of health data to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health research and development, healthcare delivery, and health systems more widely is substantial. There are many initiatives across the EU that are experimenting with ways to capture value and address the nexus of technical, legal, ethics-related, governance and data protection-related, and cultural challenges to delivering potential benefits for society and the economy. The field of health data research and policy is highly dynamic and there is a need for further reflection, thematic learning and evaluation to better understand how to create and connect receptive places, to inform future interventions and to identify transferable lessons...
January 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Brian DePasquale, Christopher J Cueva, Kanaka Rajan, G Sean Escola, L F Abbott
Trained recurrent networks are powerful tools for modeling dynamic neural computations. We present a target-based method for modifying the full connectivity matrix of a recurrent network to train it to perform tasks involving temporally complex input/output transformations. The method introduces a second network during training to provide suitable "target" dynamics useful for performing the task. Because it exploits the full recurrent connectivity, the method produces networks that perform tasks with fewer neurons and greater noise robustness than traditional least-squares (FORCE) approaches...
2018: PloS One
Debra L Madden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) announced immunotherapy as the year's top cancer advance in its "Clinical Cancer Advances 2016: ASCO's Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer." Further, ASCO again named "Immunotherapy 2.0" as the 2017 advance of the year, emphasizing the recent, rapid pace of research into new agents that harness and enhance the innate abilities of the immune system to recognize and fight cancers-and stressing that such agents have extended the lives of many patients with late-stage cancers for which there have been few treatment options...
February 7, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Didi Surian, Adam G Dunn, Liat Orenstein, Rabia Bashir, Enrico Coiera, Florence T Bourgeois
BACKGROUND: Clinical trial registries can be used to monitor the production of trial evidence and signal when systematic reviews become out of date. However, this use has been limited to date due to the extensive manual review required to search for and screen relevant trial registrations. Our aim was to evaluate a new method that could partially automate the identification of trial registrations that may be relevant for systematic review updates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 179 systematic reviews of drug interventions for type 2 diabetes, which included 537 clinical trials that had registrations in ClinicalTrials...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Karen Patterson Stevens, Mary A Nies
A generational gap exists across educational settings today. The potential and actual mismatch of learning styles and curriculum delivery suggests that the current educational models are in need of change. The advent of social media has transformed students from passive recipients of information to co-creators and engaged members of a global and information rich community. Responding proactively with social media integration through a responsive curriculum delivery system would serve to enhance student engagement and improve collaborative learning opportunities...
January 2018: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Karen T Pardue, Patricia K Young, Sara Horton-Deutsch, Judith Halstead, Catherine Pearsall
BACKGROUND: Higher education is undergoing rapid transformation requiring nurse faculty leaders to engage in risk taking. Consequently, what is known about the experience of taking risks? How do leaders decide what constitutes a risk worth taking? How do leaders who take risks tolerate failure? The purpose of this study was to explicate the leadership practices of risk taking in nurse faculty leaders. METHOD: Interpretive phenomenology was used to explore the experience of risk taking among 15 self-identified nurse faculty leaders...
February 6, 2018: Nursing Forum
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