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Quaternary Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778035/formation-of-contact-active-antimicrobial-surfaces-by-covalent-grafting-of-quaternary-ammonium-compounds
#1
REVIEW
Poverenov Elena, Klein Miri
Different synthetic strategies for the formation of contact active antimicrobial materials utilizing covalent linkage of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were reviewed. There is a demand to find methods that will prevent bacterial fouling without the release of antimicrobial agents, because biocides cause environment pollution and promote the development of bacteria resistance mechanisms. The contact active antimicrobial surfaces may provide a useful tool for this purpose. The covalent surface grafting of QACs seems to be a feasible and promising approach for the formation of safe and effective antimicrobial materials that could be utilized for medical devices, food industry, water treatment systems and other applications...
May 16, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773605/using-patient-whiteboards-to-engage-families-in-harm-prevention-and-care-planning-a-quality-improvement-study
#2
Katherine Nowacki, Tondeleyo Gonzalez, Jennifer Mehnert, Amy Jacquemard, Amy Tyler
OBJECTIVES: Whiteboards are a valuable tool used to facilitate communication between families and the care team, but they were underused in our institution. Our aim was to increase families' knowledge of their child's plan of care, safety plan, and medical care team names by increasing the use of patient whiteboards with inpatient populations at a freestanding quaternary care children's hospital. METHODS: With this quality improvement study, we redesigned the whiteboard template to address the following 4 main barriers to use: (1) not having enough space to explain concepts to families, (2) having too much information to complete, (3) unclear roles of who completes the whiteboard, and (4) forgetting to update the whiteboard...
May 17, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749561/use-of-carbon-steel-ball-bearings-to-determine-the-effect-of-biocides-and-corrosion-inhibitors-on-microbiologically-influenced-corrosion-under-flow-conditions
#3
Tijan Pinnock, Johanna Voordouw, Gerrit Voordouw
A consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria consisting mostly of Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfocurvus from oil field produced water was cultivated in a chemostat, receiving medium with 20 mM formate and 10 mM sulfate as the energy and 1 mM acetate as the carbon source. The chemostat effluent, containing 5 mM sulfide and 0.5 mM of residual acetate, was passed through 1-ml syringe columns with 60 carbon steel ball bearings (BBs) of 53.6 ± 0.1 mg each at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/h per column...
May 10, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732965/otilonium-bromide-a-drug-with-a-complex-mechanism-of-action
#4
Stefano Evangelista, Chiara Traini, Maria Giuliana Vannucchi
Otilonium bromide (OB) is a drug with spasmolytic activity belonging to quaternary ammonium derivatives and extensively used to treat patients affected by the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thanks to its peculiar pharmacokinetic, OB concentrates in the large bowel wall and acts locally. From the pharmacodynamics point of view, OB is able to inhibit i) the main patterns of human colonic motility in vitro; ii) the contractility caused by excitatory motor neurons stimulation (pre-synaptic action) and iii) the contractility caused by the direct action of excitatory neurotransmitters (post-synaptic action)...
May 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724549/the-antibacterial-cytotoxic-and-flexural-properties-of-a-composite-resin-containing-a-quaternary-ammonium-monomer
#5
Qiting Huang, Shuheng Huang, Xiaoxu Liang, Wei Qin, Fang Liu, Zhengmei Lin, Jingwei He
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The use of composite resin to restore teeth has increased substantially during the last decades. However, secondary caries and the fracture of restorations are the leading reasons for clinical restoration failure. Mechanically strong composite resins with caries-inhibition capabilities are needed. Although antibacterial dimethacrylate quaternary ammonium monomers have been synthesized, composite resin containing dimethacrylate quaternary ammonium monomers and glass fillers has rarely been reported...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700011/an-investigation-of-drug-drug-interaction-alert-overrides-at-a-pediatric-hospital
#6
Kate Humphrey, Maria Jorina, Marvin Harper, Brenda Dodson, Seung-Yeon Kim, Al Ozonoff
OBJECTIVES: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can result in patient harm. DDI alerts are intended to help prevent harm; when the majority of alerts presented to providers are being overridden, their value is diminished. Our objective was to evaluate the overall rates of DDI alert overrides and how rates varied by specialty, clinician type, and patient complexity. METHODS: A retrospective study of DDI alert overrides that occurred during 2012 and 2013 within the inpatient setting described at the medication-, hospital-, provider-, and patient encounter-specific levels was performed at an urban, quaternary-care, pediatric hospital...
May 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677063/the-anesthesia-perioperative-call-for-help-experience-at-a-quaternary-pediatric-medical-center-analysis-of-67-564-anesthesia-encounters
#7
Bistra G Vlassakova, Sean M Sinnott, Nissa Askins, Matthew X Callahan, Izabela C Leahy, David Zurakowski, Paul R Hickey, Joseph P Cravero
BACKGROUND: During the past several decades, anesthesia has become increasingly safe. Truly major adverse events are rare, and anesthesia quality researchers have instituted programs to evaluate "near miss" or less critical adverse events to evaluate the safety of anesthesia delivery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate calls for emergency help in our institution as a surrogate for pending critical events. We hypothesized that calls would be more common in patients with high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, history of prematurity, and children with recent respiratory illness compared to those without these characteristics...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655608/rational-design-of-pyridyl-derivatives-of-vanillin-for-the-treatment-of-sickle-cell-disease
#8
Piyusha P Pagare, Mohini S Ghatge, Faik N Musayev, Tanvi M Deshpande, Qiukan Chen, Courtney Braxton, Solyi Kim, Jürgen Venitz, Yan Zhang, Osheiza Abdulmalik, Martin K Safo
Hypoxia-induced polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) is the principal phenomenon that underlays the pathophysiology and morbidity associated with sickle cell disease (SCD). Opportunely, as an allosteric protein, hemoglobin (Hb) serves as a convenient and potentially critical druggable target. Consequently, molecules that prevent Hb S polymerization (Hb modifiers), and the associated erythrocyte sickling have been investigated-and retain significant interest-as a viable therapeutic strategy for SCD. This group of molecules, including aromatic aldehydes, form high oxygen affinity Schiff-base adducts with Hb S, which are resistant to polymerization...
April 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608170/multiplexed-isothermal-amplification-based-diagnostic-platform-to-detect-zika-chikungunya-and-dengue-1
#9
Ozlem Yaren, Barry W Alto, Kevin M Bradley, Patricia Moussatche, Lyudmyla Glushakova, Steven A Benner
Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, causing diseases with similar patient symptoms. However, they have different downstream patient-to-patient transmission potentials, and require very different patient treatments. Thus, recent Zika outbreaks make it urgent to develop tools that rapidly discriminate these viruses in patients and trapped mosquitoes, to select the correct patient treatment, and to understand and manage their epidemiology in real time. Unfortunately, current diagnostic tests, including those receiving 2016 emergency use authorizations and fast-track status, detect viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which requires instrumentation, trained users, and considerable sample preparation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584942/predominated-thermodynamically-controlled-reactions-for-suppressing-cross-nucleations-in-formation-of-multinary-substituted-tetrahedrite-nanocrystals
#10
Suman Bera, Anirban Dutta, Sankararao Mutyala, Dibyendu Ghosh, Narayan Pradhan
Group I-II-V-VI semiconducting Cu12-xMxSb4S13 (M = ZnII, CdII, MnII and CuII) substituted tetrahedrites nanostructures remains a new class of multinary materials which have not been widely explored yet. Having different ions, the formation process of these nanostructures has always the possibility of formation of cross nucleations. Minimizing the reaction time, herein, a predominantly thermodynamically control approach is reported which decoupled the quaternary nucleations with their possible cross nucleations...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584643/antibacterial-activity-of-orthodontic-cement-containing-quaternary-ammonium-polyethylenimine-nanoparticles-adjacent-to-orthodontic-brackets
#11
Eldad Sharon, Revital Sharabi, Adi Eden, Asher Zabrovsky, Gilad Ben-Gal, Esi Sharon, Yoav Pietrokovski, Yael Houri-Haddad, Nurit Beyth
Enamel demineralization is a common problem found in patients using orthodontic devices, such as orthodontic braces. It was found that Streptoccocus mutans growth increases adjacent to orthodontic devices, which may result in caries development. Incorporated antibacterial quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI) nanoparticles were previously shown to be highly efficacious against various bacteria. Combining antibacterial materials in orthodontic cement may be advantageous to prevent bacterial outgrowth adjacent to orthodontic brackets...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504081/analysis-of-a-variety-of-inorganic-and-organic-additives-in-food-products-by-ion-pairing-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#12
Anton Kaufmann, Mirjam Widmer, Kathryn Maden, Patrick Butcher, Stephan Walker
A reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatographic method was developed for the detection and quantification of inorganic and organic anionic food additives. A single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometer (orbitrap ion trap, Orbitrap) was used to detect the accurate masses of the unfragmented analyte ions. The developed ion-pairing chromatography method was based on a dibutylamine/hexafluoro-2-propanol buffer. Dibutylamine can be charged to serve as a chromatographic ion-pairing agent. This ensures sufficient retention of inorganic and organic anions...
March 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492217/cyclic-trans-phosphorylation-in-a-homodimer-as-the-predominant-mechanism-of-egfrviii-action-and-regulation
#13
Wojciech Stec, Kamila Rosiak, Cezary Treda, Maciej Smolarz, Joanna Peciak, Marcin Pacholczyk, Anna Lenart, Dawid Grzela, Ewelina Stoczynska-Fidelus, Piotr Rieske
Despite intensive research no therapies targeted against the oncogenic EGFRvIII are present in the clinic. One of the reasons is the elusive nature of the molecular structure and activity of the truncated receptor. The recent publications indicate the EGF-bound wild-type EGFR to trans -phosphorylate the EGFRvIII initiating aberrant signaling cascade. The elevated stability of the mutant receptor contributes towards oncogenic potential, preventing termination of signaling by receptor degradation. Here, we show that inhibition of phosphatases leads to a marked increase in phosphorylation of wild-type EGFR and EGFRvIII, indicating that both undergo cyclic rounds of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on all investigated tyrosine residues, including Tyr1045...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436821/ph-sensitive-compounds-for-selective-inhibition-of-acid-producing-bacteria
#14
Yin Yang, Vytas Reipa, Guo Liu, Yuan Meng, Xiaohong Wang, Kenneth P Mineart, Vivek M Prabhu, Wenyuan Shi, Nancy J Lin, Xuesong He, Jirun Sun
Stimuli-responsive compounds that provide on-site, controlled antimicrobial activity promise an effective approach to prevent infections, reducing the need for systemic antibiotics. We present a novel pH-sensitive quaternary pyridinium salt (QPS), whose antibacterial activity is boosted by low pH and controlled by adjusting the pH between 4 and 8. Particularly, this compound selectively inhibits growth of acid-producing bacteria within a multispecies community. The successful antibacterial action of this QPS maintains the environmental pH above 5...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384397/quaternary-prevention-reviewing-the-concept
#15
Carlos Martins, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Bruno Heleno, John Brodersen
BACKGROUND: According to the Wonca International Dictionary for General/Family Practice Quaternary Prevention is defined as: 'Action taken to identify patient at risk of overmedicalization, to protect him from new medical invasion, and to suggest to him interventions, which are ethically acceptable.' The concept of quaternary prevention was initially proposed by Marc Jamoulle and the targets were mainly patients with illness but without a disease. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this opinion article is to open the debate around a new possible definition and a new conceptual model of quaternary prevention based on the belief that quaternary prevention should be present in physicians' minds for every intervention they suggest to a patient...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382819/rassf1a-uncouples-wnt-from-hippo-signalling-and-promotes-yap-mediated-differentiation-via-p73
#16
Angelos Papaspyropoulos, Leanne Bradley, Asmita Thapa, Chuen Yan Leung, Konstantinos Toskas, Delia Koennig, Dafni-Eleftheria Pefani, Cinzia Raso, Claudia Grou, Garth Hamilton, Nikola Vlahov, Anna Grawenda, Syed Haider, Jagat Chauhan, Ludovico Buti, Alexander Kanapin, Xin Lu, Francesca Buffa, Grigory Dianov, Alex von Kriegsheim, David Matallanas, Anastasia Samsonova, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz, Eric O'Neill
Transition from pluripotency to differentiation is a pivotal yet poorly understood developmental step. Here, we show that the tumour suppressor RASSF1A is a key player driving the early specification of cell fate. RASSF1A acts as a natural barrier to stem cell self-renewal and iPS cell generation, by switching YAP from an integral component in the β-catenin-TCF pluripotency network to a key factor that promotes differentiation. We demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of the Rassf1A promoter maintains stemness by allowing a quaternary association of YAP-TEAD and β-catenin-TCF3 complexes on the Oct4 distal enhancer...
January 30, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379207/structural-basis-for-neutralization-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-by-two-potent-therapeutic-antibodies
#17
Xiaodi Qiu, Yingfeng Lei, Pan Yang, Qiang Gao, Nan Wang, Lei Cao, Shuai Yuan, Xiaofang Huang, Yongqiang Deng, Wenyu Ma, Tianbing Ding, Fanglin Zhang, Xingan Wu, Junjie Hu, Shan-Lu Liu, Chengfeng Qin, Xiangxi Wang, Zhikai Xu, Zihe Rao
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), closely related to dengue, Zika, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, remains neglected and not well characterized 1 . JEV is the leading causative agent of encephalitis, and is responsible for thousands of deaths each year in Asia. Humoral immunity is essential for protecting against flavivirus infections and passive immunization has been demonstrated to be effective in curing disease2,3 . Here, we demonstrate that JEV-specific monoclonal antibodies, 2F2 and 2H4, block attachment of the virus to its receptor and also prevent fusion of the virus...
March 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373346/complex-surgical-infants-benefit-from-postdischarge-telemedicine-visits
#18
April Willard, Elizabeth Brown, Marjorie Masten, Marisa Brant, Nicole Pouppirt, Kevin Moran, Janet Lioy, John Chuo
BACKGROUND: Transition from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to home is challenging for caregivers of complex surgical infants. A prospective, observational cohort pilot study using telemedicine to improve transition was implemented in a quaternary level IV NICU. PURPOSE: (1) To assess, identify, and resolve patient care concerns in the immediate postdischarge period. (2) To improve caregiver knowledge and care practices. DESIGN METHODS: Caregivers of medically complex infants participated in telemedicine visits with neonatal providers within 1 week of discharge...
February 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362700/distributional-dynamics-of-a-vulnerable-species-in-response-to-past-and-future-climate-change-a-window-for-conservation-prospects
#19
Yunjun Bai, Xueping Wei, Xiaoqiang Li
Background: The ongoing change in climate is predicted to exert unprecedented effects on Earth's biodiversity at all levels of organization. Biological conservation is important to prevent biodiversity loss, especially for species facing a high risk of extinction. Understanding the past responses of species to climate change is helpful for revealing response mechanisms, which will contribute to the development of effective conservation strategies in the future. Methods: In this study, we modelled the distributional dynamics of a 'Vulnerable' species, Pseudolarix amabilis , in response to late Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and future 2080 climate change using an ecological niche model (MaxEnt)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275230/polymeric-bile-acid-sequestrants-review-of-design-in-vitro-binding-activities-and-hypocholesterolemic-effects
#20
REVIEW
Eva Heřmánková, Aleš Žák, Lenka Poláková, Radka Hobzová, Róbert Hromádka, Jakub Širc
Polymeric bile acid sequestrants (BAS) have recently attracted much attention as lipid-lowering agents. These non-absorbable materials specifically bind bile acids (BAs) in the intestine, preventing bile acid (BA) reabsorption into the blood through enterohepatic circulation. Therefore, it is important to understand the structure-property relationships between the polymer sequestrant and its ability to bind specific BAs molecules. In this review, we describe pleiotropic effects of bile acids, and we focus on BAS with various molecular architectures that result in different mechanisms of BA sequestration...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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