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Quaternary Prevention

Young S Kang, Frederick Rueggeberg, Van Ramos
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials must be cold disinfected before cast pouring to prevent cross-contamination among personnel and patients. However, disinfection may affect the ability of PVS impression materials to provide bubble-free stone surfaces because of the removal of surfactants. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the water contact angles of a PVS impression material treated with either a quaternary ammonium-based (QAB) (DisCide Ultra) or a chlorine-based (CLB) (Dispatch) disinfectant for various exposure times...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
K J Hornig, B A Burgess, N T Saklou, V Johnson, A Malmlov, D C Van Metre, P S Morley, S R Byers
BACKGROUND: Infection control is critical to providing high-quality patient care. Many veterinary teaching hospitals (VTHs) utilize footbaths or footmats at entrances and key control points throughout the facility to decrease trafficking of pathogenic microorganism on contaminated footwear. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy of 4 disinfectants used in footmats for decreasing bacterial contamination of footwear in a large animal hospital. ANIMALS: A single adult dairy cow was housed in a stall for 4 days to facilitate stall contamination with fecal material...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
John J Tanner
The radius of gyration is a fundamental structural parameter that is particularly useful for describing polymers. It has been known since Flory's seminal work in the mid-20th century that polymers show a power-law dependence, where the radius of gyration is proportional to the number of residues raised to a power. The power-law exponent has been measured experimentally for denatured proteins and derived empirically for folded monomeric proteins using crystal structures. Here, the biological assemblies in the Protein Data Bank are surveyed to derive the power-law parameters for protein oligomers having degrees of oligomerization of 2-6 and 8...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Jiaul Hoque, Padma Akkapeddi, Chandardhish Ghosh, Divakara S S M Uppu, Jayanta Haldar
Bacterial colonization and subsequent formation of biofilms onto surfaces of medical devices and implants is a major source of nosocomial infections. Most antibacterial coatings to combat infections are either metal-based or non-degradable polymer-based and hence limited by their non-degradability and unpredictable toxicity. Moreover, to combat infections effectively, the coatings are required to display simultaneous antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Herein we report biocompatible and biodegradable coatings based on organo-soluble quaternary chitin polymers which were immobilized non-covalently onto surfaces as bactericidal paint...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Valentina Bušić, Maja Katalinić, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik, Dajana Gašo-Sokač
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents (sarin, tabun VX and soman) inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC by binding to its active site while preventing neurotransmission in the cholinergic synapses. The protection and treatment of this kind of poisoning are still a challenge as we are yet to discover an antidote that would be effective in all cases of poisoning. To aid the search for more efficient antidotes, we evaluated the ability of nine pyridoxal oxime derivatives, prepared by a novel synthetic pathway, to reactivate recombinant human AChE and the related purified human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3...
September 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Harrison W VanKoten, Wendy M Dlakic, Robert Engel, Mary J Cloninger
The development of pathogenic bacteria resistant to current treatments is a major issue facing the world today. Here, the synthesis and biological activity of fourth generation poly(amidoamine) dendrimers decorated with 1-hexadecyl-azoniabicylo[2.2.2]octane (C16-DABCO), a quaternary ammonium compound known to have antibacterial activity, are described. This highly cationic dendrimer antibiotic was tested against several Gram positive and Gram negative strains of pathogenic bacteria and exhibited activity against both...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Bailiang Wang, Qingwen Xu, Zi Ye, Huihua Liu, Quankui Lin, Kaihui Nan, Yunzhen Li, Yi Wang, Lei Qi, Hao Chen
The adherence of bacteria and the formation of biofilm on implants is a serious problem that often leads to implant failure. A series of antimicrobial coatings have been constructed to resist bacterial adherence or to kill bacteria through contact with or release of antibacterial agents. The accumulation of dead bacteria facilitates further bacterial contamination and biofilm development. Herein, we have designed and constructed a novel, reversibly switchable bactericidal and antifouling surface through surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to combine thermally responsive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and bactericidal quaternary ammonium salts (2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA(+)))...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Li Huang, Fan Yu, Xiang Sun, Yan Dong, Ping-Ting Lin, Hao-Han Yu, Yu-Hong Xiao, Zhi-Guo Chai, Xiao-Dong Xing, Ji-Hua Chen
Resins with strong and long-lasting antibacterial properties are critical for the prevention of secondary dental caries. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial effect and the underlying mechanism of action of an unfilled resin incorporating 2-methacryloxylethyl hexadecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-HB) against Streptococcus mutans UA159 (S. mutans UA159). MAE-HB was added into unfilled resin at 10 mass%, and unfilled resin without MAE-HB served as the control. Bacterial growth was inhibited on 10%-MAE-HB unfilled resin compared with the control at 1 d, 7 d, 30 d, or 180 d (P < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
B Pérez-Köhler, M Fernández-Gutiérrez, G Pascual, F García-Moreno, J San Román, J M Bellón
PURPOSE: This study assesses the use of an absorbable polymer loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) as an antibacterial coating for polypropylene (PP) meshes employed in hernia repair. METHODS: The polymer N,N-dimethyl-N-benzyl-N-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) ammonium bromide was loaded with CHX (1 % w/w). Fragments (1 cm(2)) of Optilene(®) Mesh Elastic were coated either with the unloaded (POL) or CHX-loaded polymer (POL-CHX). Uncoated fragments (PP) served as controls...
September 2, 2016: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Saissan Rajendran, James May
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare findings at presentation and surgical outcomes in patients in whom abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) ruptured after endovascular repair and in patients in whom AAAs ruptured before any treatment during a defined period at a single center. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who presented to Royal Prince Alfred Hospital with ruptured AAA from September 2003 to September 2014. Medical records of each patient were reviewed to retrieve demographics, findings at presentation, and surgical outcome...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Wei He, Yi Zhang, Jiehua Li, Yunlong Gao, Feng Luo, Hong Tan, Kunjie Wang, Qiang Fu
Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends...
2016: Scientific Reports
Han Zhou, Huaibing Liu, Michael D Weir, Mark A Reynolds, Ke Zhang, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: Tooth-restoration interfaces are the weak link with secondary caries causing restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to develop an antimicrobial bonding agent with dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), and investigate the effects of quaternary amine charge density on three-dimensional (3D) biofilms on dental resin for the first time. METHODS: DMAHDM was synthesized and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose bonding agent at mass fractions of 0% (control), 2...
October 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Xiwen Liu, Jianhua Zeng, Xiaolei Chen, Wei Xie
The YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family proteins are highly conserved across all three domains of life, and most of them currently have no clearly defined biological roles. In vitro, these proteins were found to hydrolyze the enamine/imine intermediates generated from serine or threonine, and were renamed Reactive Intermediate Deaminase A (RidA). RidA was recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana, and by deaminating the toxic enamine/imine intermediates, it prevents the inactivation of many functionally important pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes in plants such as branched-chain aminotransferase BCAT (IlvE)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anh Phan, Tai Bui, Erick Acosta, Pushkala Krishnamurthy, Alberto Striolo
Steered and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were employed to study the coalescence of a sI hydrate particle and a water droplet within a hydrocarbon mixture. The size of both the hydrate particle and the water droplet is comparable to that of the aqueous core in reverse micelles. The simulations were repeated in the presence of various quaternary ammonium chloride surfactants. We investigated the effects due to different groups on the quaternary head group (e.g. methyl vs. butyl groups), as well as different hydrophobic tail lengths (e...
September 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Joshua T Swan, Carol M Ashton, Lan N Bui, Vy P Pham, Beverly A Shirkey, Jolene E Blackshear, Jimmy B Bersamin, Rubie May L Pomer, Michael L Johnson, Audrey D Magtoto, Michelle O Butler, Shirley K Tran, Leah R Sanchez, Jessica G Patel, Robert A Ochoa, Shaikh A Hai, Karen I Denison, Edward A Graviss, Nelda P Wray
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that compared with daily soap and water bathing, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bathing every other day for up to 28 days decreases the risk of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection in surgical ICU patients. DESIGN: This was a single-center, pragmatic, randomized trial. Patients and clinicians were aware of treatment-group assignment; investigators who determined outcomes were blinded...
October 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Sanjay Kalra, Arun Kumar, Yashdeep Gupta
Lipohypertrophy is an important insulin injection site reaction, which has clinically significant sequelae, including a greater risk of glycaemic variability and higher insulin dose requirement. This article describes the prevention of lipohypertrophy, using the concept of levels of prevention. It enumerates methods of primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention of lipohypertrophy. Focus on patient education, site rotation, avoidance of needle reuse, and dose titration when shifting from injection in lipohypertrophic lesions to normal subcutaneous tissue, helps minimize the development and impact of lipohypertrophy...
July 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Shinya Saijo, Anna Nagai, Saya Kinjo, Ryutaro Mashimo, Megumi Akimoto, Kenji Kizawa, Toshiki Yabe-Wada, Nobutaka Shimizu, Hidenari Takahara, Masaki Unno
Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD; EC is a post-translational modification enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of arginine in protein molecules to a citrulline residue in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In this study, we determined the structure of an active form of human PAD1 crystallized in the presence of Ca(2+) at 3.2-Å resolution. Although human PAD2 and PAD4 isozymes were previously reported to form a head-to-tail homodimer, it is still unknown whether this quaternary structure is common to other PAD isozymes...
July 31, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Anna Karlowicz, Katarzyna Wegrzyn, Andrzej Dubiel, Malgorzata Ropelewska, Igor Konieczny
Plasmids, as extrachromosomal genetic elements, need to work out strategies that promote independent replication and stable maintenance in host bacterial cells. Their maintenance depends on constant formation and dissociation of nucleoprotein complexes formed on plasmid DNA. Plasmid replication initiation proteins (Rep) form specific complexes on direct repeats (iterons) localized within the plasmid replication origin. Formation of these complexes along with a strict control of Rep protein cellular concentration, quaternary structure, and activity, is essential for plasmid maintenance...
July 2016: Plasmid
Sandhya Santharam, Lucy Hudsmith, Sara Thorne, Paul Clift, Howard Marshall, Joseph De Bono
AIMS: Ventricular arrhythmias are a major cause of mortality in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines state that implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) should be considered in patients with congenital heart disease following spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or cardiac arrest and in patients at presumed high risk. This study sought to analyse the circumstances in which ACHD patients received ICD and to assess outcomes of ICD implantation, including therapies delivered and the rate of complications...
May 26, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Atsushi Kawaguchi, Qi Liu, Sean Coquet, Yutaka Yasui, Dominic Cave
While policy changes toward early extubation in the operating room (OR) have been commonly seen in palliative surgeries in single ventricle anatomy, no systematic assessment of their impact on patient outcome has been reported. All patients aged 0-17 years admitted to a PICU in a quaternary children's hospital for post-operative management following a primary Fontan procedure between 2005 and 2011 were included. Patients for revision of Fontan or patients admitted to adult Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit were excluded...
August 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
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