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Quaternary Prevention

Anton Kaufmann, Mirjam Widmer, Kathryn Maden, Patrick Butcher, Stephan Walker
A reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatographic method was developed for the detection and quantification of inorganic and organic anionic food additives. A single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometer (orbitrap ion trap, Orbitrap) was used to detect the accurate masses of the unfragmented analyte ions. The developed ion-pairing chromatography method was based on a dibutylamine/hexafluoro-2-propanol buffer. Dibutylamine can be charged to serve as a chromatographic ion-pairing agent. This ensures sufficient retention of inorganic and organic anions...
March 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Wojciech Stec, Kamila Rosiak, Cezary Treda, Maciej Smolarz, Joanna Peciak, Marcin Pacholczyk, Anna Lenart, Dawid Grzela, Ewelina Stoczynska-Fidelus, Piotr Rieske
Despite intensive research no therapies targeted against the oncogenic EGFRvIII are present in the clinic. One of the reasons is the elusive nature of the molecular structure and activity of the truncated receptor. The recent publications indicate the EGF-bound wild-type EGFR to trans -phosphorylate the EGFRvIII initiating aberrant signaling cascade. The elevated stability of the mutant receptor contributes towards oncogenic potential, preventing termination of signaling by receptor degradation. Here, we show that inhibition of phosphatases leads to a marked increase in phosphorylation of wild-type EGFR and EGFRvIII, indicating that both undergo cyclic rounds of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on all investigated tyrosine residues, including Tyr1045...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Yin Yang, Vytas Reipa, Guo Liu, Yuan Meng, Xiaohong Wang, Kenneth P Mineart, Vivek M Prabhu, Wenyuan Shi, Nancy J Lin, Xuesong He, Jirun Sun
Stimuli-responsive compounds that provide on-site, controlled antimicrobial activity promise an effective approach to prevent infections, reducing the need for systemic antibiotics. We present one novel pH-sensitive quaternary pyridinium salt (QPS) whose antibacterial activity is boosted by low pH and controlled by adjusting the pH between 4 and 8. Particularly, this compound selectively inhibits growth of acid-producing bacteria within a multispecies community. The successful antibacterial action of this QPS maintains the environmental pH above 5...
February 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Carlos Martins, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Bruno Heleno, John Brodersen
BACKGROUND: According to the Wonca International Dictionary for General/Family Practice Quaternary Prevention is defined as: 'Action taken to identify patient at risk of overmedicalization, to protect him from new medical invasion, and to suggest to him interventions, which are ethically acceptable.' The concept of quaternary prevention was initially proposed by Marc Jamoulle and the targets were mainly patients with illness but without a disease. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this opinion article is to open the debate around a new possible definition and a new conceptual model of quaternary prevention based on the belief that quaternary prevention should be present in physicians' minds for every intervention they suggest to a patient...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
Angelos Papaspyropoulos, Leanne Bradley, Asmita Thapa, Chuen Yan Leung, Konstantinos Toskas, Delia Koennig, Dafni-Eleftheria Pefani, Cinzia Raso, Claudia Grou, Garth Hamilton, Nikola Vlahov, Anna Grawenda, Syed Haider, Jagat Chauhan, Ludovico Buti, Alexander Kanapin, Xin Lu, Francesca Buffa, Grigory Dianov, Alex von Kriegsheim, David Matallanas, Anastasia Samsonova, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz, Eric O'Neill
Transition from pluripotency to differentiation is a pivotal yet poorly understood developmental step. Here, we show that the tumour suppressor RASSF1A is a key player driving the early specification of cell fate. RASSF1A acts as a natural barrier to stem cell self-renewal and iPS cell generation, by switching YAP from an integral component in the β-catenin-TCF pluripotency network to a key factor that promotes differentiation. We demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of the Rassf1A promoter maintains stemness by allowing a quaternary association of YAP-TEAD and β-catenin-TCF3 complexes on the Oct4 distal enhancer...
January 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Xiaodi Qiu, Yingfeng Lei, Pan Yang, Qiang Gao, Nan Wang, Lei Cao, Shuai Yuan, Xiaofang Huang, Yongqiang Deng, Wenyu Ma, Tianbing Ding, Fanglin Zhang, Xingan Wu, Junjie Hu, Shan-Lu Liu, Chengfeng Qin, Xiangxi Wang, Zhikai Xu, Zihe Rao
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), closely related to dengue, Zika, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, remains neglected and not well characterized 1 . JEV is the leading causative agent of encephalitis, and is responsible for thousands of deaths each year in Asia. Humoral immunity is essential for protecting against flavivirus infections and passive immunization has been demonstrated to be effective in curing disease2,3. Here, we demonstrate that JEV-specific monoclonal antibodies, 2F2 and 2H4, block attachment of the virus to its receptor and also prevent fusion of the virus...
January 29, 2018: Nature Microbiology
April Willard, Elizabeth Brown, Marjorie Masten, Marisa Brant, Nicole Pouppirt, Kevin Moran, Janet Lioy, John Chuo
BACKGROUND: Transition from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to home is challenging for caregivers of complex surgical infants. A prospective, observational cohort pilot study using telemedicine to improve transition was implemented in a quaternary level IV NICU. PURPOSE: (1) To assess, identify, and resolve patient care concerns in the immediate postdischarge period. (2) To improve caregiver knowledge and care practices. DESIGN METHODS: Caregivers of medically complex infants participated in telemedicine visits with neonatal providers within 1 week of discharge...
February 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Yunjun Bai, Xueping Wei, Xiaoqiang Li
Background: The ongoing change in climate is predicted to exert unprecedented effects on Earth's biodiversity at all levels of organization. Biological conservation is important to prevent biodiversity loss, especially for species facing a high risk of extinction. Understanding the past responses of species to climate change is helpful for revealing response mechanisms, which will contribute to the development of effective conservation strategies in the future. Methods: In this study, we modelled the distributional dynamics of a 'Vulnerable' species, Pseudolarix amabilis, in response to late Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and future 2080 climate change using an ecological niche model (MaxEnt)...
2018: PeerJ
Eva Heřmánková, Aleš Žák, Lenka Poláková, Radka Hobzová, Róbert Hromádka, Jakub Širc
Polymeric bile acid sequestrants (BAS) have recently attracted much attention as lipid-lowering agents. These non-absorbable materials specifically bind bile acids (BAs) in the intestine, preventing bile acid (BA) reabsorption into the blood through enterohepatic circulation. Therefore, it is important to understand the structure-property relationships between the polymer sequestrant and its ability to bind specific BAs molecules. In this review, we describe pleiotropic effects of bile acids, and we focus on BAS with various molecular architectures that result in different mechanisms of BA sequestration...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Gefei Chen, Axel Abelein, Harriet E Nilsson, Axel Leppert, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Simone Tambaro, Lovisa Hemmingsson, Firoz Roshan, Michael Landreh, Henrik Biverstål, Philip J B Koeck, Jenny Presto, Hans Hebert, André Fisahn, Jan Johansson
Protein misfolding and aggregation is increasingly being recognized as a cause of disease. In Alzheimer's disease the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) misfolds into neurotoxic oligomers and assembles into amyloid fibrils. The Bri2 protein associated with Familial British and Danish dementias contains a BRICHOS domain, which reduces Aβ fibrillization as well as neurotoxicity in vitro and in a Drosophila model, but also rescues proteins from irreversible non-fibrillar aggregation. How these different activities are mediated is not known...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Yu Zhang, Yinyan Chen, Yuntong Hu, Fang Huang, Yuhong Xiao
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have been used widely in medicine, owing to their antimicrobial properties. They also have strong permeability, stable performance, low skin irritation, low toxicity, low corrosion, lasting biological effects and so on, comparing with other antimicrobial agents. At the end of last century, polymerizable quaternary ammonium antimicrobial monomers had been synthesized and applied in dentistry, in order to reduce or prevent microbial biofilm formation on dental materials surfaces...
December 8, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
Kathrin Alber, Thomas Kuehlein, Angela Schedlbauer, Susann Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Medical overuse is a topic of growing interest in health care systems and especially in primary care. It comprises both over investigation and overtreatment. Quaternary prevention strategies aim at protecting patients from unnecessary or harmful medicine. The objective of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of relevant aspects of medical overuse in primary care from the perspective of German general practitioners (GPs). We focused on the scope, consequences and drivers of medical overuse and strategies to reduce it (=quaternary prevention)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Family Practice
Charles Dalcanale Tesser
Quaternary prevention consists in the identification of persons at risk of excessive medicalization and their protection against new unnecessary interventions, avoiding iatrogenic damages. Here, we argue about the importance of quaternary prevention in specific primary and secondary prevention. The recent great development of preventive medicine, biomedicalization of risks and their treatment as if they were diseases, and the powerful influence of the commercial interests of pharmaceutical industries on the production of medical-sanitary knowledge alter classifications, create diseases and pre-diseases, lower cutoff points, and erase the distinction between prevention and healing...
December 4, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
Mary Ann McColl, Shikha Gupta, Karen Smith, Alexander McColl
A key ingredient to successful health promotion is a primary care provider who can offer an informed first response to lifestyle issues, emerging problems and chronic challenges. This article aims to assist family physicians to play their role in promoting the health of people with SCI, by summarizing the latest evidence in the management of spinal cord injury in primary care. This study used a scoping review methodology to survey peer-reviewed journal articles and clinical guidelines published between January 2012 to June 2016...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mirco Dindo, Elisa Oppici, Daniele Dell'Orco, Rosa Montone, Barbara Cellini
Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is a rare disease caused by the deficit of liver alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). AGT prevents oxalate formation by converting peroxisomal glyoxylate to glycine. When the enzyme is deficient, progressive calcium oxalate stones deposit first in the urinary tract and then at the systemic level. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the AGT coenzyme, exerts a chaperone role by promoting dimerization, as demonstrated by studies at protein and cellular level. Thus, variants showing a destabilized dimeric structure should, in principle, be responsive to vitamin B6, a precursor of PLP...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Masoud Bagherpour Zarchi, Adeleh Divsalar, Kataneh Abrari, Arezou Rezaei
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic growth factor. This substance, as a strong cell protector, can increase cell maintenance during different damages of central nervous system. Since the brain-blood barrier prevents the entrance of large proteins similar to EPO into the brain, its systemic delivery gets limited. The aim of this study was to find an alternative approach for EPO delivery into the brain to skip the blood-brain barrier prevention. So, a new quaternary ammonium-based cationic Gemini surfactant has been used to study the interaction of the cationic Gemini surfactant (as a carrier) with EPO using various spectroscopic techniques of (fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD)) and thermal denaturation...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Joselito P Quirino
A cationic cyclodextrin was used as dynamic coating for the capillary electrophoresis of a model mixture of proteins (i.e., ubiquitin, α-lactoglobulin, cytochrome-c, and myoglobin) as positively charged species in a fused silica capillary. An interesting feature of the coating is that by simple adjustment of the concentration of cyclodextrin added into the background electrolyte, a neutral or positively charged surface, which was beneficial in preventing protein adsorption at the inner capillary wall surface, was obtained...
December 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Chun-Lai Zhang, Qing Li, Ya-Ping Shen, Na Zhou, Xue-Song Wang, Jiao Li, Wen-Ru Jia
Aeolian desertification, one of the most serious environmental issues, has hampered socioeconomic development on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). However, research on aeolian desertification in this region has been limited. To develop a set of science-based preventive measures to mitigate desertification in this region, it is first necessary to clarify the status, evolution, and driving factors of aeolian desertification. In this study, based on extensive field investigations and a current classification system for aeolian desertification, we established a new system for interpreting aeolian desertified land (ADL) on the plateau using Landsat images from 1977, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 and obtained the distribution of ADL through visual interpretation of the images...
October 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Rajeshwer S Sankhala, Ravi K Lokareddy, Salma Begum, Ruth A Pumroy, Richard E Gillilan, Gino Cingolani
Active nuclear import of Ran exchange factor RCC1 is mediated by importin α3. This pathway is essential to generate a gradient of RanGTP on chromatin that directs nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope formation. Here we identify the mechanisms of importin α3 selectivity for RCC1. We find this isoform binds RCC1 with one order of magnitude higher affinity than the generic importin α1, although the two isoforms share an identical NLS-binding groove. Importin α3 uses its greater conformational flexibility to wedge the RCC1 β-propeller flanking the NLS against its lateral surface, preventing steric clashes with its Armadillo-core...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Orianne Dumas, Aleta S Wiley, Catherine Quinot, Raphaëlle Varraso, Jan-Paul Zock, Paul K Henneberger, Frank E Speizer, Nicole Le Moual, Carlos A Camargo
Disinfectant use has been associated with adverse respiratory effects among healthcare workers. However, the specific harmful agents have not been elucidated. We examined the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants and asthma control in the Nurses' Health Study II, a large cohort of female nurses.Nurses with asthma were invited in 2014 to complete two questionnaires on their current occupation and asthma (response rate 80%). Asthma control was defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Exposure to major disinfectants was evaluated by a job-task-exposure matrix (JTEM)...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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