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Quaternary Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314125/impact-of-chitosan-and-polyacrylamide-on-formation-of-carbonaceous-and-nitrogenous-disinfection-by-products
#1
Zhao Li, Ting Chen, Fuyi Cui, Yuefeng Xie, Wenqing Xu
Coagulation is one of the most commonly used practices in water treatment to remove natural organic matter, which can serve as precursors for disinfection by-products (DBPs). Furthermore, some coagulant aids, particularly amine-based polymers, could foster the formation of both carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs (C-DBPs and N-DBPs, respectively). In this study, we evaluated the formation potentials of 11 C-DBPs and N-DBPs during chloramination when two coagulant aids, chitosan and polyacrylamide (PAM), were used under typical water treatment conditions...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301246/persistence-of-highly-pathogenic-and-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-footbaths-and-poultry-manure
#2
R Hauck, B Crossley, D Rejmanek, H Zhou, R A Gallardo
A questionnaire was designed in order to gather information about bedding material and footbath preparation and maintenance in different productive units across the state of California.This information was used to plan two experiments. In the first experiment, we tested the effectiveness of footbaths in inactivating highly pathogenic (HP) and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) on rubber boots. Surprisingly, quaternary ammonia- and quaternary ammonia + glutaraldehyde-based footbaths were not able to eliminate live HPAIV (H5N8) and LPAIV (H6N2) particles on boots, while a chlorine-based granulated disinfectant was able to destroy the virus at contact...
March 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270052/experimental-and-statistical-methods-to-evaluate-antibacterial-activity-of-a-quaternary-pyridinium-salt-on-planktonic-biofilm-forming-and-biofilm-states
#3
Daneli López Pérez, Paula J Baker, Adam L Pintar, Jirun Sun, Nancy J Lin, Sheng Lin-Gibson
Robust evaluation and comparison of antimicrobial technologies are critical to improving biofilm prevention and treatment. Herein, a multi-pronged experimental framework and statistical models were applied to determine the effects of quaternary pyridinium salt, 4-acetyl-1-hexadecylpyridin-1-ium iodide (QPS-1), on Streptococcus mutans in the planktonic, biofilm-forming and biofilm cell states. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC, respectively) were determined via common methods with novel application of statistical approaches combining random effects models and interval censored data to estimate uncertainties...
March 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267756/a-stillbirth-calculator-development-and-internal-validation-of-a-clinical-prediction-model-to-quantify-stillbirth-risk
#4
Amanda S Trudell, Methodius G Tuuli, Graham A Colditz, George A Macones, Anthony O Odibo
OBJECTIVE: To generate a clinical prediction tool for stillbirth that combines maternal risk factors to provide an evidence based approach for the identification of women who will benefit most from antenatal testing for stillbirth prevention. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Midwestern United States quaternary referral center. POPULATION: Singleton pregnancies undergoing second trimester anatomic survey from 1999-2009...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223335/cooperation-of-musashi-2-numb-mdm2-and-p53-in-drug-resistance-and-malignant-biology-of-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Weiwei Sheng, Ming Dong, Chuanping Chen, Zixin Wang, Yunwei Li, Kewei Wang, Yuji Li, Jianping Zhou
Our earlier work showed that Musashi (MSI)-2 promoted the development of pancreatic cancer (PC) by down-regulating Numb, which prevented murine double-minute (MDM)-2-mediated p53 ubiquitin degradation. Thus, we investigate the relationship among MSI2, Numb, MDM2, and p53 in PC in vitro and invivo, an association that has not been reported to our knowledge. MSI2 had no relationship with mutant p53 (mtp53) and wild-type p53 (wtp53) in normal PC cells. However, in response to gemcitabine or cisplatin treatment, MSI2 silencing simultaneously down-regulated MDM2 and up-regulated Numb and wtp53 protein levels...
February 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218750/quaternary-contact-in-the-initial-interaction-of-cd4-with-the-hiv-1-envelope-trimer
#6
Qingbo Liu, Priyamvada Acharya, Michael A Dolan, Peng Zhang, Christina Guzzo, Jacky Lu, Alice Kwon, Deepali Gururani, Huiyi Miao, Tatsiana Bylund, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Aliaksandr Druz, Tongqing Zhou, William J Rice, Christoph Wigge, Bridget Carragher, Clinton S Potter, Peter D Kwong, Paolo Lusso
Binding of the gp120 envelope (Env) glycoprotein to the CD4 receptor is the first step in the HIV-1 infectious cycle. Although the CD4-binding site has been extensively characterized, the initial receptor interaction has been difficult to study because of major CD4-induced structural rearrangements. Here we used cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to visualize the initial contact of CD4 with the HIV-1 Env trimer at 6.8-Å resolution. A single CD4 molecule is embraced by a quaternary HIV-1-Env surface formed by coalescence of the previously defined CD4-contact region with a second CD4-binding site (CD4-BS2) in the inner domain of a neighboring gp120 protomer...
February 20, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217489/quaternary-prevention-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
EDITORIAL
Sanjay Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta, Bharti Kalra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213012/evaluating-and-improving-terminal-hygiene-practices-on-broiler-farms-to-prevent-campylobacter-cross-contamination-between-flocks
#8
Tara Battersby, D Walsh, P Whyte, D Bolton
The objectives of this study were to evaluate current cleaning practices in broiler houses by testing a range of sites after cleaning and disinfection and to test the efficacy of the most commonly used methods in a commercial broiler house after flock harvesting. Cleaning procedures on 20 broiler houses (10 separate farms) were examined by testing a range of sampling points (feeders, drinkers, walls, etc.) for total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC) and Campylobacter spp. after cleaning and disinfection, using culture based methods...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193222/phosphorylation-dependent-regulation-of-aldh1a1-by-aurora-kinase-a-insights-on-their-synergistic-relationship-in-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Jing Wang, Kumar Nikhil, Keith Viccaro, Lei Chang, Jacoba White, Kavita Shah
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) formation are key underlying causes that promote extensive metastasis, drug resistance, and tumor recurrence in highly lethal pancreatic cancer. The mechanisms leading to EMT and CSC phenotypes are not fully understood, which has hindered the development of effective targeted therapies capable of improving treatment outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer. RESULTS: We show a central role of Aurora kinase A (AURKA) in promoting EMT and CSC phenotypes via ALDH1A1, which was discovered as its direct substrate using an innovative chemical genetic screen...
February 13, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183617/physical-chemical-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-a-composite-material-containing-quaternary-ammonium-salt-for-braces-cementation
#10
Mari Miura Sugii, Fábio Augusto de Souza Ferreira, Karina Cogo Müller, Debora Alves Nunes Leite Lima, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Hidetake Imasato, Ubirajara Pereira Rodrigues-Filho, Flávio Henrique Baggio Aguiar
The antibiofilm effect of iodide quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (IQAMS) in Transbond XT Light Cure Adhesive resin used for braces cementation was evaluated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed IQAMS formation and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) revealed that as coating, the quaternary ammonium groups from IQAMS were homogeneously dispersed throughout the surface. When incorporated, the composite material presented homogeneous dispersion throughout the resin...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133797/ontogeny-based-immunogens-for-the-induction-of-v2-directed-hiv-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#11
REVIEW
Penny L Moore, Jason Gorman, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Lynn Morris
The development of a preventative HIV vaccine able to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains a major challenge. Antibodies that recognize the V2 region at the apex of the HIV envelope trimer are among the most common bNAb specificities during chronic infection and many exhibit remarkable breadth and potency. Understanding the developmental pathway of these antibodies has provided insights into their precursors, and the viral strains that engage them, as well as defined how such antibodies mature to acquire breadth...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128547/conformational-stability-and-interplay-of-helical-n-and-c-terminal-domains-with-implications-on-major-ampullate-spidroin-assembly
#12
Joschka Bauer, Thomas Scheibel
Major ampullate spidroin (MaSp) assembly starts in the abdomen of the spider, where spidroins are stored as a liquid dope at a high concentration. The dope is squeezed into the spinning duct, and assembly is finished upon drawing of fibers. Unwanted aggregation of the spidroin solution in the gland is suppressed by prestructuring of the spidroins in micelle-like assemblies, with their hydrophobic stretches being hidden from the solvent and the hydrophilic nonrepetitive amino (NRN) and carboxy (NRC) terminal domains being exposed on the micelle surface...
March 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115273/ablation-of-akt2-prevents-paraquat-induced-myocardial-mitochondrial-injury-and-contractile-dysfunction-role-of-nrf2
#13
Shuyi Wang, Xiaoling Zhu, Lize Xiong, Jun Ren
Paraquat is a quaternary nitrogen herbicide triggering oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and multi-organ injuries including hearts. To date, effective measure to combat paraquat toxicity is still lacking. Recent evidence has revealed a role for Akt in cardiac homeostasis. To this end, this study was designed to examine the role of Akt2 in acute paraquat exposure-induced cardiac contractile and mitochondrial injury using a unique murine model of Akt2 knockout. Cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated...
March 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104287/enhanced-terminal-room-disinfection-and-acquisition-and-infection-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-and-clostridium-difficile-the-benefits-of-enhanced-terminal-room-disinfection-study-a-cluster-randomised-multicentre-crossover-study
#14
Deverick J Anderson, Luke F Chen, David J Weber, Rebekah W Moehring, Sarah S Lewis, Patricia F Triplett, Michael Blocker, Paul Becherer, J Conrad Schwab, Lauren P Knelson, Yuliya Lokhnygina, William A Rutala, Hajime Kanamori, Maria F Gergen, Daniel J Sexton
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to hospital can acquire multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile from inadequately disinfected environmental surfaces. We determined the effect of three enhanced strategies for terminal room disinfection (disinfection of a room between occupying patients) on acquisition and infection due to meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, C difficile, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, crossover trial at nine hospitals in the southeastern USA...
February 25, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099453/elimination-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-an-animal-feed-manufacturing-facility
#15
Anne R Huss, Loni L Schumacher, Roger A Cochrane, Elizabeth Poulsen, Jianfa Bai, Jason C Woodworth, Steve S Dritz, Charles R Stark, Cassandra K Jones
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) was the first virus of wide scale concern to be linked to possible transmission by livestock feed or ingredients. Measures to exclude pathogens, prevent cross-contamination, and actively reduce the pathogenic load of feed and ingredients are being developed. However, research thus far has focused on the role of chemicals or thermal treatment to reduce the RNA in the actual feedstuffs, and has not addressed potential residual contamination within the manufacturing facility that may lead to continuous contamination of finished feeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045742/management-of-anticoagulation-with-rivaroxaban-in-trauma-and-acute-care-surgery-complications-and-reversal-strategies-as-compared-to-warfarin-therapy
#16
Sara P Myers, Esmaeel R Dadashzadeh, Jessica Cheung, Louis Alarcon, Matthew Kutcher, Joshua B Brown, Matthew D Neal
BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban has gained popularity as an anticoagulant (AC) for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (afib) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although adverse bleeding events are associated with all AC, lack of point-of-care testing to measure the effect of rivaroxaban in emergent situations has contributed to perceived increased risk among physicians. METHODS: This study aims to describe a single-center experience with trauma and emergency general surgery (EGS) patients taking rivaroxaban and evaluate outcomes compared with patients taking warfarin using a propensity score analysis...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044440/ethylatropine-bromide-as-a-peripherally-restricted-muscarinic-antagonist
#17
Asheebo Rojas, Thota Ganesh, Alec Walker, Raymond Dingledine
Quaternary ammonium analogues of atropine that are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier are used to alleviate peripheral muscarinic toxicity in animal models of epilepsy produced by systemic administration of pilocarpine or diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Currently, methylatropine is the most popular and potent of these quaternary derivatives; however, it is expensive and produced in limited quantity. Here, we propose the use of ethylatropine bromide as an alternative to methylatropine. The synthesis of ethylatropine bromide is simple, inexpensive and has low environmental impact...
January 6, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035713/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-potent-bis-quaternary-ammonium-compound-4-4-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-hexametylenedithio-bis-1-octylpyridinium-bromide-4dtbp-6-8-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
K Murakami, H Yumoto, A Murakami, T Amoh, D Viducic, K Hirota, A Tabata, H Nagamune, H Kourai, T Matsuo, Y Miyake
AIMS: Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), including benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) are cationic surfactants and have been used widely as general disinfectants in the medical field due to their strong antibacterial effects and low cytotoxicity to human cells. 4,4'-(α,ω-hexametylenedithio) bis (1-octylpyridinium bromide) (4DTBP-6,8) is one of the potent bis-QACs synthesized to improve the antimicrobial activities of mono-QACs such as BAC. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of 4DTBP-6,8 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a prevalent hospital pathogen...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951627/primary-care-physicians-action-plans-for-responding-to-results-of-screening-tests-based-on-the-concept-of-quaternary-prevention
#19
Jong-Myon Bae, Marc Jamoulle
Since noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are generally controllable rather than curable, more emphasis is placed on prevention than on treatment. For the early detection of diseases, primary care physicians (PCPs), as well as general practitioners and family physicians, should interpret screening results accurately and provide screenees with appropriate information about prevention and treatment, including potential harms. The concept of quaternary prevention (QP), which was introduced by Jamoulle and Roland in 1995, has been applied to screening results...
November 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926985/tropical-rainforests-that-persisted-inferences-from-the-quaternary-demographic-history-of-eight-tree-species-in-the-guiana-shield
#20
Stéphanie Barthe, Giorgio Binelli, Bruno Hérault, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Daniel Sabatier, Ivan Scotti
How Quaternary climatic and geological disturbances influenced the composition of Neotropical forests is hotly debated. Rainfall and temperature changes during and/or immediately after the last glacial maximum (LGM) are thought to have strongly affected the geographical distribution and local abundance of tree species. The paucity of the fossil records in Neotropical forests prevents a direct reconstruction of such processes. To describe community-level historical trends in forest composition, we turned therefore to inferential methods based on the reconstruction of past demographic changes...
February 2017: Molecular Ecology
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