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Quaternary Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275230/polymeric-bile-acid-sequestrants-review-of-design-in%C3%A2-vitro-binding-activities-and-hypocholesterolemic-effects
#1
REVIEW
Eva Heřmánková, Aleš Žák, Lenka Poláková, Radka Hobzová, Róbert Hromádka, Jakub Širc
Polymeric bile acid sequestrants (BAS) have recently attracted much attention as lipid-lowering agents. These non-absorbable materials specifically bind bile acids (BAs) in the intestine, preventing bile acid (BA) reabsorption into the blood through enterohepatic circulation. Therefore, it is important to understand the structure-property relationships between the polymer sequestrant and its ability to bind specific BAs molecules. In this review, we describe pleiotropic effects of bile acids, and we focus on BAS with various molecular architectures that result in different mechanisms of BA sequestration...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234026/bri2-brichos-client-specificity-and-chaperone-activity-are-governed-by-assembly-state
#2
Gefei Chen, Axel Abelein, Harriet E Nilsson, Axel Leppert, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Simone Tambaro, Lovisa Hemmingsson, Firoz Roshan, Michael Landreh, Henrik Biverstål, Philip J B Koeck, Jenny Presto, Hans Hebert, André Fisahn, Jan Johansson
Protein misfolding and aggregation is increasingly being recognized as a cause of disease. In Alzheimer's disease the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) misfolds into neurotoxic oligomers and assembles into amyloid fibrils. The Bri2 protein associated with Familial British and Danish dementias contains a BRICHOS domain, which reduces Aβ fibrillization as well as neurotoxicity in vitro and in a Drosophila model, but also rescues proteins from irreversible non-fibrillar aggregation. How these different activities are mediated is not known...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225280/quaternary-ammonium-compounds-in-dental-restorative-materials
#3
Yu Zhang, Yinyan Chen, Yuntong Hu, Fang Huang, Yuhong Xiao
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) have been used widely in medicine, owing to their antimicrobial properties. They also have strong permeability, stable performance, low skin irritation, low toxicity, low corrosion, lasting biological effects and so on, comparing with other antimicrobial agents. At the end of last century, polymerizable quaternary ammonium antimicrobial monomers had been synthesized and applied in dentistry, in order to reduce or prevent microbial biofilm formation on dental materials surfaces...
December 8, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216841/medical-overuse-and-quaternary-prevention-in-primary-care-a-qualitative-study-with-general-practitioners
#4
Kathrin Alber, Thomas Kuehlein, Angela Schedlbauer, Susann Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Medical overuse is a topic of growing interest in health care systems and especially in primary care. It comprises both over investigation and overtreatment. Quaternary prevention strategies aim at protecting patients from unnecessary or harmful medicine. The objective of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of relevant aspects of medical overuse in primary care from the perspective of German general practitioners (GPs). We focused on the scope, consequences and drivers of medical overuse and strategies to reduce it (=quaternary prevention)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211199/why-is-quaternary-prevention-important-in-prevention
#5
Charles Dalcanale Tesser
Quaternary prevention consists in the identification of persons at risk of excessive medicalization and their protection against new unnecessary interventions, avoiding iatrogenic damages. Here, we argue about the importance of quaternary prevention in specific primary and secondary prevention. The recent great development of preventive medicine, biomedicalization of risks and their treatment as if they were diseases, and the powerful influence of the commercial interests of pharmaceutical industries on the production of medical-sanitary knowledge alter classifications, create diseases and pre-diseases, lower cutoff points, and erase the distinction between prevention and healing...
December 4, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211040/promoting-long-term-health-among-people-with-spinal-cord-injury-what-s-new
#6
Mary Ann McColl, Shikha Gupta, Karen Smith, Alexander McColl
A key ingredient to successful health promotion is a primary care provider who can offer an informed first response to lifestyle issues, emerging problems and chronic challenges. This article aims to assist family physicians to play their role in promoting the health of people with SCI, by summarizing the latest evidence in the management of spinal cord injury in primary care. This study used a scoping review methodology to survey peer-reviewed journal articles and clinical guidelines published between January 2012 to June 2016...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110180/correlation-between-the-molecular-effects-of-mutations-at-the-dimer-interface-of-alanine-glyoxylate-aminotransferase-leading-to-primary-hyperoxaluria-type-i-and-the-cellular-response-to-vitamin-b6
#7
Mirco Dindo, Elisa Oppici, Daniele Dell'Orco, Rosa Montone, Barbara Cellini
Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is a rare disease caused by the deficit of liver alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). AGT prevents oxalate formation by converting peroxisomal glyoxylate to glycine. When the enzyme is deficient, progressive calcium oxalate stones deposit first in the urinary tract and then at the systemic level. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the AGT coenzyme, exerts a chaperone role by promoting dimerization, as demonstrated by studies at protein and cellular level. Thus, variants showing a destabilized dimeric structure should, in principle, be responsive to vitamin B6, a precursor of PLP...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072118/multiple-spectroscopic-studies-of-the-interaction-between-a-quaternary-ammonium-based-cationic-gemini-surfactant-as-a-carrier-and-human-erythropoietin
#8
Masoud Bagherpour Zarchi, Adeleh Divsalar, Kataneh Abrari, Arezou Rezaei
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hematopoietic growth factor. This substance, as a strong cell protector, can increase cell maintenance during different damages of central nervous system. Since the brain-blood barrier prevents the entrance of large proteins similar to EPO into the brain, its systemic delivery gets limited. The aim of this study was to find an alternative approach for EPO delivery into the brain to skip the blood-brain barrier prevention. So, a new quaternary ammonium-based cationic Gemini surfactant has been used to study the interaction of the cationic Gemini surfactant (as a carrier) with EPO using various spectroscopic techniques of (fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD)) and thermal denaturation...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068527/a-cationic-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-as-a-dynamic-coating-for-the-separation-of-proteins-in-capillary-electrophoresis
#9
Joselito P Quirino
A cationic cyclodextrin was used as dynamic coating for the capillary electrophoresis of a model mixture of proteins (i.e., ubiquitin, α-lactoglobulin, cytochrome-c, and myoglobin) as positively charged species in a fused silica capillary. An interesting feature of the coating is that by simple adjustment of the concentration of cyclodextrin added into the background electrolyte, a neutral or positively charged surface, which was beneficial in preventing protein adsorption at the inner capillary wall surface, was obtained...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061294/monitoring-of-aeolian-desertification-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau-from-the-1970s-to-2015-using-landsat-images
#10
Chun-Lai Zhang, Qing Li, Ya-Ping Shen, Na Zhou, Xue-Song Wang, Jiao Li, Wen-Ru Jia
Aeolian desertification, one of the most serious environmental issues, has hampered socioeconomic development on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). However, research on aeolian desertification in this region has been limited. To develop a set of science-based preventive measures to mitigate desertification in this region, it is first necessary to clarify the status, evolution, and driving factors of aeolian desertification. In this study, based on extensive field investigations and a current classification system for aeolian desertification, we established a new system for interpreting aeolian desertified land (ADL) on the plateau using Landsat images from 1977, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 and obtained the distribution of ADL through visual interpretation of the images...
October 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042532/three-dimensional-context-rather-than-nls-amino-acid-sequence-determines-importin-%C3%AE-subtype-specificity-for-rcc1
#11
Rajeshwer S Sankhala, Ravi K Lokareddy, Salma Begum, Ruth A Pumroy, Richard E Gillilan, Gino Cingolani
Active nuclear import of Ran exchange factor RCC1 is mediated by importin α3. This pathway is essential to generate a gradient of RanGTP on chromatin that directs nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope formation. Here we identify the mechanisms of importin α3 selectivity for RCC1. We find this isoform binds RCC1 with one order of magnitude higher affinity than the generic importin α1, although the two isoforms share an identical NLS-binding groove. Importin α3 uses its greater conformational flexibility to wedge the RCC1 β-propeller flanking the NLS against its lateral surface, preventing steric clashes with its Armadillo-core...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982772/occupational-exposure-to-disinfectants-and-asthma-control-in-us-nurses
#12
Orianne Dumas, Aleta S Wiley, Catherine Quinot, Raphaëlle Varraso, Jan-Paul Zock, Paul K Henneberger, Frank E Speizer, Nicole Le Moual, Carlos A Camargo
Disinfectant use has been associated with adverse respiratory effects among healthcare workers. However, the specific harmful agents have not been elucidated. We examined the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants and asthma control in the Nurses' Health Study II, a large cohort of female nurses.Nurses with asthma were invited in 2014 to complete two questionnaires on their current occupation and asthma (response rate 80%). Asthma control was defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Exposure to major disinfectants was evaluated by a job-task-exposure matrix (JTEM)...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963503/evaluation-of-irreversible-protein-thermal-inactivation-caused-by-breakage-of-disulphide-bonds-using-methanethiosulphonate
#13
Junichiro Futami, Ai Miyamoto, Atsushi Hagimoto, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Midori Futami, Hiroko Tada
Many extracellular globular proteins have evolved to possess disulphide bonds in their native conformations, which aids in thermodynamic stabilisation. However, disulphide bond breakage by heating leads to irreversible protein denaturation through disulphide-thiol exchange reactions. In this study, we demonstrate that methanethiosulphonate (MTS) specifically suppresses the heat-induced disulphide-thiol exchange reaction, thus improving the heat-resistance of proteins. In the presence of MTS, small globular proteins that contain disulphides can spontaneously refold from heat-denatured states, maintaining wild-type disulphide pairing...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944058/bioactive-mono-dispersed-nanospheres-with-long-term-antibacterial-effects-for-endodontic-sealing
#14
Xiaogang Cheng, Tiejun Qu, Chi Ma, Doudou Xiang, Qing Yu, Xiaohua Liu
Endodontic sealers with antibacterial capability play an important role in preventing reinfection of an endodontically treated root canal and improving the long-term success of root canal treatment. However, current endodontic sealers rapidly lose their antibacterial properties after fixation. In this work, we designed and synthesized quaternized mono-dispersed bioactive nanospheres as a potential substrate for the development of a long-term antibacterial endodontic sealer with excellent cytocompatibility and biocompatibility...
2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938115/a-human-bi-specific-antibody-against-zika-virus-with-high-therapeutic-potential
#15
Jiaqi Wang, Marco Bardelli, Diego A Espinosa, Mattia Pedotti, Thiam-Seng Ng, Siro Bianchi, Luca Simonelli, Elisa X Y Lim, Mathilde Foglierini, Fabrizia Zatta, Stefano Jaconi, Martina Beltramello, Elisabetta Cameroni, Guntur Fibriansah, Jian Shi, Taylor Barca, Isabel Pagani, Alicia Rubio, Vania Broccoli, Elisa Vicenzi, Victoria Graham, Steven Pullan, Stuart Dowall, Roger Hewson, Simon Jurt, Oliver Zerbe, Karin Stettler, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Federica Sallusto, Andrea Cavalli, Eva Harris, Shee-Mei Lok, Luca Varani, Davide Corti
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes devastating congenital birth defects. We isolated a human monoclonal antibody (mAb), ZKA190, that potently cross-neutralizes multi-lineage ZIKV strains. ZKA190 is highly effective in vivo in preventing morbidity and mortality of ZIKV-infected mice. NMR and cryo-electron microscopy show its binding to an exposed epitope on DIII of the E protein. ZKA190 Fab binds all 180 E protein copies, altering the virus quaternary arrangement and surface curvature...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931607/direct-observation-of-conformational-population-shifts-in-crystalline-human-hemoglobin
#16
Naoya Shibayama, Mio Ohki, Jeremy R H Tame, Sam-Yong Park
Although X-ray crystallography is the most commonly used technique for studying the molecular structure of proteins, it is not generally able to monitor the dynamic changes or global domain motions that often underlie allostery. These motions often prevent crystal growth or reduce crystal order. We have recently discovered a crystal form of human hemoglobin that contains three protein molecules allowed to express a full range of quaternary structures, whereas maintaining strong X-ray diffraction. Here we use this crystal form to investigate the effects of two allosteric effectors, phosphate and bezafibrate, by tracking the structures and functions of the three hemoglobin molecules following the addition of each effector...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882196/simultaneous-determination-of-acetylsalicylic-acid-hydrochlorothiazide-enalapril-and-atorvastatin-in-a-polypill-based-quaternary-mixture-by-tlc
#17
Anna Maślanka, Mariusz Stolarczyk, Anna Apola, Anna Kwiecień, Urszula Hubicka, Włodzimierz Opoka
A new chromatographic-densitometric method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the active ingredients in a simulated mixture corresponding to the PolyIran polypill, composed of acetylsalicylic acid, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), enalapril (ENA), and atorvastatin (ATR), whose efficacy in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease has been documented in clinical trials. Chromatographic separation was performed using TLC silica gel 60 plates with fluorescent indicator F254 as the stationary phase and a mixture of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (8...
September 7, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878762/the-c-terminal-six-amino-acids-of-the-fnt-channel-foca-are-required-for-formate-translocation-but-not-homopentamer-integrity
#18
Doreen Hunger, Marie Röcker, Dörte Falke, Hauke Lilie, R Gary Sawers
FocA is the archetype of the pentameric formate-nitrite transporter (FNT) superfamily of channels, members of which translocate small organic and inorganic anions across the cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms. The N- and C-termini of each protomer are cytoplasmically oriented. A Y-L-R motif is found immediately after transmembrane helix 6 at the C-terminus of FNT proteins related to FocA, or those with a role in formate translocation. Previous in vivo studies had revealed that formate translocation through FocA was controlled by interaction with the formate-producing glycyl-radical enzyme pyruvate formate-lyase (PflB) or its structural and functional homolog, TdcE...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843921/a-schiff-base-quaternary-ammonium-salt-bifunctional-graphene-oxide-as-an-efficient-adsorbent-for-removal-of-th-iv-u-vi
#19
Ning Pan, Long Li, Jie Ding, Ruibing Wang, Yongdong Jin, Chuanqin Xia
A novel approach for facile covalent functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) was proposed in the present study in order to effectively avoid necessary anhydrous conditions and the usage of harsh reagents during the chemical functionalization of GO. Herein, a GO derivative that was functionalized with a primary amine derivative bearing a positively charged quaternary ammonium group, GO-S, was synthesized through a Schiff base condensation reaction between the amine groups of the primary amine derivative and the aldehyde groups of GO...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821360/development-and-implementation-of-an-early-mobility-program-for-mechanically-ventilated-pediatric-patients
#20
Kristina A Betters, Kiran B Hebbar, David Farthing, Brittany Griego, Tricia Easley, Hartley Turman, Lauren Perrino, Stephanie Sparacino, Mary L deAlmeida
PURPOSE: Early mobility (EM) is being used in adult ICUs in an effort to treat and prevent intensive care unit acquired weakness (ICU-AW) and Post-Intensive Care Syndrome (PICS). Data supports children suffer from ICU-AW and PICS as well. Our objective was to create and implement an EM protocol for pediatric patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A multidisciplinary EM committee was formed to create and implement an EM protocol in a quarternary care PICU...
October 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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