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Quaternary Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045742/management-of-anticoagulation-with-rivaroxaban-in-trauma-and-acute-care-surgery-complications-and-reversal-strategies-as-compared-to-warfarin-therapy
#1
Sara P Myers, Esmaeel R Dadashzadeh, Jessica Cheung, Louis Alarcon, Matthew Kutcher, Joshua B Brown, Matthew D Neal
BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban has gained popularity as an anticoagulant (AC) for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (afib) and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although adverse bleeding events are associated with all AC, lack of point of care testing to measure the effect of rivaroxaban in emergent situations has contributed to perceived increased risk amongst physicians. METHODS: To describe a single center experience with trauma and emergency general surgery (EGS) patients taking rivaroxaban and evaluate outcomes compared with patients taking warfarin using a propensity score analysis...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044440/ethylatropine-bromide-as-a-peripherally-restricted-muscarinic-antagonist
#2
Asheebo Rojas, Thota Ganesh, Alec Walker, Raymond Dingledine
Quaternary ammonium analogues of atropine that are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier are used to alleviate peripheral muscarinic toxicity in animal models of epilepsy produced by systemic administration of pilocarpine or diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Currently, methylatropine is the most popular and potent of these quaternary derivatives; however, it is expensive and produced in limited quantity. Here, we propose the use of ethylatropine bromide as an alternative to methylatropine. The synthesis of ethylatropine bromide is simple, inexpensive and has low environmental impact...
January 6, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035713/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-potent-bis-quaternary-ammonium-compound-4-4-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-hexametylenedithio-bis-1-octylpyridinium-bromide-4dtbp-6-8-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Keiji Murakami, Hiromichi Yumoto, Ayu Murakami, Takashi Amoh, Darija Viducic, Katsuhiko Hirota, Atsushi Tabata, Hideaki Nagamune, Hiroki Kourai, Takashi Matsuo, Yoichiro Miyake
AIMS: Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) including benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) are cationic surfactants and have been used widely as general disinfectants in the medical field because of their strong antibacterial effects and low cytotoxicity to human cells. 4,4'-(α,ω-hexametylenedithio) bis (1-octylpyridinium bromide) (4DTBP-6,8) is one of the potent bis-QACs synthesized to improve the antimicrobial activities of mono-QACs such as BAC. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of 4DTBP-6,8 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a prevalent hospital pathogen...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951627/primary-care-physicians-action-plans-for-responding-to-results-of-screening-tests-based-on-the-concept-of-quaternary-prevention
#4
Jong-Myon Bae, Marc Jamoulle
Since noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are generally controllable rather than curable, more emphasis is placed on prevention than on treatment. For the early detection of diseases, primary care physicians (PCPs), as well as general practitioners and family physicians, should interpret screening results accurately and provide screenees with appropriate information about prevention and treatment, including potential harms. The concept of quaternary prevention (QP), which was introduced by Jamoulle and Roland in 1995, has been applied to screening results...
November 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926985/tropical-rainforests-that-persisted-inferences-from-the-quaternary-demographic-history-of-eight-tree-species-in-the-guiana-shield
#5
Stéphanie Barthe, Giorgio Binelli, Bruno Hérault, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Daniel Sabatier, Ivan Scotti
How Quaternary climatic and geological disturbances influenced the composition of Neotropical forests is hotly debated. Rain fall and temperature changes during and/or immediately after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are thought to have strongly affected the geographical distribution and local abundance of tree species. The paucity of the fossil records in Neotropical forests prevents a direct reconstruction of such processes. To describe community-level historical trends in forest composition, we turned therefore to inferential methods based on the reconstruction of past demographic changes...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882950/neutralization-mechanism-of-a-highly-potent-antibody-against-zika-virus
#6
Shuijun Zhang, Victor A Kostyuchenko, Thiam-Seng Ng, Xin-Ni Lim, Justin S G Ooi, Sebastian Lambert, Ter Yong Tan, Douglas G Widman, Jian Shi, Ralph S Baric, Shee-Mei Lok
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV), which causes microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, signals an urgency to identify therapeutics. Recent efforts to rescreen dengue virus human antibodies for ZIKV cross-neutralization activity showed antibody C10 as one of the most potent. To investigate the ability of the antibody to block fusion, we determined the cryoEM structures of the C10-ZIKV complex at pH levels mimicking the extracellular (pH8.0), early (pH6.5) and late endosomal (pH5.0) environments. The 4...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823915/validation-of-the-children-s-hospital-early-warning-system-for-critical-deterioration-recognition
#7
Mary C McLellan, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Jean Anne Connor
OBJECTIVE: Early warning scores, such as the Children's Hospital Early Warning Score (CHEWS), are used by hospitals to identify patients at risk for critical deterioration and trigger clinicians to intervene and prevent further deterioration. This study's objectives were to validate the CHEWS and to compare the CHEWS to the previously validated Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) for early detection of critical deterioration in hospitalized, non-cardiac patients at a pediatric hospital...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819683/neutralizing-human-antibodies-prevent-zika-virus-replication-and-fetal-disease-in-mice
#8
Gopal Sapparapu, Estefania Fernandez, Nurgun Kose, Bin Cao, Julie M Fox, Robin G Bombardi, Haiyan Zhao, Christopher A Nelson, Aubrey L Bryan, Trevor Barnes, Edgar Davidson, Indira U Mysorekar, Daved H Fremont, Benjamin J Doranz, Michael S Diamond, James E Crowe
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease, including congenital birth defects during pregnancy. To develop candidate therapeutic agents against ZIKV, we isolated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies from subjects that were previously infected with ZIKV. We show that a subset of antibodies recognize diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) protein and exhibit potent neutralizing activity. One of the most inhibitory antibodies, ZIKV-117, broadly neutralized infection of ZIKV strains corresponding to African and Asian-American lineages...
December 15, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811846/primer-containing-dimethylaminododecyl-methacrylate-kills-bacteria-impregnated-in-human-dentin-blocks
#9
Chen Chen, Lei Cheng, Michael D Weir, Nancy J Lin, Sheng Lin-Gibson, Xue-Dong Zhou, Hockin Hk Xu
Antibacterial dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) was recently synthesized. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate antibacterial activity of DMADDM-containing primer on Streptococcus mutans impregnated into dentin blocks for the first time, and (2) compare the antibacterial efficacy of DMADDM with a previous quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM). Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) bonding agent was used. DMADDM and QADM were mixed into SBMP primer. Six primers were tested: SBMP control primer P, P+2...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807234/structure-of-a-human-astrovirus-capsid-antibody-complex-and-mechanistic-insights-into-virus-neutralization
#10
Walter A Bogdanoff, Jocelyn Campos, Edmundo I Perez, Lu Yin, David L Alexander, Rebecca M DuBois
: Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a leading cause of viral diarrhea in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies against HAstV disease. Several lines of evidence point to the presence of protective antibodies in healthy adults as a mechanism governing protection against reinfection by HAstV. However, development of anti-HAstV therapies is hampered by the gap in knowledge of protective antibody epitopes on the HAstV capsid surface...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783750/differentiating-clinical-care-from-disease-prevention-a-prerequisite-for-practicing-quaternary-prevention
#11
Charles Dalcanale Tesser, Armando Henrique Norman
This article contends that the distinction between clinical care (illness) and prevention of future disease is essential to the practice of quaternary prevention. The authors argue that the ongoing entanglement of clinical care and prevention transforms healthy into "sick" people through changes in disease classification criteria and/or cut-off points for defining high-risk states. This diverts health care resources away from those in need of care and increases the risk of iatrogenic harm in healthy people...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765401/effects-of-chlorine-based-and-quaternary-ammonium-based-disinfectants-on-the-wettability-of-a-polyvinyl-siloxane-impression-material
#12
Young S Kang, Frederick Rueggeberg, Van Ramos
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression materials must be cold disinfected before cast pouring to prevent cross-contamination among personnel and patients. However, disinfection may affect the ability of PVS impression materials to provide bubble-free stone surfaces because of the removal of surfactants. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the water contact angles of a PVS impression material treated with either a quaternary ammonium-based (QAB) (DisCide Ultra) or a chlorine-based (CLB) (Dispatch) disinfectant for various exposure times...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731908/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-disinfectant-footmats-for-the-reduction-of-bacterial-contamination-on-footwear-in-a-large-animal-veterinary-hospital
#13
K J Hornig, B A Burgess, N T Saklou, V Johnson, A Malmlov, D C Van Metre, P S Morley, S R Byers
BACKGROUND: Infection control is critical to providing high-quality patient care. Many veterinary teaching hospitals (VTHs) utilize footbaths or footmats at entrances and key control points throughout the facility to decrease trafficking of pathogenic microorganism on contaminated footwear. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy of 4 disinfectants used in footmats for decreasing bacterial contamination of footwear in a large animal hospital. ANIMALS: A single adult dairy cow was housed in a stall for 4 days to facilitate stall contamination with fecal material...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710933/empirical-power-laws-for-the-radii-of-gyration-of-protein-oligomers
#14
John J Tanner
The radius of gyration is a fundamental structural parameter that is particularly useful for describing polymers. It has been known since Flory's seminal work in the mid-20th century that polymers show a power-law dependence, where the radius of gyration is proportional to the number of residues raised to a power. The power-law exponent has been measured experimentally for denatured proteins and derived empirically for folded monomeric proteins using crystal structures. Here, the biological assemblies in the Protein Data Bank are surveyed to derive the power-law parameters for protein oligomers having degrees of oligomerization of 2-6 and 8...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709890/a-biodegradable-polycationic-paint-that-kills-bacteria-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Jiaul Hoque, Padma Akkapeddi, Chandradhish Ghosh, Divakara S S M Uppu, Jayanta Haldar
Bacterial colonization and subsequent formation of biofilms onto surfaces of medical devices and implants is a major source of nosocomial infections. Most antibacterial coatings to combat infections are either metal-based or nondegradable-polymer-based and hence limited by their nondegradability and unpredictable toxicity. Moreover, to combat infections effectively, the coatings are required to display simultaneous antibacterial and antibiofilm activity. Herein we report biocompatible and biodegradable coatings based on organo-soluble quaternary chitin polymers which were immobilized noncovalently onto surfaces as bactericidal paint...
November 2, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693733/pyridoxal-oxime-derivative-potency-to-reactivate-cholinesterases-inhibited-by-organophosphorus-compounds
#16
Valentina Bušić, Maja Katalinić, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik, Dajana Gašo-Sokač
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents (sarin, tabun VX and soman) inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) by binding to its active site while preventing neurotransmission in the cholinergic synapses. The protection and treatment of this kind of poisoning are still a challenge as we are yet to discover an antidote that would be effective in all cases of poisoning. To aid the search for more efficient antidotes, we evaluated the ability of nine pyridoxal oxime derivatives, prepared by a novel synthetic pathway, to reactivate recombinant human AChE and the related purified human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661609/synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-highly-cationic-dendrimer-antibiotics
#17
Harrison W VanKoten, Wendy M Dlakic, Robert Engel, Mary J Cloninger
The development of pathogenic bacteria resistant to current treatments is a major issue facing the world today. Here, the synthesis and biological activity of fourth generation poly(amidoamine) dendrimers decorated with 1-hexadecyl-azoniabicylo[2.2.2]octane (C16-DABCO), a quaternary ammonium compound known to have antibacterial activity, are described. This highly cationic dendrimer antibiotic was tested against several Gram positive and Gram negative strains of pathogenic bacteria and exhibited activity against both...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660909/copolymer-brushes-with-temperature-triggered-reversibly-switchable-bactericidal-and-antifouling-properties-for-biomaterial-surfaces
#18
Bailiang Wang, Qingwen Xu, Zi Ye, Huihua Liu, Quankui Lin, Kaihui Nan, Yunzhen Li, Yi Wang, Lei Qi, Hao Chen
The adherence of bacteria and the formation of biofilm on implants is a serious problem that often leads to implant failure. A series of antimicrobial coatings have been constructed to resist bacterial adherence or to kill bacteria through contact with or release of antibacterial agents. The accumulation of dead bacteria facilitates further bacterial contamination and biofilm development. Herein, we have designed and constructed a novel, reversibly switchable bactericidal and antifouling surface through surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to combine thermally responsive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and bactericidal quaternary ammonium salts (2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA(+)))...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659279/antibacterial-activity-of-a-modified-unfilled-resin-containing-a-novel-polymerizable-quaternary-ammonium-salt-mae-hb
#19
Li Huang, Fan Yu, Xiang Sun, Yan Dong, Ping-Ting Lin, Hao-Han Yu, Yu-Hong Xiao, Zhi-Guo Chai, Xiao-Dong Xing, Ji-Hua Chen
Resins with strong and long-lasting antibacterial properties are critical for the prevention of secondary dental caries. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial effect and the underlying mechanism of action of an unfilled resin incorporating 2-methacryloxylethyl hexadecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-HB) against Streptococcus mutans UA159 (S. mutans UA159). MAE-HB was added into unfilled resin at 10 mass%, and unfilled resin without MAE-HB served as the control. Bacterial growth was inhibited on 10%-MAE-HB unfilled resin compared with the control at 1 d, 7 d, 30 d, or 180 d (P < 0...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590327/in-vitro-assessment-of-an-antibacterial-quaternary-ammonium-based-polymer-loaded-with-chlorhexidine-for-the-coating-of-polypropylene-prosthetic-meshes
#20
B Pérez-Köhler, M Fernández-Gutiérrez, G Pascual, F García-Moreno, J San Román, J M Bellón
PURPOSE: This study assesses the use of an absorbable polymer loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) as an antibacterial coating for polypropylene (PP) meshes employed in hernia repair. METHODS: The polymer N,N-dimethyl-N-benzyl-N-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) ammonium bromide was loaded with CHX (1 % w/w). Fragments (1 cm(2)) of Optilene(®) Mesh Elastic were coated either with the unloaded (POL) or CHX-loaded polymer (POL-CHX). Uncoated fragments (PP) served as controls...
September 2, 2016: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
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