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Viruses in soil

Yin Song, Bart P H J Thomma
Verticillium wilt, caused by soil-borne fungi of the genus Verticillium, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of host plants. Unfortunately, host resistance against Verticillium wilts is not available for many plant species, and the disease is notoriously difficult to combat. Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an RNA interference (RNAi) based process in which small RNAs are produced by the host plant to target parasite transcripts. HIGS has emerged as a promising strategy for improving plant resistance against pathogens by silencing genes that are essential for these pathogens...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ana Georgina Cobián Güemes, Merry Youle, Vito Adrian Cantú, Ben Felts, James Nulton, Forest Rohwer
Viruses are the most abundant and the most diverse life form. In this meta-analysis we estimate that there are 4.80×10(31) phages on Earth. Further, 97% of viruses are in soil and sediment-two underinvestigated biomes that combined account for only ∼2.5% of publicly available viral metagenomes. The majority of the most abundant viral sequences from all biomes are novel. Our analysis drawing on all publicly available viral metagenomes observed a mere 257,698 viral genotypes on Earth-an unrealistically low number-which attests to the current paucity of viral metagenomic data...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
M Kurek, H Barchańska, M Turek
Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide)...
October 8, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Maya Benami, Osnat Gillor, Amit Gross
Millions of decentralized graywater-reuse systems are operating worldwide. This water is directly accessible to household inhabitants, raising environmental and public health concerns. Graywater may contain a variety of harmful organisms, the types and numbers of which vary with source-type, storage time, and background levels of infection in the community source. In this review, we find that most studies indicate high amounts of microbial pathogens in raw graywater and therefore treatment and disinfection are recommended to lower possible health risks...
September 28, 2016: Water Research
Ida Bagus Andika, Hideki Kondo, Liying Sun
Although the majority of plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and invade the host plants through the aerial parts, there is a considerable number of plant viruses that infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors such as plasmodiophorids, chytrids, and nematodes. These soil-borne viruses belong to diverse families, and many of them cause serious diseases in major crop plants. Thus, roots are important organs for the life cycle of many viruses. Compared to shoots, roots have a distinct metabolism and particular physiological characteristics due to the differences in development, cell composition, gene expression patterns, and surrounding environmental conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rosangela Tozzoli, Ilaria Di Bartolo, Federica Gigliucci, Gianfranco Brambilla, Marina Monini, Edoardo Vignolo, Alfredo Caprioli, Stefano Morabito
AIMS: to investigate the presence of genomic traits associated with a set of enteric viruses as well as pathogenic Escherichia coli in Top Soil Improvers (TSI) from Italy METHODS: 24 TSI samples originating from municipal sewage sludges, pig manure, green and household wastes were analysed by Real Time PCR for the presence of Hepatitis E virus, porcine and human adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus and diarrheagenic E. coli. RESULTS: None of the samples was found positive for Hepatitis E virus, and rotavirus...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yuan-Huan Kang, Wei Cong, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Chun-Feng Wang, Xiao-Feng Shan, Ai-Dong Qian
China is commonly considered to be a HEV-endemic region but limited epidemiological data for HEV among farmers and veterinarians are available. Thus, a case-control study was carried out to detect the seroprevalence and assess potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by farmers and veterinarians in China from July 2013 to May 2015. Three hundred veterinarians and 600 farmers recruited from Jilin province, Shandong province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and 600 control subjects matched by gender, age, and residence were detected for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme immunoassays...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Carlos A Hartmann, Wint T Aye, Janis E Blair
INTRODUCTION: Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal infection caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides species. Coccidioidal infections may be asymptomatic in up to two-thirds of infected persons. Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is the most common form of symptomatic infection. Fluconazole is the antifungal agent typically used to treat pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Other azoles and amphotericin B products may be prescribed to treat nuanced aspects of coccidioidomycosis. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses current literature regarding medical treatment options, including the various triazoles and amphotericin B products...
October 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Inger Baeksted Holme, Giuseppe Dionisio, Claus Krogh Madsen, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen
The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19 fold (29000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains...
September 16, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Nikolaos I Stilianakis, Vasileios Syrris, Thomas Petroliagkis, Peeter Pärt, Sandra Gewehr, Stella Kalaitzopoulou, Spiros Mourelatos, Agoritsa Baka, Danai Pervanidou, John Vontas, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space...
2016: PloS One
Matilde Barón, Mónica Pineda, María Luisa Pérez-Bueno
Several imaging techniques have provided valuable tools to evaluate the impact of biotic stress on host plants. The use of these techniques enables the study of plant-pathogen interactions by analysing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of foliar metabolism during pathogenesis. In this work we review the use of imaging techniques based on chlorophyll fluorescence, multicolour fluorescence and thermography for the study of virus, bacteria and fungi-infected plants. These studies have revealed the impact of pathogen challenge on photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolism, as well as leaf transpiration as a promising tool for field and greenhouse management of diseases...
September 1, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Noemi Herrero
Purpureocillium lilacinum is a ubiquitous saprophytic fungus commonly isolated from soils and widely known as a biological control agent against phytopathogenic nematodes and pest insects. Mycoviruses infect a wide number of fungal species, but the study of viruses infecting entomopathogenic fungi is still quite recent. In this study, a total of 86 P. lilacinum isolates collected from soil in natural and cultivated habitats throughout the Czech Republic were analyzed; 22 % of the isolates harbored double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements with viral characteristics...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
E Park, K M Mancl, O H Tuovinen, M S Bisesi, J Lee
AIMS: A batch chlorination system was optimized for onsite wastewater treatment and reuse system (OWRS) and its efficiency was evaluated for reducing viruses, protozoa, bacteria, and antimicrobial resistance in cold and warm seasons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The OWRS performance in reducing microbial contaminants was determined by assessing three different fecal indicators (Escherichia coli, F-specific coliphages, and Clostridium perfringens for measuring the disinfection efficiency of bacteria, viruses, and spore-formers and surrogate for protozoa, respectively) using culture-based methods...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Geun Cheol Song, Hee-Jung Sim, Sang-Gyu Kim, Choong-Min Ryu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plants modulate defence signalling networks in response to various biotic stresses via inter-organ communications. The root-mediated transmission of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against soil-borne and air-borne plant pathogens from SAR-induced plants to neighbouring plants subjected to local chemical and pathogen treatments was evaluated. METHODS: The first two plants out of ten Nicotiana benthamiana seedlings were pre-treated with the SAR-triggering chemical benzothiadiazole (BTH)...
August 23, 2016: Annals of Botany
W C C de Bruin, E M E van de Ven, C R Hooijmans
PURPOSE: This systematic review was conducted to gain insight into the efficacy of transmission of infectious agents to colony sentinels by soiled bedding transfer based on publications studying this subject in mice and rats. This information is essential to establish recommendations for the design of health monitoring programs which use sentinels to determine the microbiological status of laboratory animal colonies. RESULTS: Fifteen original articles retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and CAB abstracts met the inclusion criteria...
2016: PloS One
Antonio C G Foddai, Irene R Grant, Moira Dean
Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers...
June 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Masaharu Takemura
Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb.
2016: Genome Announcements
Kelly L Edmunds, Samira Abd Elrahman, Diana J Bell, Julii Brainard, Samir Dervisevic, Tsimbiri P Fedha, Roger Few, Guy Howard, Iain Lake, Peter Maes, Joseph Matofari, Harvey Minnigh, Ahmed A Mohamedani, Maggie Montgomery, Sarah Morter, Edward Muchiri, Lutendo S Mudau, Benedict M Mutua, Julius M Ndambuki, Katherine Pond, Mark D Sobsey, Mike van der Es, Mark Zeitoun, Paul R Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To assess, within communities experiencing Ebola virus outbreaks, the risks associated with the disposal of human waste and to generate recommendations for mitigating such risks. METHODS: A team with expertise in the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework identified waste products from the care of individuals with Ebola virus disease and constructed, tested and confirmed flow diagrams showing the creation of such products. After listing potential hazards associated with each step in each flow diagram, the team conducted a hazard analysis, determined critical control points and made recommendations to mitigate the transmission risks at each control point...
June 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Sridhar Jarugula, Steven R Charlesworth, Feng Qu, Lucy R Stewart
A full-length infectious cDNA clone of soil-borne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV; genus Furovirus; family Virgaviridae) was developed for agrobacterium delivery. The cloned virus can be agroinfiltrated to Nicotiana benthamiana for subsequent infection of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.). The utility of the virus as a vector for gene silencing and expression was assessed through sequence insertions in multiple sites of RNA2. Virus-induced photobleaching was observed in N. benthamiana but not in wheat, despite the stability of the inserts...
August 2016: Archives of Virology
Gareth Trubl, Natalie Solonenko, Lauren Chittick, Sergei A Solonenko, Virginia I Rich, Matthew B Sullivan
Permafrost stores approximately 50% of global soil carbon (C) in a frozen form; it is thawing rapidly under climate change, and little is known about viral communities in these soils or their roles in C cycling. In permafrost soils, microorganisms contribute significantly to C cycling, and characterizing them has recently been shown to improve prediction of ecosystem function. In other ecosystems, viruses have broad ecosystem and community impacts ranging from host cell mortality and organic matter cycling to horizontal gene transfer and reprogramming of core microbial metabolisms...
2016: PeerJ
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