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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034174/rare-case-of-rhizobium-radiobacter-bioprosthetic-mitral-valve-endocarditis
#1
Ryan Halas, Chris Jacob, Karun Badwal, Rafi Mir
Rhizobium radiobacter is an aerobic, gram negative, rod-shaped, bacterium typically found in the soil. Commonly a plant pathogen, it is also a rare human pathogen causing serious disease. Risk factors for infection include neutropenia, leukopenia, catheters, hospitalization, and low CD4+ lymphocyte count, especially in patients with malignancy or human immunodeficiency virus. There is currently limited literature to establish a definitive guideline for antimicrobial therapy and obtaining susceptibilities from a specialized laboratory is appropriate...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029976/extraction-and-rt-qpcr-detection-of-enteroviruses-from-solid-environmental-matrixes-method-decision-tree-for-different-sample-types-and-viral-concentrations
#2
Julia Martín-Díaz, Francisco Lucena
Quantitative RT-PCR methods (RT-qPCR) are becoming increasingly desirable for the detection of enteric viruses in solid environmental matrixes such as sediments, soils and sewage sludge. However, effective methodologies that allow the extraction of high quality RNA ready for molecular quantification continue to be evaluated. In the present study, four different methods for enterovirus extraction from solid environmental matrixes were compared in terms of viral recovery and inhibitor removal. Three indirect methods based on glycine elution and concentration by ultracentrifugation were tested...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027659/a-novel-cotton-wrky-gene-ghwrky6-like-improves-salt-tolerance-by-activating-the-aba-signalling-pathway-and-scavenging-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#3
Abid Ullah, Heng Sun, Hakim, Xiyan Yang, Xianlong Zhang
WRKY transcription factors are transcriptional regulators of signalling pathways involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study, we report that ectopic expression of the GhWRKY6-like gene significantly improved salt tolerance in Arabidopsis while silencing the GhWRKY6-like increase the sensitivity to abiotic stresses in cotton. GhWRKY6-like was localized to the nucleus. Expression of GhWRKY6-like was remarkably induced by salt, ethylene glycol (PEG) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. For further characterization, the GhWRKY6-like gene was cloned and transformed into Arabidopsis...
October 13, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022247/persistent-norovirus-contamination-of-groundwater-supplies-in-two-waterborne-outbreaks
#4
Ari Kauppinen, Tarja Pitkänen, Ilkka T Miettinen
Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures...
October 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979249/differential-characteristics-of-viral-sirnas-between-leaves-and-roots-of-wheat-plants-naturally-infected-with-wheat-yellow-mosaic-virus-a-soil-borne-virus
#5
Linying Li, Ida Bagus Andika, Yu Xu, Yan Zhang, Xiangqi Xin, Lifeng Hu, Zongtao Sun, Gaojie Hong, Yang Chen, Fei Yan, Jian Yang, Junmin Li, Jianping Chen
RNA silencing is an important innate antiviral defense in plants. Soil-borne plant viruses naturally infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors, but it is unclear how antiviral RNA silencing responds to virus infection in this particular tissue. In this study, viral small interfering RNA (siRNA) profiles from leaves and roots of wheat plants naturally infected with a soil-borne virus, wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV, genus Bymovirus), were analyzed by deep sequencing. WYMV siRNAs were much more abundant in roots than leaves, which was positively correlated with the accumulation of viral RNA...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961492/strong-release-of-viruses-in-fracture-flow-in-response-to-a-perturbation-in-ionic-strength-filtration-retention-tests-and-modeling
#6
Costantino Masciopinto, Fabrizio Visino
Effluents derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were used for virus filtration/retention experiments by using a horizontal laboratory filter. Filtration tests were performed to examine how soil geochemical heterogeneity and fracture patterns affected the transport of viruses in groundwater in order to model the influence of reductive perturbations in ionic strength (IS) during wastewater filtration. Although perturbations of IS and velocity are known to result in resuspension of colloids, we found that the effect of soil geochemical heterogeneity can produce strong and instantaneous virus releases in fractured aquifers, likely an internal additional source of viruses...
September 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961409/viruses-in-soil-ecosystems-an-unknown-quantity-within-an-unexplored-territory
#7
Kurt E Williamson, Jeffry J Fuhrmann, K Eric Wommack, Mark Radosevich
Viral abundance in soils can range from below detection limits in hot deserts to over 1 billion per gram in wetlands. Abundance appears to be strongly influenced by water availability and temperature, but a lack of informational standards creates difficulties for cross-study analysis. Soil viral diversity is severely underestimated and undersampled, although current measures of viral richness are higher for soils than for aquatic ecosystems. Both morphometric and metagenomic analyses have raised questions about the prevalence of nontailed, ssDNA viruses in soils...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956372/-application-of-host-induced-gene-silencing-in-crop-protection-against-fungal-diseases
#8
Yun Jin, Tao Zhang, Huishan Guo
Fungal diseases are the main threat to crop yield and quality, often leading to huge economic losses. Chemical fungicides are almost useless to soil-borne and vascular fungal pathogens. The most effective way is crop resistance breeding by using resistance genes. Yet, for plants lacking resistance resources, new approaches are urgently needed for crop protection. Recently, host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is developed based on the well-known RNA interference, and already effective against viruses and pests...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941906/internalization-and-dissemination-of-human-norovirus-and-tulane-virus-in-fresh-produce-is-plant-dependent
#9
Zhihong Yang, Heather Chambers, Erin DiCaprio, Gary Gao, Jianrong Li
Human norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of fresh produce associated outbreaks. Previous research indicates that the roots of growing leafy greens and berries internalize human NoV. However the effect of plant type and inoculum level on internalization rates has not been directly compared. In this study we compared the internalization and dissemination rates of human NoV and its surrogate, Tulane virus (TV) in green onion, radishes, and Romaine lettuce. We also evaluated the effect inoculum level and plant growth matrix on the rate of viral internalization...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932950/meteorological-factors-affecting-seroconversion-of-akabane-disease-in-sentinel-calves-in-the-subtropical-okinawa-islands-of-japan
#10
Yoko Hayama, Tohru Yanase, Moemi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Unten, Hisayuki Tomochi, Mayu Kakehi, Yukina Shono, Takehisa Yamamoto, Sota Kobayashi, Kiyokazu Murai, Toshiyuki Tsutsui
Akabane virus, the pathogen-causing Akabane disease, is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by the Culicoides biting midge. A nationwide serological surveillance program for bovine arboviral diseases, including Akabane disease, has been established in Japan to monitor the circulation of arboviruses by targeting sentinel calves. Okinawa, which is located in the southwestern-most region of Japan, is a high-risk area for incursion of arboviruses. The aim of the present study was to identify the meteorological factors related to farm-level seroconversion of Akabane virus by analyzing the serological surveillance data for sentinel calves collected in Okinawa between 2007 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932199/bacillus-a-biological-tool-for-crop-improvement-through-bio-molecular-changes-in-adverse-environments
#11
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed F Abd Allah
Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924616/soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-are-not-associated-with-compromised-antibody-responses-to-previously-administered-measles-and-tetanus-vaccines-among-hiv-1-infected-art-na%C3%A3-ve-kenyan-adults
#12
Helen L Storey, Benson Singa, Jackie Naulikha, Helen Horton, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Judd L Walson
In many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, both HIV and helminth infections are prevalent. HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) and helminth infections can both compromise immune responses in humans. To determine whether the presence of helminth infection or the treatment of helminth infection alters unstimulated vaccine responses among HIV-1 infected individuals, we conducted two nested serologic studies. Blood samples were collected for HIV disease monitoring and vaccine-specific serologic assays, while stool was evaluated by direct microscopy methods...
February 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820139/risk-for-low-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-on-poultry-farms-the-netherlands-2007-2013
#13
Ruth Bouwstra, Jose L Gonzales, Sjaak de Wit, Julia Stahl, Ron A M Fouchier, Armin R W Elbers
Using annual serologic surveillance data from all poultry farms in the Netherlands during 2007-2013, we quantified the risk for the introduction of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in different types of poultry production farms and putative spatial-environmental risk factors: distance from poultry farms to clay soil, waterways, and wild waterfowl areas. Outdoor-layer, turkey (meat and breeder), and duck (meat and breeder) farms had a significantly higher risk for LPAIV introduction than did indoor-layer farms...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811756/pseudomonas-oleovorans-strain-kbpf-004-culture-supernatants-reduced-seed-transmission-of-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-and-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-and-remodeled-aggregation-of-126-kda-and-subcellular-localization-of-movement-protein-of-pepper-mild-mottle
#14
Nam-Gyu Kim, Eun-Young Seo, Sang-Hyuk Han, Jun-Su Gong, Cheol-Nam Park, Ho-Seop Park, Leslie L Domier, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
Efforts to control viral diseases in crop production include several types of physical or chemical treatments; antiviral extracts of a number of plants have also been examined to inhibit plant viral infection. However, treatments utilizing naturally selected microorganisms with activity against plant viruses are poorly documented. Here we report isolation of a soil inhabiting bacterium, Pseudomonas oleovorans strain KBPF-004 (developmental code KNF2016) which showed antiviral activity against mechanical transmission of tobamoviruses...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771152/modeling-effect-of-cover-condition-and-soil-type-on-rotavirus-transport-in-surface-flow
#15
Rabin Bhattarai, Paul C Davidson, Prasanta K Kalita, Mark S Kuhlenschmidt
Runoff from animal production facilities contains various microbial pathogens which pose a health hazard to both humans and animals. Rotavirus is a frequently detected pathogen in agricultural runoff and the leading cause of death among children around the world. Diarrheal infection caused by rotavirus causes more than two million hospitalizations and death of more than 500,000 children every year. Very little information is available on the environmental factors governing rotavirus transport in surface runoff...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767675/large-scale-identification-of-gossypium-hirsutum-genes-associated-with-verticillium-dahliae-by-comparative-transcriptomic-and-reverse-genetics-analysis
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Wenwei Zhang, Huachong Zhang, Kai Liu, Guiliang Jian, Fangjun Qi, Ning Si
Verticillium wilt is a devastating disease of cotton, which is caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). Although previous studies have identified some genes or biological processes involved in the interaction between cotton and V. dahliae, its underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, especially in G. hirsutum. In the present study, we obtained an overview of transcriptome characteristics of resistant upland cotton (G. hirsutum) after V. dahliae infection at 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) via a high-throughput RNA-sequencing technique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755246/biocatalytic-asymmetric-synthesis-of-1r-2s-n-boc-vinyl-acca-ethyl-ester-with-a-newly-isolated-sphingomonas-aquatilis
#17
Shaozhou Zhu, Ying Shi, Xinyu Zhang, Guojun Zheng
1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACCA) and its derivatives are essential pharmacophoric unit that widely used in drug research and development. Specifically, (1R, 2S)-N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester (vinyl-ACCA) is a key chiral intermediate in the synthesis of highly potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors such as asunaprevir and simeprevir. Developing strategies for the asymmetric synthesis of vinyl-ACCA is thus extremely high demand. In this study, 378 bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples using N-Boc-vinyl-ACCA ethyl ester as the sole carbon source and were screened for esterase activity...
July 28, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730550/disease-management-of-tomato-through-pgpb-current-trends-and-future-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Vipin Kumar Singh, Amit Kishore Singh, Ajay Kumar
Tomato is the world's second most cultivated vegetable. During cultivation or post-harvest storage, it is susceptible to more than 200 diseases caused by an array of pathogenic fungi, nematodes, bacteria, and viruses. Although wide range of chemical pesticides are currently available to manage plant diseases, continuous application of pesticides not only affect the nutritional contents of tomato but also the texture or productivity of soil. In this context, plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are one of the nature friendly, safe, and effective alternatives for the management of diseases and pathogens of tomato...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724405/environmental-drivers-of-viral-community-composition-in-antarctic-soils-identified-by-viromics
#19
Evelien M Adriaenssens, Rolf Kramer, Marc W Van Goethem, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Ian Hogg, Don A Cowan
BACKGROUND: The Antarctic continent is considered the coldest and driest place on earth with simple ecosystems, devoid of higher plants. Soils in the ice-free regions of Antarctica are known to harbor a wide range of microorganisms from primary producers to grazers, yet their ecology and particularly the role of viruses is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. METHODS: Viral communities were extracted from soil and the dsDNA was extracted, amplified using single-primer amplification, and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton platform...
July 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716067/molecular-characterization-of-group-a-rotaviruses-in-mukuru-slums-kenya-detection-of-novel-strains-circulating-in-children-below-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#20
Joshua Ndung'u Gikonyo, James Nyangao, Cecilia Mbae, Carlene Sang, Eliud Njagi, Joseph Ngeranwa, Mathew Esona, Mapaseka L Seheri, Grace W Gitau, Kedra Raini, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a public health concern due to high morbidity and mortality among children. Rotaviruses are the leading etiological agents of severe gastroenteritis in children and accounts for more than half a million deaths per year in Africa. The study aimed at investigating the rotavirus genotypes that were circulating in children aged 5 years and below in and around Mukuru slums in Nairobi County Kenya. METHODS: A purposive cross sectional sampling method was applied where 166 samples were collected from children below 5 years of age and taken to Kenya Medical Research Institute virology laboratory...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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