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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327667/genetic-and-functional-diversity-of-ubiquitous-dna-viruses-in-selected-chinese-agricultural-soils
#1
Li-Li Han, Dan-Ting Yu, Li-Mei Zhang, Ju-Pei Shen, Ji-Zheng He
Viral community structures in complex agricultural soils are largely unknown. Electron microscopy and viromic analyses were conducted on six typical Chinese agricultural soil samples. Tailed bacteriophages, spherical and filamentous viral particles were identified by the morphological analysis. Based on the metagenomic analysis, single-stranded DNA viruses represented the largest viral component in most of the soil habitats, while the double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Caudovirales order were predominanted in Jiangxi-maize soils...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249815/advances-in-the-application-of-high-throughput-sequencing-in-invertebrate-virology
#2
R Van Aerle, E M Santos
Over the last decade, advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revolutionised biological research, making it possible for DNA/RNA sequencing of any organism of interest to be undertaken. Sequencing approaches are now routinely used in the detection and characterisation of (novel) viruses, investigation of host-pathogen interactions, and effective development of disease treatment strategies. For the sequencing and identification of viruses of interest, metagenomics approaches using infected host tissue are frequently used, as it is not always possible to culture and isolate these pathogens...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247094/the-giant-virus-finder-discovers-an-abundance-of-giant-viruses-in-the-antarctic-dry-valleys
#3
Csaba Kerepesi, Vince Grolmusz
Mimivirus was identified in 2003 from a biofilm of an industrial water-cooling tower in England. Later, numerous new giant viruses were found in oceans and freshwater habitats, some of them having 2,500 genes. We have demonstrated their likely presence in four soil samples taken from the Kutch Desert (Gujarat, India). Here we describe a bioinformatics work-flow, called the "Giant Virus Finder" that is capable of discovering the likely presence of the genomes of giant viruses in metagenomic shotgun-sequenced datasets...
February 28, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231311/handwashing-and-ebola-virus-disease-outbreaks-a-randomized-comparison-of-soap-hand-sanitizer-and-0-05-chlorine-solutions-on-the-inactivation-and-removal-of-model-organisms-phi6-and-e-coli-from-hands-and-persistence-in-rinse-water
#4
Marlene K Wolfe, Karin Gallandat, Kyle Daniels, Anne Marie Desmarais, Pamela Scheinman, Daniele Lantagne
To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions) for 1) efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2) persistence of organisms in rinse water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197137/different-behavior-of-enteric-bacteria-and-viruses-in-clay-and-sandy-soils-after-biofertilization-with-swine-digestate
#5
Gislaine Fongaro, María C García-González, Marta Hernández, Airton Kunz, Célia R M Barardi, David Rodríguez-Lázaro
Enteric pathogens from biofertilizer can accumulate in the soil, subsequently contaminating water and crops. We evaluated the survival, percolation and leaching of model enteric pathogens in clay and sandy soils after biofertilization with swine digestate: PhiX-174, mengovirus (vMC0), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used as biomarkers. The survival of vMC0 and PhiX-174 in clay soil was significantly lower than in sandy soil (iT90 values of 10.520 ± 0.600 vs. 21.270 ± 1.100 and 12...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139696/rewiring-carotenoid-biosynthesis-in-plants-using-a-viral-vector
#6
Eszter Majer, Briardo Llorente, Manuel Rodríguez-Concepción, José-Antonio Daròs
Plants can be engineered to sustainably produce compounds of nutritional, industrial or pharmaceutical relevance. This is, however, a challenging task as extensive regulation of biosynthetic pathways often hampers major metabolic changes. Here we describe the use of a viral vector derived from Tobacco etch virus to express a whole heterologous metabolic pathway that produces the health-promoting carotenoid lycopene in tobacco tissues. The pathway consisted in three enzymes from the soil bacteria Pantoea ananatis...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122988/molecular-analysis-of-arthrobacter-myovirus-vb_artm-arv1-we-blame-it-on-the-tail
#7
Laura Kaliniene, Eugenijus Šimoliūnas, Lidija Truncaitė, Aurelija Zajančkauskaitė, Juozas Nainys, Algirdas Kaupinis, Mindaugas Valius, Rolandas Meškys
This is the first report on a myophage that infects Arthrobacter A novel virus vB_ArtM-ArV1 (ArV1) was isolated from soil using Arthrobacter sp. 68b strain for phage propagation. Transmission electron microscopy showed its resemblance to members of the family Myoviridae: ArV1 has an isometric head (∼74 nm in diameter) and a contractile non-flexible tail (∼192 nm). Phylogenetic and comparative sequence analyses, however, revealed that ArV1 has more genes in common with phages from the family Siphoviridae than it does with any myovirus characterized to date...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120099/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-two-novel-genes-from-hexaploid-wheat-that-encode-double-pr-1-domains-coupled-with-a-receptor-like-protein-kinase
#8
Shunwen Lu, Justin D Faris, Michael C Edwards
Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contains at least 23 TaPr-1 genes encoding the group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins as identified in our previous work. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of TaPr-1-rk1 and TaPr-1-rk2, two novel genes closely related to the wheat PR-1 family. The two TaPr-1-rk genes are located on homoeologous chromosomes 3D and 3A, respectively, and each contains a large open reading frame (7385 or 6060 bp) that is interrupted by seven introns and subjected to alternative splicing (AS) with five or six isoforms of mRNA transcripts...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109844/colorimetric-detection-of-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-using-unmodified-gold-nanoparticles-as-colorimetric-probes
#9
Lin Wang, Zhanmin Liu, Xueying Xia, Cuiyun Yang, Junyi Huang, Sibao Wan
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes a severe mosaic symptom of watermelon and cucumber, and can be transmitted via infected cucumber seeds, leaves and soil. It remains a challenge to detect this virus to prevent its introduction and infection and spread in fields. For this purpose, a simple and sensitive label-free colorimetric detection method for CGMMV has been developed with unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The method is based on the finding that the presence of RT-PCR target products of CGMMV and species-specific probes results in color change of AuNPs from red to blue after NaCl induction...
May 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096488/novel-superspreader-bacteriophages-promote-horizontal-gene-transfer-by-transformation
#10
Eric C Keen, Valery V Bliskovsky, Francisco Malagon, James D Baker, Jeffrey S Prince, James S Klaus, Sankar L Adhya
Bacteriophages infect an estimated 10(23) to 10(25) bacterial cells each second, many of which carry physiologically relevant plasmids (e.g., those encoding antibiotic resistance). However, even though phage-plasmid interactions occur on a massive scale and have potentially significant evolutionary, ecological, and biomedical implications, plasmid fate upon phage infection and lysis has not been investigated to date. Here we show that a subset of the natural lytic phage population, which we dub "superspreaders," releases substantial amounts of intact, transformable plasmid DNA upon lysis, thereby promoting horizontal gene transfer by transformation...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057260/a-renaissance-in-nepovirus-research-provides-new-insights-into-their-molecular-interface-with-hosts-and-vectors
#11
REVIEW
M Fuchs, C Schmitt-Keichinger, H Sanfaçon
Nepoviruses supplied seminal landmarks to the historical trail of plant virology. Among the first agriculturally relevant viruses recognized in the late 1920s and among the first plant viruses officially classified in the early 1970s, nepoviruses also comprise the first species for which a soil-borne ectoparasitic nematode vector was identified. Early research on nepoviruses shed light on the genome structure and expression, biological properties of the two genomic RNAs, and mode of transmission. In recent years, research on nepoviruses enjoyed an extraordinary renaissance...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035113/serological-surveillance-of-vector-borne-and-zoonotic-diseases-among-hunters-in-eastern-poland
#12
Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Dorota Plewik, Aleksander J Michalski, Marcin Kołodziej, Alicja Mełgieś, Anna Pańczuk, Henryk Konon, Marcin Niemcewicz
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Many etiological agents of zoonoses are considered as significant biological hazard to people visiting forested areas frequently, for instance, hunters. They may be exposed to ticks, rodents, and birds as well as excreta/secretions of wild animals or contaminated water and soil. Hence, this population is at risk of contracting infection with pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus, Bartonella spp...
October 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989999/candidate-nematicidal-proteins-in-a-new-pseudomonas-veronii-isolate-identified-by-its-antagonistic-properties-against-xiphinema-index
#13
Hayron Canchignia, Fabiola Altimira, Christian Montes, Evelyn Sánchez, Eduardo Tapia, María Miccono, Daniel Espinoza, Carlos Aguirre, Michael Seeger, Humberto Prieto
The nematode Xiphinema index affects grape vines and transmits important viruses associated with fanleaf degeneration. Pseudomonas spp. are an extensive bacterial group in which important biodegradation and/or biocontrol properties can occur for several strains in the group. The aim of this study was to identify new Pseudomonas isolates with antagonist activity against X. index. Forty bacterial isolates were obtained from soil and root samples from Chilean vineyards. Thirteen new fluorescent pseudomonads were found and assessed for their antagonistic capability...
December 17, 2016: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966070/african-swine-fever-outbreak-on-a-medium-sized-farm-in-uganda-biosecurity-breaches-and-within-farm-virus-contamination
#14
Erika Chenais, Susanna Sternberg-Lewerin, Sofia Boqvist, Lihong Liu, Neil LeBlanc, Tonny Aliro, Charles Masembe, Karl Ståhl
In Uganda, a low-income country in east Africa, African swine fever (ASF) is endemic with yearly outbreaks. In the prevailing smallholder subsistence farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. Outbreaks of ASF, particularly in smallholder farms, often go unreported, creating significant epidemiological knowledge gaps. The continuous circulation of ASF in smallholder settings also creates biosecurity challenges for larger farms. In this study, an on-going outbreak of ASF in an endemic area was investigated on farm level, including analyses of on-farm environmental virus contamination...
February 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928093/imported-disease-screening-prior-to-chemotherapy-and-bone-marrow-transplantation-for-oncohematological-malignancies
#15
Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Fernando Salvador, Isabel Ruiz-Camps, Pere Barba, David Valcárcel, Elena Sulleiro, Enrique Sanz-García, Israel Molina
Reactivation of latent imported infections has been periodically reported in migrant patients undergoing immunosuppression. We performed a prospective study at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Migrant patients over 16 years with the diagnosis of any oncohematologic disease were included. Patients were tested for soil-transmitted helminths, hepatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus, Treponema pallidum, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, latent tuberculosis infection, Toxoplasma spp...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916820/biological-control-beneath-the-feet-a-review-of-crop-protection-against-insect-root-herbivores
#16
REVIEW
Alan Kergunteuil, Moe Bakhtiari, Ludovico Formenti, Zhenggao Xiao, Emmanuel Defossez, Sergio Rasmann
Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes) and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids) that are used against root herbivores...
November 29, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867160/morphological-and-taxonomic-properties-of-tokyovirus-the-first-marseilleviridae-member-isolated-from-japan
#17
Masaharu Takemura
Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particle structures that infect Acanthamoeba cells. The first Marseillevirus to be discovered was isolated in 2009. Since then, several other members of the Marseilleviridae family have been reported, including Lausannevirus, Senegalvirus, Cannes 8 virus, Insectomime virus, Tunisvirus, Melbournevirus, Port-Miou virus, and Brazilian Marseillevirus, which have been isolated from Europe, Africa, Australia, and South America. The morphological and genomic properties of a new Marseilleviridae family member, Tokyovirus, discovered in a water/soil sample from a Japanese river in Tokyo, were described in the present study...
December 23, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863533/ecological-niche-modelling-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-vectors-in-baringo-kenya
#18
Alfred O Ochieng, Mark Nanyingi, Edwin Kipruto, Isabella M Ondiba, Fred A Amimo, Christopher Oludhe, Daniel O Olago, Isaac K Nyamongo, Benson B A Estambale
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has an impact on human health and animal productivity. Here, we explore the use of vector presence modelling to predict the distribution of RVF vector species under climate change scenario to demonstrate the potential for geographic spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of climate change on RVF vector distribution in Baringo County, Kenya, with an aim of developing a risk map for spatial prediction of RVF outbreaks...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862891/effects-of-foliar-and-systemic-insecticides-on-whitefly-transmission-and-incidence-of-cucurbit-yellow-stunting-disorder-virus
#19
S J Castle, John Palumbo, Paul Merten, Charles Cowden, Nilima Prabhaker
BACKGROUND: Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a cosmopolitan viral disease transmitted by Bemisia tabaci that infects cucurbit crops. Cantaloupe production in the southwestern U.S. has been confronted by epidemics of CYSDV since 2006 when it was first identified in Arizona and California. As a phloem-limited virus that is vectored in a semi-persistent manner by B. tabaci, CYSDV has transmission characteristics that may be suppressed by select insecticide applications...
November 11, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860011/climatic-ecological-and-socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-west-nile-virus-incidence-in-atlanta-georgia-u-s-a
#20
Graeme Lockaby, Navideh Noori, Wayde Morse, Wayne Zipperer, Latif Kalin, Robin Governo, Rajesh Sawant, Matthew Ricker
The integrated effects of the many risk factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) incidence are complex and not well understood. We studied an array of risk factors in and around Atlanta, GA, that have been shown to be linked with WNV in other locations. This array was comprehensive and included climate and meteorological metrics, vegetation characteristics, land use / land cover analyses, and socioeconomic factors. Data on mosquito abundance and WNV mosquito infection rates were obtained for 58 sites and covered 2009-2011, a period following the combined storm water - sewer overflow remediation in that city...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
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