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Viruses in soil

Siobhan C Watkins, Emily Sible, Catherine Putonti
Despite the abundance, ubiquity and impact of environmental viruses, their inherent genomic plasticity and extreme diversity pose significant challenges for the examination of bacteriophages on Earth. Viral metagenomic studies have offered insight into broader aspects of phage ecology and repeatedly uncover genes to which we are currently unable to assign function. A combined effort of phage isolation and metagenomic survey of Chicago’s nearshore waters of Lake Michigan revealed the presence of Pbunaviruses, relatives of the Pseudomonas phage PB1...
June 16, 2018: Viruses
Alberto Rastrojo, Antonio Alcamí
Viruses play an important role in the control of microbial communities, and it has been suggested that the influence of viruses in polar ecosystems, with low nutrients and under extreme environmental conditions, may be greater. Viral metagenomics allows the genetic characterization of complex viral communities without the need to isolate and grow viruses. Recent investigations in Antarctica and the Arctic are uncovering a great diversity of DNA viruses, including bacteriophages, circular single-stranded DNA viruses, algal-infecting phycodnaviruses, and virophages, adapted to these extreme environments...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Roger A C Jones
The capacity to spread by diverse transmission pathways enhances a virus' ability to spread effectively and survive when circumstances change. This review aims to improve understanding of how plant and insect viruses spread through natural and managed environments by drawing attention to 12 novel or neglected virus transmission pathways whose contribution is underestimated. For plant viruses, the pathways reviewed are vertical and horizontal transmission via pollen, and horizontal transmission by parasitic plants, natural root grafts, wind-mediated contact, chewing insects, and contaminated water or soil...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Jun Zhao, Jianguang Liu, Jianwen Xu, Liang Zhao, Qiaojuan Wu, Songhua Xiao
Verticillium wilt (VW) is a soil-borne fungal disease that is caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb and seriously damages cotton production annually in China. To date, many efforts have been made to improve the resistance of upland cotton against VW, but little progress has been achieved because of a lack of resistant upland cotton to VW. G. barbadense is known to carry high resistance to VW; however, it is difficult to transfer the resistance trait from G. barbadense to upland cotton because of linkage drag and distortion in the interspecific hybrid...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Niveditha Ramadoss, Dinesh Gupta, Brajesh N Vaidya, Nirmal Joshee, Chhandak Basu
Ethylene is a phytohormone that has gained importance through its role in stress tolerance and fruit ripening. In our study we evaluated the functional potential of the enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis of plants called ACC (aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) oxidase which converts precursor ACC to ethylene. Studies on ethylene have proven that it is effective in improving the flood tolerance in plants. Thus our goal was to understand the potential of ACC oxidase gene overexpression in providing flood tolerance in transgenic plants...
June 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yi-Shu Chiu, Pi-Yu Chen, Tung Kuan, Po-Chuan Wang, Ying-Ju Chen, Yu-Liang Yang, Hsin-Hung Yeh
Plant viruses cause devastating diseases in plants, yet not effective viricide is available for agricultural application. We screened cultured filtrates derived from various soil microorganisms cultured in vegetable broth that enhanced plant viral resistance. A cultured filtrate, designated F8-culture filtrate, derived from a fungus belonging to the genus Trichosporon, induced strong resistance to various viruses on different plants. In some of our inoculation assay, the infection rate of TMV-inoculated N. benthamiana with F8-culture filtrate pretreatment may decrease to 0%, whereas salicylic acid (SA) pretreated N...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Lubhandwa S Biswaro, Mauricio G da Costa Sousa, Taia M B Rezende, Simoni C Dias, Octavio L Franco
Antimicrobial peptides are sequences of amino acids, which present activity against microorganisms. These peptides were discovered over 70 years ago, and are abundant in nature from soil bacteria, insects, amphibians to mammals and plants. They vary in amino acids number, the distance between amino acids within individual peptide structure, net charge, solubility and other physical chemical properties as well as differ in mechanism of action. These peptides may provide an alternative treatment to conventional antibiotics, which encounter resistance such as the peptide nisin applied in treating methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or may behave synergistically with known antibiotics against parasites for instance, nisin Z when used in synergy with ampicillin reported better activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens than when the antibiotic was alone...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jing Meng, Huan Gao, Weibo Zhai, Jinyan Shi, Mingzhen Zhang, Wenwei Zhang, Guiliang Jian, Meiping Zhang, Fangjun Qi
Verticillium wilt caused by soil-borne fungus of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is one of the most devastating diseases of cotton. Since the hierarchically organized mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays pivotal roles in signaling plant defense against pathogen attack, and the key nodes of MAPKKs (MKKs) may serve as for the convergence and divergence of signals in MAPK cascades, the possible relations between MAPK signaling and cotton Verticillium resistance were examined in this study. A total of 24 MKK genes were identified in the Gossypium hirsutum L...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Yong Chen, Yiming Jiang, Haiying Huang, Lichao Mou, Jinlong Ru, Jianhua Zhao, Shan Xiao
The world is facing a hard battle against soil pollution such as heavy metals. Metagenome sequencing, 16S rRNA sequencing, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to examine microbial adaptation mechanism to contaminated sediments under natural conditions. Results showed that sediment from a tributary of the Yellow River, which was named Dongdagou River (DDG) supported less bacterial biomass and owned lower richness than sediment from Maqu (MQ), an uncontaminated site in the upper reaches of the Yellow River...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Peter W Krug, Talina Davis, Catherine O'Brien, Michael LaRocco, Luis L Rodriguez
In the event of an intentional or accidental incursion of a transboundary animal disease (TAD) virus into the US, a major concern to the meat industry would be the potential contamination of packing plants by processing infected animals. TAD agents such as foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are found in swine products such as blood and feces and are present in the tissues of infected animals. To test the disinfection of TAD viruses in a pork-packing environment, a previously developed disinfection assay was used to test two biocides currently used by industry sanitarians, against TAD viruses dried on industry relevant surfaces in saline or swine products...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
N Cook, I Bertrand, C Gantzer, R M Pinto, A Bosch
Although information is limited, it is evident that prolonged persistence of infectious Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a factor in the transmission of the virus via fresh produce. Consequently, data on persistence of the virus on produce, and in environments relevant to production, such as soils, water and surfaces, are required to fully understand the dynamics of transmission of HAV via foods. Furthermore, information on effective disinfection procedures is necessary to implement effective post-harvest control measures...
May 14, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Vincent Delafont, Marie-Helene Rodier, Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau
Free-living amoebae are protists that are widely distributed in the environment including water, soil, and air. Although the amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are still the most studied, other species, such as Vermamoeba vermiformis (formerly Hartmannella vermiformis), are the subject of increased interest. Found in natural or man-made aquatic environments, V. vermiformis can support the multiplication of other microorganisms and is able to harbor and potentially protect pathogenic bacteria or viruses. This feature is to be noted because of the presence of this thermotolerant amoeba in hospital water networks...
May 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Jan P Ruppelt, Katharina Tondera, Christiane Schreiber, Thomas Kistemann, Johannes Pinnekamp
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) introduce numerous pathogens from fecal contamination, such as bacteria and viruses, into surface waters, thus endangering human health. In Germany, retention soil filters (RSFs) treat CSOs at sensitive discharge points and can contribute to reducing these hygienically relevant microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the extent of how dry period, series connection and filter layer thickness influence the reduction efficiency of RSFs for Escherichia coli (E. coli), intestinal enterococci (I...
May 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Lili Zhang, Guangjie Li, Yilin Li, Ju Min, Herbert J Kronzucker, Weiming Shi
Agronomic performance of transgenic tomato overexpressing functional genes has rarely been investigated in the field. In an attempt to improve low-phosphate (P) stress tolerance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and promote tomato fruit production in the field, an expression vector containing cDNA to an Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein, General Regulatory Factor 9 (GRF9), driven by a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, was transferred into tomato plants. Transgenic expression of GRF9 was ascertained by quantitative real-time PCR analysis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Raúl G Saraiva, Jingru Fang, Seokyoung Kang, Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Yuemei Dong, George Dimopoulos
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent and burdensome arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, against which there is only a limited licensed vaccine and no approved drug treatment. A Chromobacterium species, C. sp. Panama, isolated from the midgut of A. aegypti is able to inhibit DENV replication within the mosquito and in vitro. Here we show that C. sp. Panama mediates its anti-DENV activity through secreted factors that are proteinous in nature. The inhibitory effect occurs prior to virus attachment to cells, and is attributed to a factor that destabilizes the virion by promoting the degradation of the viral envelope protein...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Guntur Darmawan, R N Yasmin Kusumawardhani, Bachti Alisjahbana, Trinugroho Heri Fadjari
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-positive bacterium producing a dark violet antioxidant pigment called violacein. It is an opportunistic pathogen and has an ubiquitous distribution, mainly resides in water and soil of tropical and subtropical regions.An-18-year-old man referred to the emergency room with a 5-day history of progressively worsening swelling of the right cheek. He sought consult and hospitalized at another institution for three days prior this admission; however, his condition deteriorated...
January 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Devin Mills, Delbert A Harnish, Caryn Lawrence, Megan Sandoval-Powers, Brian K Heimbuch
BACKGROUND: Safe and effective decontamination and reuse of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has the potential to significantly extend FFR holdings, mitigating a potential shortage due to an influenza pandemic or other pandemic events. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) has been shown to be effective for decontaminating influenza-contaminated FFRs. This study aims to build on past research by evaluating the UVGI decontamination efficiency of influenza-contaminated FFRs in the presence of soiling agents using an optimized UVGI dose...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Rahat Sharif, Muhammad Mujtaba, Mati Ur Rahman, Abdullah Shalmani, Husain Ahmad, Toheed Anwar, Deng Tianchan, Xiping Wang
Chitosan is a naturally occurring compound and is commercially produced from seafood shells. It has been utilized in the induction of the defense system in both pre and post-harvest fruits and vegetables against fungi, bacteria, viruses, and other abiotic stresses. In addition to that, chitosan effectively improves the physiological properties of plants and also enhances the shelf life of post-harvest produces. Moreover, chitosan treatment regulates several genes in plants, particularly the activation of plant defense signaling pathways...
April 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Israel Ukawuba, Jeffrey Shaman
BACKGROUND: The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Western Hemisphere has motivated research into the processes contributing to the incidence and persistence of the disease in the region. Meteorology and hydrology are fundamental determinants of vector-borne disease transmission dynamics of a region. The availability of water influences the population dynamics of vector and host, while temperature impacts vector growth rates, feeding habits, and disease transmission potential. Characterization of the temporal pattern of environmental factors influencing WNV risk is crucial to broaden our understanding of local transmission dynamics and to inform efforts of control and surveillance...
April 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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