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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867160/morphological-and-taxonomic-properties-of-tokyovirus-the-first-marseilleviridae-member-isolated-from-japan
#1
Masaharu Takemura
Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particle structures that infect Acanthamoeba cells. The first Marseillevirus to be discovered was isolated in 2009. Since then, several other members of the Marseilleviridae family have been reported, including Lausannevirus, Senegalvirus, Cannes 8 virus, Insectomime virus, Tunisvirus, Melbournevirus, Port-Miou virus, and Brazilian Marseillevirus, which have been isolated from Europe, Africa, Australia, and South America. The morphological and genomic properties of a new Marseilleviridae family member, Tokyovirus, discovered in a water/soil sample from a Japanese river in Tokyo, were described in the present study...
November 19, 2016: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863533/ecological-niche-modelling-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-vectors-in-baringo-kenya
#2
Alfred O Ochieng, Mark Nanyingi, Edwin Kipruto, Isabella M Ondiba, Fred A Amimo, Christopher Oludhe, Daniel O Olago, Isaac K Nyamongo, Benson B A Estambale
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has an impact on human health and animal productivity. Here, we explore the use of vector presence modelling to predict the distribution of RVF vector species under climate change scenario to demonstrate the potential for geographic spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of climate change on RVF vector distribution in Baringo County, Kenya, with an aim of developing a risk map for spatial prediction of RVF outbreaks...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862891/effects-of-foliar-and-systemic-insecticides-on-whitefly-transmission-and-incidence-of-cucurbit-yellow-stunting-disorder-virus
#3
S J Castle, John Palumbo, Paul Merten, Charles Cowden, Nilima Prabhaker
BACKGROUND: Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) is a cosmopolitan viral disease transmitted by Bemisia tabaci that infects cucurbit crops. Cantaloupe production in the southwestern U.S. has been confronted by epidemics of CYSDV since 2006 when it was first identified in Arizona and California. As a phloem-limited virus that is vectored in a semi-persistent manner by B. tabaci, CYSDV has transmission characteristics that may be suppressed by select insecticide applications...
November 11, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860011/climatic-ecological-and-socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-west-nile-virus-incidence-in-atlanta-georgia-u-s-a
#4
Graeme Lockaby, Navideh Noori, Wayde Morse, Wayne Zipperer, Latif Kalin, Robin Governo, Rajesh Sawant, Matthew Ricker
The integrated effects of the many risk factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) incidence are complex and not well understood. We studied an array of risk factors in and around Atlanta, GA, that have been shown to be linked with WNV in other locations. This array was comprehensive and included climate and meteorological metrics, vegetation characteristics, land use / land cover analyses, and socioeconomic factors. Data on mosquito abundance and WNV mosquito infection rates were obtained for 58 sites and covered 2009-2011, a period following the combined storm water - sewer overflow remediation in that city...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834174/a-metagenomic-analysis-displays-the-diverse-microbial-community-of-a-vermicomposting-system-in-uganda
#5
Anne-Lie Blomström, Cecilia Lalander, Allan John Komakech, Björn Vinnerås, Sofia Boqvist
BACKGROUND: Vermicomposting is a mesophilic process using earthworms to efficiently and at low cost process large volumes of organic waste. It has been suggested to not only increase soil fertility but also increase biomass of beneficial bacteria while reducing harmful bacteria. The aim of this study was to set up a strategy to investigate and characterise the viral as well as the bacterial composition of a vermicomposting system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The vermicomposting unit used in this study was placed at the Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute Kabanyolo on the outskirts of Kampala, Uganda, and was fed with 80% cattle manure and 20% food waste...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822531/metapalette-a-k-mer-painting-approach-for-metagenomic-taxonomic-profiling-and-quantification-of-novel-strain-variation
#6
David Koslicki, Daniel Falush
Metagenomic profiling is challenging in part because of the highly uneven sampling of the tree of life by genome sequencing projects and the limitations imposed by performing phylogenetic inference at fixed taxonomic ranks. We present the algorithm MetaPalette, which uses long k-mer sizes (k = 30, 50) to fit a k-mer "palette" of a given sample to the k-mer palette of reference organisms. By modeling the k-mer palettes of unknown organisms, the method also gives an indication of the presence, abundance, and evolutionary relatedness of novel organisms present in the sample...
May 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784946/the-development-of-simple-methods-for-the-maintenance-and-quantification-of-polymyxa-graminis
#7
Swati Tyagi, Razia Sultana, Ho-Jong Ju, Wang-Hyu Lee, Kangmin Kim, Bongchoon Lee, Kui-Jae Lee
Polymyxa graminis, a root endoparasite of several cereal species, is considered to be non-pathogenic but serves as a vector of various plant viruses belonging to the genera Bymovirus, Furovirus, and Pecluvirus. Specifically, it reduces barley productivity by transmitting the Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus (BaYMV). To date, due to its obligate biotrophic property, no artificial culturing of P. graminis was reported and its quantification was also technically challenging. Here, we developed a novel and simple method to infect P...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749994/host-induced-gene-silencing-compromises-verticillium-wilt-in-tomato-and-arabidopsis
#8
Yin Song, Bart P H J Thomma
Verticillium wilt, caused by soil-borne fungi of the genus Verticillium, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of host plants. Unfortunately, host resistance against Verticillium wilts is not available for many plant species, and the disease is notoriously difficult to combat. Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an RNA interference (RNAi) based process in which small RNAs are produced by the host plant to target parasite transcripts. HIGS has emerged as a promising strategy for improving plant resistance against pathogens by silencing genes that are essential for these pathogens...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741409/viruses-as-winners-in-the-game-of-life
#9
Ana Georgina Cobián Güemes, Merry Youle, Vito Adrian Cantú, Ben Felts, James Nulton, Forest Rohwer
Viruses are the most abundant and the most diverse life form. In this meta-analysis we estimate that there are 4.80×10(31) phages on Earth. Further, 97% of viruses are in soil and sediment-two underinvestigated biomes that combined account for only ∼2.5% of publicly available viral metagenomes. The majority of the most abundant viral sequences from all biomes are novel. Our analysis drawing on all publicly available viral metagenomes observed a mere 257,698 viral genotypes on Earth-an unrealistically low number-which attests to the current paucity of viral metagenomic data...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718007/degradation-processes-of-pesticides-used-in-potato-cultivations
#10
M Kurek, H Barchańska, M Turek
Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide)...
October 8, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716468/potential-microbial-hazards-from-graywater-reuse-and-associated-matrices-a-review
#11
Maya Benami, Osnat Gillor, Amit Gross
Millions of decentralized graywater-reuse systems are operating worldwide. This water is directly accessible to household inhabitants, raising environmental and public health concerns. Graywater may contain a variety of harmful organisms, the types and numbers of which vary with source-type, storage time, and background levels of infection in the community source. In this review, we find that most studies indicate high amounts of microbial pathogens in raw graywater and therefore treatment and disinfection are recommended to lower possible health risks...
September 28, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695446/interplays-between-soil-borne-plant-viruses-and-rna-silencing-mediated-antiviral-defense-in-roots
#12
Ida Bagus Andika, Hideki Kondo, Liying Sun
Although the majority of plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and invade the host plants through the aerial parts, there is a considerable number of plant viruses that infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors such as plasmodiophorids, chytrids, and nematodes. These soil-borne viruses belong to diverse families, and many of them cause serious diseases in major crop plants. Thus, roots are important organs for the life cycle of many viruses. Compared to shoots, roots have a distinct metabolism and particular physiological characteristics due to the differences in development, cell composition, gene expression patterns, and surrounding environmental conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684893/pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-enteric-viruses-in-biosolids-and-related-top-soil-improvers-in-italy
#13
R Tozzoli, I Di Bartolo, F Gigliucci, G Brambilla, M Monini, E Vignolo, A Caprioli, S Morabito
AIMS: To investigate the presence of genomic traits associated with a set of enteric viruses as well as pathogenic Escherichia coli in top soil improvers (TSI) from Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four TSI samples originating from municipal sewage sludges, pig manure, green and household wastes were analysed by real time PCR for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV), porcine and human adenovirus (HuAdV), norovirus, rotavirus and diarrhoeagenic E. coli. None of the samples was found positive for HEV or rotavirus...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664799/hepatitis-e-virus-seroprevalence-among-farmers-veterinarians-and-control-subjects-in-jilin-province-shandong-province-and-inner-mongolia-autonomous-region-china
#14
Yuan-Huan Kang, Wei Cong, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Chun-Feng Wang, Xiao-Feng Shan, Ai-Dong Qian
China is commonly considered to be a HEV-endemic region but limited epidemiological data for HEV among farmers and veterinarians are available. Thus, a case-control study was carried out to detect the seroprevalence and assess potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by farmers and veterinarians in China from July 2013 to May 2015. Three hundred veterinarians and 600 farmers recruited from Jilin province, Shandong province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and 600 control subjects matched by gender, age, and residence were detected for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme immunoassays...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635942/treatment-considerations-in-pulmonary-coccidioidomycosis
#15
Carlos A Hartmann, Wint T Aye, Janis E Blair
INTRODUCTION: Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal infection caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides species. Coccidioidal infections may be asymptomatic in up to two-thirds of infected persons. Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is the most common form of symptomatic infection. Fluconazole is the antifungal agent typically used to treat pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Other azoles and amphotericin B products may be prescribed to treat nuanced aspects of coccidioidomycosis. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses current literature regarding medical treatment options, including the various triazoles and amphotericin B products...
October 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633382/barley-hvpaphy_a-as-transgene-provides-high-and-stable-phytase-activities-in-mature-barley-straw-and-in-grains
#16
Inger Baeksted Holme, Giuseppe Dionisio, Claus Krogh Madsen, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen
The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19 fold (29000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains...
September 16, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631082/identification-of-climatic-factors-affecting-the-epidemiology-of-human-west-nile-virus-infections-in-northern-greece
#17
Nikolaos I Stilianakis, Vasileios Syrris, Thomas Petroliagkis, Peeter Pärt, Sandra Gewehr, Stella Kalaitzopoulou, Spiros Mourelatos, Agoritsa Baka, Danai Pervanidou, John Vontas, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626766/picturing-pathogen-infection-in-plants
#18
Matilde Barón, Mónica Pineda, María Luisa Pérez-Bueno
Several imaging techniques have provided valuable tools to evaluate the impact of biotic stress on host plants. The use of these techniques enables the study of plant-pathogen interactions by analysing the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of foliar metabolism during pathogenesis. In this work we review the use of imaging techniques based on chlorophyll fluorescence, multicolour fluorescence and thermography for the study of virus, bacteria and fungi-infected plants. These studies have revealed the impact of pathogen challenge on photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolism, as well as leaf transpiration as a promising tool for field and greenhouse management of diseases...
September 1, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591781/a-novel-monopartite-dsrna-virus-isolated-from-the-entomopathogenic-and-nematophagous-fungus-purpureocillium-lilacinum
#19
Noemi Herrero
Purpureocillium lilacinum is a ubiquitous saprophytic fungus commonly isolated from soils and widely known as a biological control agent against phytopathogenic nematodes and pest insects. Mycoviruses infect a wide number of fungal species, but the study of viruses infecting entomopathogenic fungi is still quite recent. In this study, a total of 86 P. lilacinum isolates collected from soil in natural and cultivated habitats throughout the Czech Republic were analyzed; 22 % of the isolates harbored double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements with viral characteristics...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588570/ensuring-safe-reuse-of-residential-wastewater-reduction-of-microbes-and-genes-using-peat-biofilter-and-batch-chlorination-in-an-on-site-treatment-system
#20
E Park, K M Mancl, O H Tuovinen, M S Bisesi, J Lee
AIMS: A batch chlorination system was optimized for on-site wastewater treatment and reuse system (OWRS) and its efficiency was evaluated for reducing viruses, protozoa, bacteria and antimicrobial resistance in cold and warm seasons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The OWRS performance in reducing microbial contaminants was determined by assessing three different faecal indicators (Escherichia coli, F-specific coliphages and Clostridium perfringens for measuring the disinfection efficiency of bacteria, viruses and spore-formers and surrogate for protozoa, respectively) using culture-based methods...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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