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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716067/molecular-characterization-of-group-a-rotaviruses-in-mukuru-slums-kenya-detection-of-novel-strains-circulating-in-children-below-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#1
Joshua Ndung'u Gikonyo, James Nyangao, Cecilia Mbae, Carlene Sang, Eliud Njagi, Joseph Ngeranwa, Mathew Esona, Mapaseka L Seheri, Grace W Gitau, Kedra Raini, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a public health concern due to high morbidity and mortality among children. Rotaviruses are the leading etiological agents of severe gastroenteritis in children and accounts for more than half a million deaths per year in Africa. The study aimed at investigating the rotavirus genotypes that were circulating in children aged 5 years and below in and around Mukuru slums in Nairobi County Kenya. METHODS: A purposive cross sectional sampling method was applied where 166 samples were collected from children below 5 years of age and taken to Kenya Medical Research Institute virology laboratory...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672885/characterization-of-sinorhizobium-sp-lm21-prophages-and-virus-encoded-dna-methyltransferases-in-the-light-of-comparative-genomic-analyses-of-the-sinorhizobial-virome
#2
Przemyslaw Decewicz, Monika Radlinska, Lukasz Dziewit
The genus Sinorhizobium/Ensifer mostly groups nitrogen-fixing bacteria that create root or stem nodules on leguminous plants and transform atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which improves the productivity of the plants. Although these biotechnologically-important bacteria are commonly found in various soil environments, little is known about their phages. In this study, the genome of Sinorhizobium sp. LM21 isolated from a heavy-metal-contaminated copper mine in Poland was investigated for the presence of prophages and DNA methyltransferase-encoding genes...
June 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665726/epidemiologic-investigation-of-highly-pathogenic-h5n2-avian-influenza-among-upper-midwest-u-s-turkey-farms-2015
#3
S J Wells, M M Kromm, E T VanBeusekom, E J Sorley, M E Sundaram, K VanderWaal, J W J Bowers, P A Papinaho, M T Osterholm, J Bender
In 2015, an outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) occurred in the United States, severely impacting the turkey industry in the upper midwestern United States. Industry, government, and academic partners worked together to conduct a case-control investigation of the outbreak on turkey farms in the Upper Midwest. Case farms were confirmed to have HPAI-infected flocks, and control farms were farms with noninfected turkey flocks at a similar stage of production. Both case and control farms were affiliated with a large integrated turkey company...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651198/the-toxicity-of-cationic-surfactant-hdtma-br-desorbed-from-surfactant-modified-zeolite-towards-faecal-indicator-and-environmental-microorganisms
#4
Peter J Reeve, Howard J Fallowfield
Surfactant Modified Zeolite (SMZ) represents a versatile, cost-effective permeable reactive material, capable of treating multiple classes of contaminants. The potential for HDTMA-Br, a cationic surfactant commonly used to modify zeolite, to desorb from the zeolite surface has been identified as a potential issue for the ongoing use of SMZ in water remediation contexts. This paper investigates the toxicity of HDTMA-Br towards enteric virus surrogates, F-RNA bacteriophage MS2 and E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, and soil microflora...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643581/a-white-paper-on-global-wheat-health-based-on-scenario-development-and-analysis
#5
Serge Savary, Annika Djurle, Jonathan Yuen, Andrea Ficke, Vittorio Rossi, Paul Esker, Jose M Fernandes, Emerson Del Ponte, Jatindra Kumar, Laurence V Madden, Pierce A Paul, Neil McRoberts, Pawan Kumar Singh, Laurent Huber, Claude Pope de Vallavieille, Sébastien Saint-Jean, Laetitia Willocquet
Scenario analysis constitutes a useful approach to synthesize knowledge and derive hypotheses in the case of complex systems which are documented with mainly qualitative or very diverse information. In this article, a framework for scenario analysis is designed and then, applied to global wheat health within a timeframe from today to 2050. Scenario analysis entails the choice of settings, the definition of scenarios of change, and the analysis of outcomes of these scenarios in the chosen settings. Three idealized agrosystems, representing a large fraction of the global diversity of wheat-based agrosystems, are considered, which represent the settings of the analysis...
June 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600317/efficacy-of-neutral-electrolyzed-water-for-inactivation-of-human-norovirus
#6
Eric Moorman, Naim Montazeri, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Persistence on surfaces and resistance to many conventional disinfectants contribute to widespread transmission of norovirus. We examined the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW, pH 7) for inactivation of human NoV GII.4 Sydney in suspension (ASTM method 1052-11) and on stainless steel surfaces (ASTM method 1053-11), with and without an additional soil load. The impact of the disinfectant on viral capsid was assessed using RT-qPCR preceded with an RNase pre-treatment as well as by SDS-PAGE, transmission electron microscopy, and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptor-binding assay...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573011/behaviour-of-free-ranging-wild-boar-towards-their-dead-fellows-potential-implications-for-the-transmission-of-african-swine-fever
#7
Carolina Probst, Anja Globig, Bent Knoll, Franz J Conraths, Klaus Depner
The behaviour of free ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) towards carcasses of their conspecifics potentially infected with African swine fever (ASF) may significantly influence the course of an ASF epidemic. This study aims to better understand the behaviour of wild boar towards their dead fellows. Thirty-two wild boar carcasses on nine study sites in northeast Germany were monitored under field conditions by photo-trapping from October 2015 until October 2016. During this period, a total of 122 160 pictures were taken, thereof 16 111 pictures of wild boar...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572798/phylogenetic-diversity-of-t4-type-phages-in-sediments-from-the-subtropical-pearl-river-estuary
#8
Maoqiu He, Lanlan Cai, Chuanlun Zhang, Nianzhi Jiao, Rui Zhang
Viruses are an abundant and active component of marine sediments and play a significant role in microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling at local and global scales. To obtain a better understanding of the ecological characteristics of the viriobenthos, the abundance and morphology of viruses and the diversity and community structure of T4-type phages were systematically investigated in the surface sediments of the subtropical Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Viral abundances ranged from 4.49 × 10(8) to 11.7 × 10(8) viruses/g and prokaryotic abundances ranged from 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544449/metagenomic-based-impact-study-of-transgenic-grapevine-rootstock-on-its-associated-virome-and-soil-bacteriome
#9
Jean-Michel Hily, Sandrine Demanèche, Nils Poulicard, Mélanie Tannières, Samia Djennane, Monique Beuve, Emmanuelle Vigne, Gérard Demangeat, Véronique Komar, Claude Gertz, Aurélie Marmonier, Caroline Hemmer, Sophie Vigneron, Armelle Marais, Thierry Candresse, Pascal Simonet, Olivier Lemaire
For some crops, the only possible approach to gain a specific trait requires genome modification. The development of virus-resistant transgenic plants based on the pathogen-derived resistance strategy has been a success story for over three decades. However, potential risks associated with the technology, such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of any part of the transgene to an existing gene pool, have been raised. Here, we report no evidence of any undesirable impacts of genetically modified (GM) grapevine rootstock on its biotic environment...
May 25, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542984/applying-quantitative-molecular-tools-for-virus-transport-studies-opportunities-and-challenges
#10
Kelvin Wong, Marirosa Molina
Bacteriophages have been used in soil column studies for the last several decades as surrogates to study the fate and transport behavior of enteric viruses in groundwater. However, recent studies have shown that the transport behavior of bacteriophages and enteric viruses in porous media can be very different. The next generation of virus transport science must therefore provide more data on mobility of enteric viruses and the relationship between transport behaviors of enteric viruses and bacteriophages. To achieve this new paradigm, labor intensity devoted to enteric virus quantification method must be reduced...
May 23, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536287/kisameet-glacial-clay-an-unexpected-source-of-bacterial-diversity
#11
Sarah L Svensson, Shekooh Behroozian, Wanjing Xu, Michael G Surette, Loretta Li, Julian Davies
Widespread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is providing the impetus to explore novel sources of antimicrobial agents. Recently, the potent antibacterial activity of certain clay minerals has stimulated scientific interest in these materials. One such example is Kisameet glacial clay (KC), an antibacterial clay from a deposit on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. However, our understanding of the active principles of these complex natural substances is incomplete. Like soils, clays may possess complex mixtures of bacterial taxa, including the Actinobacteria, a clade known to be rich in antibiotic-producing organisms...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535127/modelling-virus-coinfection-to-inform-management-of-maize-lethal-necrosis-in-kenya
#12
Frank Hilker, Linda Allen, Vrushali Bokil, Cheryl Briggs, Zhilan Feng, Karen A Garrett, Louis Gross, Frédéric Hamelin, Michael J Jeger, Carrie Manore, Alison Power, Margaret Redinbaugh, Megan Rúa, Nik J Cunniffe
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged as a serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. MLN is caused by coinfection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a potyvirus, often sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). To better understand dynamics of MLN and to provide insight into disease management, we model the spread of the viruses causing MLN within and between growing seasons. The model allows for transmission via vectors, soil and seeds, as well as exogenous sources of infection. Following model parameterisation, we predict how management affects disease prevalence and crop performance over multiple seasons...
May 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494086/functional-ecology-of-soil-microbial-communities-along-a-glacier-forefield-in-tierra-del-fuego-chile
#13
Miguel A Fernández-Martínez, Stephen B Pointing, Sergio Pérez-Ortega, María Arróniz-Crespo, T G Allan Green, Ricardo Rozzi, Leopoldo G Sancho, Asunción de Los Ríos
A previously established chronosequence from Pia Glacier forefield in Tierra del Fuego (Chile) containing soils of different ages (from bare soils to forest ones) is analyzed. We used this chronosequence as framework to postulate that microbial successional development would be accompanied by changes in functionality. To test this, the GeoChip functional microarray was used to identify diversity of genes involved in microbial carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as other genes related to microbial stress response and biotic interactions...
September 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465670/review-of-major-sweetpotato-pests-in-japan-with-information-on-resistance-breeding-programs
#14
REVIEW
Yoshihiro Okada, Akira Kobayashi, Hiroaki Tabuchi, Toshikazu Kuranouchi
Sweetpotato (Ipomoeae batatas (L.) Lam.) is an important food crop affected by several pests throughout the world, especially in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Although Japan is relatively free from many serious sweetpotato pests, some pests, especially soil-borne pathogens, viruses, and insects such as plant-parasitic nematodes and weevils, cause severe damage in Japan. In this review, we describe the current status and management options for sweetpotato pests and diseases in Japan and review research related to sweetpotato breeding that can promote resistance to these problems...
January 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431166/landscape-genetics-of-aedes-mcintoshi-diptera-culicidae-an-important-vector-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-northeastern-kenya
#15
Lindsay P Campbell, Alana M Alexander
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a vector-borne, zoonotic disease that affects humans, wild ungulates, and domesticated livestock in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Rift Valley fever virus exhibits interepizootic and epizootic phases, the latter defined by widespread virus occurrence in domesticated livestock. Kenya appears to be particularly vulnerable to epizootics, with 11 outbreaks occurring between 1951 and 2007. The mosquito species Aedes mcintoshi (subgenus Neomelaniconion) is an important primary vector for RVFV in Kenya...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429732/long-term-stability-and-infectivity-of-herpesviruses-in-water
#16
Anisha Dayaram, Mathias Franz, Alexander Schattschneider, Armando M Damiani, Sebastian Bischofberger, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
For viruses to utilize environmental vectors (hard surfaces, soil, water) for transmission, physical and chemical stability is a prerequisite. There are many factors including pH, salinity, temperature, and turbidity that are known to contribute to the ability of viruses to persist in water. Equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) is a pathogenic alphaherpesvirus associated with domestic horses and wild equids. EHV-1 and recombinants of EHV-1 and EHV-9 are able to cause infections in non-equid animal species, particularly in captive settings...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419861/agroecological-and-environmental-factors-influence-barley-yellow-dwarf-viruses-in-grasslands-in-the-us-pacific-northwest
#17
Laura L Ingwell, Christelle Lacroix, Paul R Rhoades, Alexander V Karasev, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010-2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors...
April 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347327/mechanistic-model-for-predicting-the-seasonal-abundance-of-culicoides-biting-midges-and-the-impacts-of-insecticide-control
#18
Steven M White, Christopher J Sanders, Christopher R Shortall, Bethan V Purse
BACKGROUND: Understanding seasonal patterns of abundance of insect vectors is important for optimisation of control strategies of vector-borne diseases. Environmental drivers such as temperature, humidity and photoperiod influence vector abundance, but it is not generally known how these drivers combine to affect seasonal population dynamics. METHODS: In this paper, we derive and analyse a novel mechanistic stage-structured simulation model for Culicoides biting midges-the principle vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses which cause mortality and morbidity in livestock and impact trade...
March 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345874/delivery-of-pesticides-to-plant-parasitic-nematodes-using-tobacco-mild-green-mosaic-virus-as-a-nanocarrier
#19
Paul L Chariou, Nicole F Steinmetz
Plant parasitic nematodes are a major burden to the global agricultural industry, causing a $157 billion loss each year in crop production worldwide. Effective treatment requires large doses of nematicides to be applied, putting the environment and human health at risk. Challenges are to treat nematodes that are located deep within the soil, feeding on the roots of plants. To attack the problem at its roots, we propose the use of tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV), an EPA-approved herbicide as a carrier to deliver nematicides...
March 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327667/genetic-and-functional-diversity-of-ubiquitous-dna-viruses-in-selected-chinese-agricultural-soils
#20
Li-Li Han, Dan-Ting Yu, Li-Mei Zhang, Ju-Pei Shen, Ji-Zheng He
Viral community structures in complex agricultural soils are largely unknown. Electron microscopy and viromic analyses were conducted on six typical Chinese agricultural soil samples. Tailed bacteriophages, spherical and filamentous viral particles were identified by the morphological analysis. Based on the metagenomic analysis, single-stranded DNA viruses represented the largest viral component in most of the soil habitats, while the double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Caudovirales order were predominanted in Jiangxi-maize soils...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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