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Viruses in soil

Britta Becker, Florian H H Brill, Daniel Todt, Eike Steinmann, Johannes Lenz, Dajana Paulmann, Birte Bischoff, Jochen Steinmann
Background: Various peracetic-acid (PAA)-based products for processing flexible endoscopes on the market are often based on a two-component system including a cleaning step before the addition of PAA as disinfectant. The peracetic acid concentrations in these formulations from different manufacturers are ranging from 400 to 1500 ppm (part per million). These products are used at temperatures between 20 °C and 37 °C. Since information on the virus-inactivating properties of peracetic acid at different concentrations and temperature is missing, it was the aim of the study to evaluate peracetic acid solutions against test viruses using the quantitative suspension test, EN 14476...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Kerstin Lindner, Inga Hilbrich, Renate Koenig
In potato tubers showing pronounced corky ringspot symptoms, two related 'rule-breaking" tobacco rattle virus (TRV) RNA2s, named Da-2 and Db-2, were identified. Their coat protein (cp) genes are preceded on the 5"side by an additional gene for a 35kDa protein for which no relationships with previously described TRV genes or their expression products were found. With estimated 4296 and 4247 nucleotides (nts) the two RNAs are the longest TRV RNA2s described so far. The difference in size between Da-2 and Db-2 is due to a duplication of a stretch of 49 nts in the 5'untranslated region of Da-2...
November 20, 2017: Virus Research
S François, D Filloux, M Frayssinet, P Roumagnac, D P Martin, M Ogliastro, R Froissart
Metagenomics studies have revolutionized the field of biology by revealing the presence of many previously unisolated and uncultured micro-organisms. However, one of the main problems encountered in metagenomic studies is the high percentage of sequences that cannot be assigned taxonomically using commonly used similarity-based approaches (e.g. BLAST or HMM). These unassigned sequences are allegorically called « dark matter » in the metagenomic literature and are often referred to as being derived from new or unknown organisms...
November 14, 2017: Virus Research
Sidra Rahmat Ullah, Saadia Andleeb, Taskeen Raza, Muhsin Jamal, Khalid Mehmood
Nosocomial infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus have become a major problem. Bacteriophage therapy is proposed as a potential alternative therapy. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and are ubiquitous in nature. Lytic bacteriophage was isolated from sewage water that infects VREF, the causative agent of endocarditis, bacteraemia, and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The phage produced clear plaques with unique clear morphology and well-defined boundaries. TEM results of phage revealed it to be 108 ± 0...
2017: BioMed Research International
Iñigo Zabalgogeazcoa, Amador Alvarez, Noemi Herrero, Beatriz R Vazquez-de-Aldana
Fumonisins were first discovered in Fusarium verticillioides, a fungus associated to disease and asymptomatic infections in maize. Afterwards, other fungal taxa have been found to produce fumonisins. The entomopathogenic ascomycete Tolypocladium cylindrosporum has been isolated from soil and also as an endophyte from leaves of grasses. The objectives of this work were to determine the in vitro production of fumonisin B (FB) mycotoxins and the immunosuppressive compound cyclosporine A (CyA) in several strains of T...
November 16, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
Jeffrey B Kopp, Jurgen Heymann, Cheryl A Winkler
Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genetic variants are potent risk factors for glomerular disease, but one or more additional factors are required for expression of glomerular disease. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the most potent susceptibility factor for APOL1 nephropathy that has been identified to date. APOL1 variants are associated with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a podocyte disease, but not with HIV-immune complex disease, primarily a disease of the mesangium...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
Chiara Giorio, Anton Safer, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Andrea Tapparo, Andrea Lentola, Vincenzo Girolami, Maarten Bijleveld van Lexmond, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
With the exponential number of published data on neonicotinoids and fipronil during the last decade, an updated review of literature has been conducted in three parts. The present part focuses on gaps of knowledge that have been addressed after publication of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides in 2015. More specifically, new data on the mode of action and metabolism of neonicotinoids and fipronil, and their toxicity to invertebrates and vertebrates, were obtained. We included the newly detected synergistic effects and/or interactions of these systemic insecticides with other insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, adjuvants, honeybee viruses, and parasites of honeybees...
November 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anja Narr, Ali Nawaz, Lukas Y Wick, Hauke Harms, Antonis Chatzinotas
Environmental surveys on soil viruses are still rare and mostly anecdotal, i. e., they mostly report on viruses at one location or for only a few sampling dates. Detailed time-series analysis with multiple samples can reveal the spatio-temporal dynamics of viral communities and provide important input as to how viruses interact with their potential hosts and the environment. Such surveys, however, require fast, easy-to-apply and reliable methods. In the present study we surveyed monthly across 13 months the abundance of virus-like particles (VLP) and the structure of the viral communities in soils along a land use transect (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ryan Halas, Chris Jacob, Karun Badwal, Rafi Mir
Rhizobium radiobacter is an aerobic, gram negative, rod-shaped, bacterium typically found in the soil. Commonly a plant pathogen, it is also a rare human pathogen causing serious disease. Risk factors for infection include neutropenia, leukopenia, catheters, hospitalization, and low CD4+ lymphocyte count, especially in patients with malignancy or human immunodeficiency virus. There is currently limited literature to establish a definitive guideline for antimicrobial therapy and obtaining susceptibilities from a specialized laboratory is appropriate...
2017: IDCases
Julia Martín-Díaz, Francisco Lucena
Quantitative RT-PCR methods (RT-qPCR) are becoming increasingly desirable for the detection of enteric viruses in solid environmental matrixes such as sediments, soils and sewage sludge. However, effective methodologies that allow the extraction of high quality RNA ready for molecular quantification continue to be evaluated. In the present study, four different methods for enterovirus extraction from solid environmental matrixes were compared in terms of viral recovery and inhibitor removal. Three indirect methods based on glycine elution and concentration by ultracentrifugation were tested...
January 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Abid Ullah, Heng Sun, Hakim, Xiyan Yang, Xianlong Zhang
WRKY transcription factors are transcriptional regulators of signalling pathways involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study, we report that ectopic expression of the GhWRKY6-like gene significantly improved salt tolerance in Arabidopsis while silencing the GhWRKY6-like increase the sensitivity to abiotic stresses in cotton. GhWRKY6-like was localized to the nucleus. Expression of GhWRKY6-like was remarkably induced by salt, ethylene glycol (PEG) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. For further characterization, the GhWRKY6-like gene was cloned and transformed into Arabidopsis...
October 13, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Ari Kauppinen, Tarja Pitkänen, Ilkka T Miettinen
Microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies causes waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In this study, two waterborne outbreaks related to microbiological contamination of groundwater supplies are described. Analyses of pathogenic human enteric viruses (noroviruses and adenoviruses), fecal bacteria (Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp.), and indicator microbes (E. coli, coliform bacteria, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, heterotrophic plate count, somatic and F-specific coliphages) were conducted in order to reveal the cause of the outbreaks and to examine the effectiveness of the implemented management measures...
October 11, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
Linying Li, Ida Bagus Andika, Yu Xu, Yan Zhang, Xiangqi Xin, Lifeng Hu, Zongtao Sun, Gaojie Hong, Yang Chen, Fei Yan, Jian Yang, Junmin Li, Jianping Chen
RNA silencing is an important innate antiviral defense in plants. Soil-borne plant viruses naturally infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors, but it is unclear how antiviral RNA silencing responds to virus infection in this particular tissue. In this study, viral small interfering RNA (siRNA) profiles from leaves and roots of wheat plants naturally infected with a soil-borne virus, wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV, genus Bymovirus), were analyzed by deep sequencing. WYMV siRNAs were much more abundant in roots than leaves, which was positively correlated with the accumulation of viral RNA...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Costantino Masciopinto, Fabrizio Visino
Effluents derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant were used for virus filtration/retention experiments by using a horizontal laboratory filter. Filtration tests were performed to examine how soil geochemical heterogeneity and fracture patterns affected the transport of viruses in groundwater in order to model the influence of reductive perturbations in ionic strength (IS) during wastewater filtration. Although perturbations of IS and velocity are known to result in resuspension of colloids, we found that the effect of soil geochemical heterogeneity can produce strong and instantaneous virus releases in fractured aquifers, likely an internal additional source of viruses...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
Kurt E Williamson, Jeffry J Fuhrmann, K Eric Wommack, Mark Radosevich
Viral abundance in soils can range from below detection limits in hot deserts to over 1 billion per gram in wetlands. Abundance appears to be strongly influenced by water availability and temperature, but a lack of informational standards creates difficulties for cross-study analysis. Soil viral diversity is severely underestimated and undersampled, although current measures of viral richness are higher for soils than for aquatic ecosystems. Both morphometric and metagenomic analyses have raised questions about the prevalence of nontailed, ssDNA viruses in soils...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
Yun Jin, Tao Zhang, Huishan Guo
Fungal diseases are the main threat to crop yield and quality, often leading to huge economic losses. Chemical fungicides are almost useless to soil-borne and vascular fungal pathogens. The most effective way is crop resistance breeding by using resistance genes. Yet, for plants lacking resistance resources, new approaches are urgently needed for crop protection. Recently, host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is developed based on the well-known RNA interference, and already effective against viruses and pests...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Zhihong Yang, Heather Chambers, Erin DiCaprio, Gary Gao, Jianrong Li
Human norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of fresh produce associated outbreaks. Previous research indicates that the roots of growing leafy greens and berries internalize human NoV. However the effect of plant type and inoculum level on internalization rates has not been directly compared. In this study we compared the internalization and dissemination rates of human NoV and its surrogate, Tulane virus (TV) in green onion, radishes, and Romaine lettuce. We also evaluated the effect inoculum level and plant growth matrix on the rate of viral internalization...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
Yoko Hayama, Tohru Yanase, Moemi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Unten, Hisayuki Tomochi, Mayu Kakehi, Yukina Shono, Takehisa Yamamoto, Sota Kobayashi, Kiyokazu Murai, Toshiyuki Tsutsui
Akabane virus, the pathogen-causing Akabane disease, is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by the Culicoides biting midge. A nationwide serological surveillance program for bovine arboviral diseases, including Akabane disease, has been established in Japan to monitor the circulation of arboviruses by targeting sentinel calves. Okinawa, which is located in the southwestern-most region of Japan, is a high-risk area for incursion of arboviruses. The aim of the present study was to identify the meteorological factors related to farm-level seroconversion of Akabane virus by analyzing the serological surveillance data for sentinel calves collected in Okinawa between 2007 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed F Abd Allah
Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Helen L Storey, Benson Singa, Jackie Naulikha, Helen Horton, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Judd L Walson
In many regions of sub-Saharan Africa, both HIV and helminth infections are prevalent. HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) and helminth infections can both compromise immune responses in humans. To determine whether the presence of helminth infection or the treatment of helminth infection alters unstimulated vaccine responses among HIV-1 infected individuals, we conducted two nested serologic studies. Blood samples were collected for HIV disease monitoring and vaccine-specific serologic assays, while stool was evaluated by direct microscopy methods...
February 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
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