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Viral diversity forest soil

Ana Georgina Cobián Güemes, Merry Youle, Vito Adrian Cantú, Ben Felts, James Nulton, Forest Rohwer
Viruses are the most abundant and the most diverse life form. In this meta-analysis we estimate that there are 4.80×10(31) phages on Earth. Further, 97% of viruses are in soil and sediment-two underinvestigated biomes that combined account for only ∼2.5% of publicly available viral metagenomes. The majority of the most abundant viral sequences from all biomes are novel. Our analysis drawing on all publicly available viral metagenomes observed a mere 257,698 viral genotypes on Earth-an unrealistically low number-which attests to the current paucity of viral metagenomic data...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Noah Fierer, Mya Breitbart, James Nulton, Peter Salamon, Catherine Lozupone, Ryan Jones, Michael Robeson, Robert A Edwards, Ben Felts, Steve Rayhawk, Rob Knight, Forest Rohwer, Robert B Jackson
Recent studies have highlighted the surprising richness of soil bacterial communities; however, bacteria are not the only microorganisms found in soil. To our knowledge, no study has compared the diversities of the four major microbial taxa, i.e., bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses, from an individual soil sample. We used metagenomic and small-subunit RNA-based sequence analysis techniques to compare the estimated richness and evenness of these groups in prairie, desert, and rainforest soils. By grouping sequences at the 97% sequence similarity level (an operational taxonomic unit [OTU]), we found that the archaeal and fungal communities were consistently less even than the bacterial communities...
November 2007: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kurt E Williamson, Mark Radosevich, K Eric Wommack
The importance of viruses in marine microbial ecology has been established over the past decade. Specifically, viruses influence bacterial abundance and community composition through lysis and alter bacterial genetic diversity through transduction and lysogenic conversion. By contrast, the abundance and distribution of viruses in soils are almost completely unknown. This study describes the abundance and diversity of autochthonous viruses in six Delaware soils: two agricultural soils, two coastal plain forest soils, and two piedmont forest soils...
June 2005: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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