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Matthew Brain, Elizabeth Winson, Owen Roodenburg, John McNeil
BACKGROUND: Optimising filter life and performance efficiency in continuous renal replacement therapy has been a focus of considerable recent research. Larger high quality studies have predominantly focussed on optimal anticoagulation however CRRT is complex and filter life is also affected by vascular access, circuit and management factors. We performed a systematic search of the literature to identify and quantify the effect of vascular access, circuit and patient factors that affect filter life and presented the results as a meta-analysis...
February 20, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Gianluca Villa, Cosimo Chelazzi, Elena Morettini, Lucia Zamidei, Serafina Valente, A Lucia Caldini, Giovanni Zagli, A Raffaele De Gaudio, Stefano Romagnoli
BACKGROUND: Continuous veno-venous hemodialysis with high cut-off membranes (HCO-CVVHD) removes inflammatory mediators involved in organ dysfunction during sepsis. The aim of the present study was to assess the variations in SOFA score and identify early predictors of short-term mortality in a cohort of patients with septic shock, treated with HCO-CVVHD for acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: An observational prospective multicenter cohort study was conducted in four mixed medical-surgical ICUs...
2017: PloS One
Pierre Schläpfer, Jean-Daniel Durovray, Valery Plouhinec, Cristiano Chiappa, Rinaldo Bellomo, Antoine Schneider
BACKGROUND: Omni® (B. Braun, Germany) is a new-generation, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machine designed to improve user interface, minimize downtime and optimize renal dose delivery. It was never tested in humans. METHODS: We used Omni® to provide CRRT in 10 critically ill patients. We collected therapy data, metabolic parameters and evaluated user's satisfaction with a survey. RESULTS: CRRT was delivered using Omni® in CVVH-heparin (6 patients) and CVVHD-citrate (4 patients) modes for a total duration of 617...
2017: Blood Purification
Xiaoying Xu, Dmytro Khadzhynov, Harm Peters, Ricardo L Chaves, Kamal Hamed, Micha Levi, Natascia Corti
AIM: The objective of this population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was to provide guidance for the dosing interval of daptomycin in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). METHODS: A previously published population PK model for daptomycin was updated with data from patients undergoing continuous veno-venous haemodialysis (CVVHD; n = 9) and continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF; n = 8). Model-based simulations were performed to compare the 24 h AUC, Cmax and Cmin of daptomycin following various dosing regimens (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg kg(-1) every [Q] 24 h and Q48 h), with the safety and efficacy exposure references for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia/right-sided infective endocarditis...
March 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Cosimo Chelazzi, Gianluca Villa, Maria Grazia D'Alfonso, Paola Mancinelli, Guglielmo Consales, Margherita Berardi, Angelo Raffaele De Gaudio, Stefano Romagnoli
BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis with high cut-off continuous veno-venous hemodialyzer (HCO-CVVHD) removes mediators of organ dysfunction during sepsis. This study assessed the clinical effects of HCO-CVVHD as compared to high-flux (HF) membranes during gram-negative sepsis. METHODS: Intensive care unit (ICU), septic patients treated with HCO-CVVHD or HF-CVVHDF for AKI were retrospectively observed (January 2013-December 2014). Mechanical ventilation, vasopressors' requirements, ICU length of stay (LOS) and ICU in-hospital mortality were compared between groups...
2016: Blood Purification
E Rypulak, J Sysiak, M Borys, P Piwowarczyk, B Potrec, M Czuczwar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Anna Lorenzin, Francesco Garzotto, Alberta Alghisi, Mauro Neri, Dario Galeano, Stefania Aresu, Antonello Pani, Enrico Vidal, Zaccaroa Ricci, Luisa Murer, Stuart L Goldstein, Claudio Ronco
BACKGROUND: The CARdiorenal PEDIatric EMergency (CARPEDIEM) machine was originally designed to perform only continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) in neonatal and pediatric patients. In some cases, adequate convective clearance may not be reached because of a limited blood flow. In such conditions, the application of diffusive clearance [continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD)] would help optimize blood purification. In this study, the CARPEDIEM™ machine was modified to enable the circulation of dialysis through the filter allowing testing of the performance of CARPEDIEM™ machine in CVVHD...
October 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Valerie Jorge Cabrera, Anushree C Shirali
Extracorporeal modalities for the removal of drugs and toxins are indicated for the treatment of overdoses and intoxications. Well-established modalities include hemodialysis (HD), high-flux HD (HfD), and charcoal hemoperfusion (HP). Recently, there have been increasing reports on the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), such as continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD), continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) or CVVH combined with dialysis (CVVHDF). In the present article, we will discuss the various factors that determine the clearance of drugs and toxins and accordingly, we will propose that with few exceptions, CRRT does not have a role in the routine management of intoxications...
July 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
Gabor Erdoes, Clemens Kietaibl, Stefan Boehme, Roman Ullrich, Klaus Markstaller, Balthasar Eberle, Klaus U Klein
BACKGROUND: Continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) may generate microemboli that cross the pulmonary circulation and reach the brain. The aim of the present study was to quantify (load per time interval) and qualify (gaseous vs. solid) cerebral microemboli (CME), detected as high-intensity transient signals, using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty intensive care unit (ICU group) patients requiring CVVHD were examined. CME were recorded in both middle cerebral arteries for 30 minutes during CVVHD and a CVVHD-free interval...
March 18, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Ian Baldwin, Marie Baldwin, Nigel Fealy, Mauro Neri, Francesco Garzotto, Jeong Chul Kim, Anna Giuliani, Flavio Basso, Federico Nalesso, Alessandra Brendolan, Claudio Ronco
BACKGROUND: Dialysate fluid connection to the membrane in continuous dialysis may affect solute clearance. Although circuit connections are routinely made counter-current to blood flow in intermittent dialysis, no study has assessed the effect of this dialysate fluid flow direction on removal of small solutes creatinine and urea during treatment using continuous veno-venous haemodialysis (CVVHD). AIMS: To assess if dialysate flow direction during CVVHD affects small solute removal...
2016: Blood Purification
Gianluca Villa, Maria Iris Cassetta, Lorenzo Tofani, Serafina Valente, Cosimo Chelazzi, Silvia Falsini, Angelo Raffaele De Gaudio, Andrea Novelli, Claudio Ronco, Chiara Adembri
Continuous venovenous haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane (HCO-CVVHD) is often used in critically ill septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) to sustain renal function and to remove circulating inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to analyse the extracorporeal removal of linezolid and related alterations in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters during HCO-CVVHD. Three critically ill septic patients with AKI, treated with linezolid and HCO-CVVHD, were prospectively observed...
October 2015: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Karl-Heinz Liesenfeld, Fredrik Gruenenfelder, Andreas Clemens
There are clinical situations where rapid elimination of dabigatran is beneficial. Intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) removes dabigatran effectively but is not always available and requires a hemodynamically stable patient. We therefore investigated the continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) technique for its potency in the elimination of dabigatran. Based on pharmacometric characterization of dabigatran in IHD, we simulated a broad range of dialysis settings for CVVHD and then applied the model to specific clinical situations...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Zumrut Sahbudak Bal, Fulya Kamit Can, Ayse Berna Anil, Alkan Bal, Murat Anil, Gamze Gokalp, Onder Yavascan, Nejat Aksu
Oral methanol intoxication is common, but dermal intoxication is rare. We report a previously healthy 19-month-old female infant admitted to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and tonic-clonic seizure. On physical examination, she was comatose and presented signs of decompensated shock with Kussmaul breathing. Her left thigh was edematous, with purple coloration. Methanol intoxication was suspected due to high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH, 6.89; HCO3, <3 meq/L) and exposure to spirit-soaked bandages (%96 methanol) for 24 hours and 3 days...
August 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Susan J Lewis, Lynn A Switaj, Bruce A Mueller
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To study transmembrane clearance (CLTM) and adsorption of tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic, in continuous hemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous hemodialysis (CVVHD). METHODS: In vitro CVVH/CVVHD models with polysulfone and AN69 hemodiafilters were used. Tedizolid CLTM during CVVH/CVVHD was assessed at various ultrafiltrate (Quf) and dialysate rates (Qd). Tedizolid adsorption was tested in a recirculating CVVH model over 4 h. RESULTS: In CVVH, CLTM did not differ between filter types...
2015: Blood Purification
Dong Ju Seo, Jae Suk Yoo, Joon Bum Kim, Sung-Ho Jung, Suk Jung Choo, Cheol Hyun Chung, Jae Won Lee
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has recently attracted interest as a treatment for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the outcomes of this procedure in post-surgical settings have not yet been characterized. In this study, we evaluated the outcomes of ECMO in patients with severe postoperative ARDS. METHODS: From January 2007 to December 2012, a total of 69 patients (aged 58.3±11.5 years, 23 females) who underwent venovenous ECMO to treat severe postoperative ARDS were reviewed...
June 2015: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Shinji Kawano, Kazuaki Matsumoto, Ryohei Hara, Yuko Kuroda, Kazuro Ikawa, Norifumi Morikawa, Tetsuya Horino, Seiji Hori, Junko Kizu
The pharmacokinetics of meropenem have not yet been examined in Japanese patients receiving Continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD). The aim of this clinical investigation was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of meropenem in critically ill patients receiving CVVHD in order to estimate dosing regimens for the patient population in Japan. The values of pharmacokinetic parameters were 17.5 ± 5.6 l for V1, 1.27 ± 0.38 h(-1) for K12, 0.71 ± 0.40 h(-1) for K21 and 0.17 ± 0.02 h(-1) for K10. Based on these mean parameters (V1, K12, K21 and K10), time above MIC (T > MIC) values were estimated at different MICs using various meropenem regimens...
June 2015: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Anka C Roehr, Otto R Frey, Andreas Koeberer, Thomas Fuchs, Jason A Roberts, Alexander Brinkmann
PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the clearance of 11 selected anti-infectives in an in vitro model of continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD), in order to suggest rational dosing strategies for clinical practice. METHODS: Ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, flucloxacillin, gentamicin, linezolid, meropenem, metronidazole, piperacillin, rifampicin, vancomycin and voriconazole were studied in two different solvents (sodium chloride 0.9% and HSA 5%) using a multifiltrate dialysis device by Fresenius Medical Care (Bad Homburg, Germany)...
January 2015: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Suman Paul, Danae Hamouda, Rohini Prashar, Chiamaka Mbaso, Abdur Khan, Abdulmonam Ali, Sarthi Shah, Ragheb Assaly
Dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, is increasingly used for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran has a stable pharmacokinetic profile with minimum drug interactions, and requires no routine laboratory evaluation to measure level of anticoagulation. This provides a huge advantage over warfarin, and has the potential to improve patient compliance. The disadvantages of dabigatran are the lack of a reversal agent to counter dabigatran-related bleeding and the absence of a widely available laboratory test that can quantify the extent of coagulopathy in dabigatran overdose...
June 2015: International Journal of Hematology
Gianluca Villa, Maria Grazia D'Alfonso, Paola Di Maggio, Margherita Berardi, Cosimo Chelazzi, Anna Lucia Caldini, A Raffaele De Gaudio, Gian Franco Gensini, Serafina Valente
BACKGROUND: We report here a case of a woman affected by fever, weight loss, splenomegaly, and leucopenia associated with trombocytopenia, transferred to the intensive care unit with acute kidney injury and septic shock. METHODS: Patient was treated with high cut-off continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (HCO-CVVHD). RESULTS: During treatment, the patient experienced a stable improvement in the hemodynamic, pulmonary function and tissue perfusion parameters...
2014: Blood Purification
Gianluca Villa, Jose J Zaragoza, Aashish Sharma, Cosimo Chelazzi, Claudio Ronco, A Raffaele De Gaudio
BACKGROUND: Differentiation syndrome is a life-threatening complication of therapy that is carried out with agents used for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Its physiopathology comprehends the production of inflammatory mediators by differentiating granulocytes, endothelial and alveolar cells due to stimulation by all-trans retinoic acid and leading to sustained systemic inflammation. METHODS: Treatment with high cut-off continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (HCO-CVVHD) was performed to reduce the circulating mediators of systemic inflammation...
2014: Blood Purification
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