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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867500/neurological-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Ria Arnold, Tushar Issar, Arun V Krishnan, Bruce A Pussell
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are frequently afflicted with neurological complications. These complications can potentially affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common neurological complications in CKD include stroke, cognitive dysfunction, encephalopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathies. These conditions have significant impact not only on patient morbidity but also on mortality risk through a variety of mechanisms. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of these conditions can provide insights into effective management strategies for neurological complications...
January 2016: JRSM Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861179/cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-in-older-adults-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-review
#2
Andrea R Zammit, Mindy J Katz, Markus Bitzer, Richard B Lipton
Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially older adults, are at more risk of experiencing cognitive impairment, possibly leading to mild cognitive impairment and/or dementia. Studies report associations between CKD and cognitive impairment; although unclear, there seems to be a graded association between stage of CKD and affected cognitive domains, with executive function being affected earlier in the process than episodic memory and global ability. In CKD, dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment and vascular dementia are also more prominent than other subtypes...
October 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835681/cognitive-performance-is-highly-stable-over-a-2-year-follow-up-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-in-a-dedicated-medical-environment
#3
Janine Gronewold, Olga Todica, Ulla K Seidel, Michaela Volsek, Andreas Kribben, Heike Bruck, Dirk M Hermann
BACKGROUND: As kidney and brain functions decline with aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dementia are becoming increasing health burdens worldwide. Among the risk factors for cognitive impairment, CKD is increasingly recognized. The precise impact of CKD on the development of cognitive impairment is poorly understood. METHODS: In the New Tools for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease (NTCVD) cohort, which was recruited in a dedicated nephrology department, we examined the 2-year course of cognitive performance in 120 patients (73 patients with CKD stages 3-5D, 47 control patients without CKD with similar vascular risk profile) using a comprehensive battery of 10 neuropsychological tests...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798938/cognitive-impairment-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-the-canadian-frailty-observation-and-interventions-trial
#4
Rukhsana Foster, Simon Walker, Ranveer Brar, Brett Hiebert, Paul Komenda, Claudio Rigatto, Leroy Storsley, Bhanu Prasad, Clara Bohm, Navdeep Tangri
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects more than one third of older adults, and is a strong risk factor for vascular disease and cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment can have detrimental effects on the quality of life through decreased treatment adherence and poor nutrition and results in increased costs of care and early mortality. Though widely studied in hemodialysis populations, little is known about cognitive impairment in patients with pre-dialysis CKD. METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional, prospective cohort study including 385 patients with CKD stages G4-G5...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767995/association-of-kidney-function-biomarkers-with-brain-mri-findings-the-brink-study
#5
Prashanthi Vemuri, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, Emily S Lundt, Stephen D Weigand, Samantha M Zuk, Kaely B Thostenson, Robert I Reid, Kejal Kantarci, Yelena Slinin, Kamakshi Lakshminarayan, Cynthia S Davey, Anne Murray
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) studies have reported variable prevalence of brain pathologies, in part due to low inclusion of participants with moderate to severe CKD. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between kidney function biomarkers and brain MRI findings in CKD. METHODS: In the BRINK (BRain IN Kidney Disease) study, MRI was used to measure gray matter volumes, cerebrovascular pathologies (white matter hyperintensity (WMH), infarctions, microhemorrhages), and microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754167/sy-12-3-are-ras-inhibitors-necessary-for-all-patients-with-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
There is accumulating evidence that RAS inhibitors not only reduce blood pressure, but also exert pleiotropic effects, including a renoprotective effect, amelioration of insulin resistance, reduction in onset of diabetes, and suppression of cardiovascular remodelling,. However, the definite benefit of RAS inhibition in treatment of hypertension with CKD or DM is not conclusive. We previously performed the OlmeSartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) study comparing the preventive effect of high-dose ARB therapy versus ARB plus CCB combination therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in 1164 Japanese elderly hypertensive patients with baseline type 2 diabetes and/or CVD (Am J Med (2012))...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747026/emerging-co-morbidities-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-cognition-kidney-disease-and-cancer
#7
Nadia Gildeh, Panagis Drakatos, Sean Higgins, Ivana Rosenzweig, Brian D Kent
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes daytime fatigue and sleepiness, and has an established relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Recent years have seen the emergence of an evidence base linking OSA with an increased risk of degenerative neurological disease and associated cognitive impairment, an accelerated rate of decline in kidney function with an increased risk of clinically significant chronic kidney disease (CKD), and with a significantly higher rate of cancer incidence and death. This review evaluates the evidence base linking OSA with these seemingly unrelated co-morbidities, and explores potential mechanistic links underpinning their development in patients with OSA, including intermittent hypoxia (IH), sleep fragmentation, sympathetic excitation, and immune dysregulation...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704252/extrarenal-effects-of-fgf23
#8
Dieter Haffner, Maren Leifheit-Nestler
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, infections, and impaired cognitive function. It is characterized by excessively increased levels of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and a deficiency of its co-receptor Klotho. Despite the important physiological effect of FGF23 in maintaining phosphate homeostasis, there is increasing evidence that higher FGF23 levels are a risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular disease. FGF23 directly induces left ventricular hypertrophy via activation of the FGF receptor 4/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling pathway...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680506/influence-of-cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-cognitive-impairment-in-elderly-medical-patients
#9
Koichi Shibata, Yoshiko Nishimura, Kuniaki Otsuka, Hiroshi Sakura
AIM: We investigated the characteristics of elderly medical patients with white matter hyperintensities on magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: A total of 213 patients (123 men and 90 women; mean age 74.8 years) reported their history of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, previous stroke, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). All patients completed the Mini-Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Scale. White matter hyperintensities were evaluated for the periventricular region, basal ganglia (BGH), deep white matter and infratentorial region, and brain atrophy was calculated as bicaudate ratios...
September 29, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643122/sy-12-3-are-ras-inhibitors-necessary-for-all-patients-with-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
There is accumulating evidence that RAS inhibitors not only reduce blood pressure, but also exert pleiotropic effects, including a renoprotective effect, amelioration of insulin resistance, reduction in onset of diabetes, and suppression of cardiovascular remodelling,. However, the definite benefit of RAS inhibition in treatment of hypertension with CKD or DM is not conclusive. We previously performed the OlmeSartan and Calcium Antagonists Randomized (OSCAR) study comparing the preventive effect of high-dose ARB therapy versus ARB plus CCB combination therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in 1164 Japanese elderly hypertensive patients with baseline type 2 diabetes and/or CVD (Am J Med (2012))...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519274/standardised-outcomes-in-nephrology-children-and-adolescents-song-kids-a-protocol-for-establishing-a-core-outcome-set-for-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Allison Tong, Susan Samuel, Michael Zappitelli, Allison Dart, Susan Furth, Allison Eddy, Jaap Groothoff, Nicholas J A Webb, Hui-Kim Yap, Detlef Bockenhauer, Aditi Sinha, Stephen I Alexander, Stuart L Goldstein, Debbie S Gipson, Camilla S Hanson, Nicole Evangelidis, Sally Crowe, Tess Harris, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Braden Manns, John Gill, Peter Tugwell, Wim Van Biesen, David C Wheeler, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation, have a mortality rate of up to 30-fold higher than the general aged-matched population, and severely impaired quality of life. Symptoms such as fatigue and pain are prevalent and debilitating. Children with CKD are at risk of cognitive impairment, and poorer educational, vocational, and psychosocial outcomes compared with their well peers, which have consequences through to adulthood...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475661/consequences-of-ckd-on-functioning
#12
REVIEW
Piyawan Kittiskulnam, Anoop Sheshadri, Kirsten L Johansen
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in the United States and throughout the world,(1) with approximately 13% of adults affected.(2) In addition, according to recent estimates, almost half of patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 are 70 years of age and older.(2) In the United States, the number of prevalent end-stage renal disease cases continues to increase in patients older than age 65. In light of the demographic characteristics of patients with CKD and ESRD, there has been considerable focus on associations between CKD and cardiovascular outcomes...
July 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377350/incorporating-geriatric-assessment-into-a-nephrology-clinic-preliminary-data-from-two-models-of-care
#13
Rasheeda K Hall, Carol Haines, Steven M Gorbatkin, Lynn Schlanger, Hesham Shaban, Jane O Schell, Susan B Gurley, Cathleen S Colón-Emeric, C Barrett Bowling
Older adults with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience functional impairment that can complicate CKD management. Failure to recognize functional impairment may put these individuals at risk of further functional decline, nursing home placement, and missed opportunities for timely goals-of-care conversations. Routine geriatric assessment could be a useful tool for identifying older adults with CKD who are at risk of functional decline and provide contextual information to guide clinical decision-making...
October 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241631/l-carnitine-improves-cognitive-and-renal-functions-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Nur Abu Ahmad, Zaher Armaly, Sylvia Berman, Adel Jabour, Shlomit Aga-Mizrachi, Efrat Mosenego-Ornan, Avi Avital
Over the past decade, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached epidemic proportions. The search for novel pharmacological treatment for CKD has become an area of intensive clinical research. l-Carnitine, considered as the "gatekeeper" responsible for admitting long chain fatty acids into cell mitochondria. l-Carnitine synthesis and turnover are regulated mainly by the kidney and its levels inversely correlate with serum creatinine of normal subjects and CKD patients. Previous studies showed that l-carnitine administration to elderly people is improving and preserving cognitive function...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240548/chronic-kidney-disease-related-physical-frailty-and-cognitive-impairment-a-systemic-review
#15
Zhiyuan Shen, Qingwei Ruan, Zhuowei Yu, Zhongquan Sun
AIM: The objective of this review was to assess chronic kidney disease-related frailty and cognitive impairment, as well as their probable causes, mechanisms and the interventions. METHODS: Studies from 1990 to 2015 were reviewed to evaluate the relationship between chronic kidney disease and physical frailty and cognitive impairment. Of the 1694 studies from the initial search, longitudinal studies (n = 22) with the keywords "Cognitive and CKD" and longitudinal or cross-sectional studies (n = 5) with the keywords "Frailty and CKD" were included in final analysis...
May 31, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226196/the-role-of-klotho-protein-in-chronic-kidney-disease-studies-in-animals-and-humans
#16
Edyta Gołembiewska, Joanna Stępniewska, Joanna Kabat-Koperska, Karolina Kędzierska, Maciej Domański, Kazimierz Ciechanowski
The identification of Klotho gene was a major discovery as the gene encodes a protein regulating multiple functions. A defect in Klotho gene expression in mice results in a phenotype of premature aging including shortened life span, growth retardation, hypogonadism, skin and muscle atrophies, vascular calcification, cognition impairment, motor neuron degeneration and others. This phenotype is associated with phosphate balance disorders and underlines the major function of Klotho in mineral metabolism. As another 2 related paralogs were discovered (beta-Klotho, which is involved in bile acid and energy metabolism, and gamma-Klotho, with a yet to be defined function), this led to the revised naming of Klotho as alpha-Klotho...
May 26, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187460/role-of-vitamin-d-in-cognitive-function-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Zhen Cheng, Jing Lin, Qi Qian
Both vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D exerts neuroprotective and regulatory roles in the central nervous system. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with muscle weakness and bone loss, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia), inflammation, oxidative stress, immune suppression and neurocognitive impairment. The combination of hypovitaminosis D and CKD can be even more debilitating, as cognitive impairment can develop and progress through vitamin D-associated and CKD-dependent/independent processes, leading to significant morbidity and mortality...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168941/cognitive-impairment-and-depression-in-a-population-of-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-in-colombia-a-prevalence-study
#18
Carlos Edgardo Rodríguez-Angarita, Rafael Mauricio Sanabria-Arenas, Juan Diego Vargas-Jaramillo, Izcay Ronderos-Botero
BACKGROUND: Growth of the elderly population is linked to the increase of comorbid conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), depression, and cognitive impairment (CI). Cognitive impairment can vary from minimal deficits in the normal aging, to mild cognitive impairment with a prevalence ranging from 1 to 29 % in people ≥ 65 years of age, up to severe impairment with a prevalence of 6 to 42 %. The CI induced by depression usually affects the functional performance of the elderly...
2016: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049362/montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca-screening-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd-pre-dialysis
#19
Marilise de Andrade Paraizo, Ana Laura Maciel Almeida, Leopoldo Antônio Pires, Renata Silva Almeida Abrita, Mary Hellen Teixeira Crivellari, Beatriz Dos Santos Pereira, Natália Maria da Silva Fernandes, Marcus Gomes Bastos
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at higher risk of developing cognitive impairment (CI), initially mild (MCI), potentially identifiable, but still poorly diagnosed and treated. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been indicated for MCI screening in CKD. OBJECTIVE: To assess MCI in patients with CKD not yet on dialysis. METHODS: Study conducted in 72 non-elderly subjects with pre-dialysis CKD. The neuropsychological assessment included: The global cognitive assessment test MoCA; the clock drawing (CD); the digit span forward (DSF) and reverse (DSR); phonemic verbal (VF) fluency (FAS) and semantics (animals); the fist-edge-palm (FEP); and the memory 10 pictures...
March 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972681/cognitive-impairment-and-progression-of-ckd
#20
Manjula Kurella Tamura, Kristine Yaffe, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Jingrong Yang, Stephen Sozio, Michael Fischer, Jing Chen, Akinlolu Ojo, Jennifer DeLuca, Dawei Xie, Eric Vittinghoff, Alan S Go
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, its prognostic significance is unclear. We assessed the independent association between cognitive impairment and CKD progression in adults with mild to moderate CKD. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults with CKD participating in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Mean age of the sample was 57.7±11...
July 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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