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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219630/early-complications-from-the-use-of-calcium-phosphate-paste-in-mandibular-lengthening-surgery-a-retrospective-study
#1
Erica Coppey, Maurice Y Mommaerts
PURPOSE: Calcium phosphate paste is used in mandibular lengthening surgery to avoid unesthetic notching at the lower border and to help stabilize the segments when osteosynthesis slippage is a concern. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the hardened paste increases the incidence of infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of medical charts of all patients who underwent a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy from February 2012 through July 2015...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210386/ionic-hydrogel-monotherapy-and-in-combination-with-antiviral-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-the-post-procedure-management-of-fractional-laser-treated-patients
#2
Francesca Romana Grippaudo
Objective: The pre- and postoperative care for fractionated laser resurfacing is still controversial, especially in regard to the use of antibiotics to prevent bacterial infection and potential consequences. Recently, an ionic hydrogel has shown to be useful in the postoperative treatment of minor burns. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of this hydrogel after fractional laser treatments targeting photoaging and chronoaging damage to skin. Design: A randomized prospective study. Setting: one plastic surgeon private practice...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207505/efficacy-of-1st-line-bismuth-containing-quadruple-therapies-with-levofloxacin-or-clarithromycin-for-the-eradication-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-a-1-week-open-label-randomized-trial
#3
Jing Su, Xiaoying Zhou, Han Chen, Bo Hao, Weifeng Zhang, Guoxin Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present open-label, randomized control trial was to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of two 1-week bismuth-containing quadruple regimens and 1 levofloxacin-based triple regimen for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in treatment-naive patients. The influence of susceptibility and host CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the efficacy was also evaluated. METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly to receive esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with clarithromycin and amoxicillin (EBCA), esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with levofloxacin and amoxicillin (EBLA), or esomeprazole along levofloxacin and amoxicillin (ELA) for 1 week...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203365/polypharmacy-and-inappropriate-medication-use-in-patients-with-dementia-an-underresearched-problem
#4
REVIEW
Carole Parsons
Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are increasingly prevalent across healthcare systems and settings as global demographic trends shift towards increased proportions of older people in populations. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP), and have reported high prevalence of PIP across settings of care in Europe and North America and, as a consequence, increased risk of adverse drug reactions, healthcare utilization, morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202013/levofloxacin-or-clarithromycin-based-quadruple-regimens-what-is-the-best-alternative-as-first-line-treatment-for-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-in-a-country-with-high-resistance-rates-for-both-antibiotics
#5
Diogo Branquinho, Nuno Almeida, Carlos Gregório, José Eduardo Pina Cabral, Adriano Casela, Maria Manuel Donato, Luís Tomé
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori eradication rates in Portugal are declining, due to increased resistance of this bacterium to antimicrobial agents, especially Clarithromycin. Quadruple Levofloxacin-containing regimens could be an option for first-line treatment, but its efficacy should be evaluated as fluoroquinolone resistance is rapidly increasing. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of Clarithromycin and Levofloxacin-based sequential quadruple therapies as first-line treatment options and determine factors associated with treatment failure...
February 15, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198727/new-guidelines-for-nosocomial-pneumonia
#6
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these entities were released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society in 2016. This review summarizes the recommendations contained within these guidelines and their supporting rationale. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to diagnosis of HAP and VAP, the guidelines suggest using semiquantitative cultures of noninvasively obtained respiratory samples instead of quantitative cultures of invasively obtained samples...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197380/the-influence-of-gut-decontamination-prophylactic-antibiotics-on-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-and-survival-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#7
Bertrand Routy, Caroline Letendre, David Enot, Maxime Chénard-Poirier, Vikram Mehraj, Noémie Charbonneau Séguin, Khaled Guenda, Kathia Gagnon, Paul-Louis Woerther, David Ghez, Silvy Lachance
The intestinal microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). High-dose conditioning regimens given prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) modulate the composition of gut microbiota and damage the gut epithelial barrier, resulting in increased systemic inflammation. We assessed whether gut decontamination with antibiotics (ATB) prior to aHSCT influenced the frequency of aGVHD and mortality in 500 patients from two Canadian centers between 2005 and 2012...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196391/pentoxifylline-treatment-of-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-with-nosocomial-sepsis
#8
Şahin Hamilçıkan, Emrah Can, Övgü Büke, Meltem Erol, Özlem Bostan Gayret
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the result of intravenous pentoxifylline as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy on mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates with nosocomial sepsis. Methods For the 18 VLBW preterm neonates, as an adjunct therapy to antibiotics regimens, pentoxifylline (5 mg/kg/h for 6 hours) was administered to premature infants with sepsis on 3 successive days. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded before and after treatment. Results Following pentoxifylline therapy, the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly decreased, while the blood pH and base excess were significantly increased (p < 0...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184305/once-daily-aerosolised-tobramycin-in-adult-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-in-the-management-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-chronic-infection
#9
Marco Mantero, Andrea Gramegna, Giovanna Pizzamiglio, Alice D'Adda, Paolo Tarsia, Francesco Blasi
It is estimated that about 60-70% of Cystic Fibrosis patients develop Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic infection, with progressive loss of lung function, as well as increased antibiotic resistance and mortality. The current strategy is to maintain lung function by chronic suppressive antipseudomonas antibiotic therapy. Tobramycin inhalation solution was the first approved aerosolised antibiotic to be used against P. aeruginosa; inhalatory tobramycin frequency of administration is twice daily and inhalation time is estimated to be 15 to 20 min...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181180/managing-ibd-therapies-in-pregnancy
#10
REVIEW
Jill K J Gaidos, Sunanda V Kane
Inflammatory bowel disease is frequently diagnosed before or during key childbearing years. One of the most important factors for a healthy pregnancy is having quiescent disease prior to conception and maintaining disease remission for the duration of the pregnancy. In order to achieve that, most women will need to continue their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment during pregnancy. One of the main concerns these women have is whether these medications will have adverse effects on their growing fetus...
February 8, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179245/ceftaroline-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#11
Bryan Pinckney White, Katie E Barber, Kayla R Stover
PURPOSE: The utility of ceftaroline for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) is reviewed. SUMMARY: Ceftaroline was originally approved for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) but recently received an additional approval for the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) associated with ABSSSIs. Ceftaroline has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of MRSAB, including isolates with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations to conventional therapy when used alone or in combination with other agents...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167248/agreement-between-pre-operative-and-intra-operative-bacteriological-samples-in-85-chronic-peri-prosthetic-infections
#12
Valérie Matter-Parrat, Cécile Ronde-Oustau, Cyril Boéri, Jeannot Gaudias, Jean-Yves Jenny
BACKGROUND: Whether pre-operative microbiological sampling contributes to the management of chronic peri-prosthetic infection remains controversial. We assessed agreement between the results of pre-operative and intra-operative samples in patients undergoing single-stage prosthesis exchange to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection. HYPOTHESIS: Agreement between pre-operative and intra-operative samples exceeds 75% in patients undergoing single-stage exchange of a hip or knee prosthesis to treat chronic peri-prosthetic infection...
February 3, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161927/optimal-duration-for-the-use-of-0-5-levofloxacineye-drops-before-vitreoretinal-surgery
#13
Xiaoxin Li, Xiaoling Liang, Luosheng Tang, Junjun Zhang, Lijun Shen, Guanfang Su, Xiaorong Li
PURPOSE: To investigate various regimens of prophylactic antibiotic therapy for vitreoretinal surgery. DESIGN: This study compared different prophylactic therapies with 0.5% levofloxacin eye drops. METHODS: Two hundred nine patients from 7 hospitals scheduled to undergo vitreoretinal surgery were randomized into 3 groups to receive 0.5% levofloxacin eye drops for 1 day (6 times/d), 2 days (3 times/d), or 3 days (3 times/d) before surgery (groups 1D, 2D, and 3D, respectively)...
January 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161807/what-we-may-expect-from-novel-antibacterial-agents-in-the-pipeline-with-respect-to-resistance-and-pharmacodynamic-principles
#14
REVIEW
Karen Bush, Malcolm G P Page
There are some 43 small molecules in the antibiotic development pipeline from late preclinical stage (7 compounds) through Phase 1 (11 molecules), Phase 2 (13 molecules) to Phase 3 (12 molecules). The majority of these are representatives of established antibiotic classes that have been modified to address problems of resistance. In addition, there is considerable activity around the discovery of novel classes of β-lactamase inhibitors with 10 combinations representing 4 inhibitor classes, at different stages of development...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156016/severe-pneumonia-associated-with-ibrutinib-monotherapy-for-cll-and-lymphoma
#15
Natalia Kreiniz, Jacob Bejar, Aaron Polliack, Tamar Tadmor
In recent years, there have been major advances in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) particularly since the development of novel therapeutic agents, mostly "biological drugs." One of the obvious advantages of these agents is the decreased rate of infectious complications occurring during the course of therapy, compared to the use of standard immuno-chemotherapy regimens. Here, we describe 3 patients with CLL and 1 with mantle cell lymphoma who developed severe life-threatening pneumonias, during monotherapy with ibrutinib...
February 3, 2017: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155620/nlrp3-inhibitors-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Agampodi Promoda Perera, Dale Kunde, Rajaraman Eri
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of intestinal disorders characterised by chronic relapsing inflammation of the small intestine and colon. IBD manifests as either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. METHODS: Here, we have reviewed current treatment regimen for IBD utilising anti-inflammatory drugs, immune system suppressors and antibiotics or a combination of these. However, these therapeutics lead to a number of adverse effects, remission or significant non-responsiveness creating an urgent need to develop potent drugs with novel mechanisms of action for IBD...
February 1, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149487/clinical-response-and-outcome-of-pneumonia-due-to-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-critically-ill-patients
#17
Lida Shojaei, Mostafa Mohammadi, Mohammad-Taghi Beigmohammadi, Mahsa Doomanlou, Alireza Abdollahi, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi, Hossein Khalili
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The frequency of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter spp. infections is increasing in Iran. Considering availability of limited therapeutic options, clinical response and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to multi-drug resistant A.baumannii were evaluated in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 29 patients with carbapenem resistance A. baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia were enrolled...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148226/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-empiric-antibiotic-therapy-of-bloodstream-infections-at-a-general-hospital-in-mid-norway-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Arne Mehl, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Angela Kümmel, Stian Lydersen, Julie Paulsen, Ingvild Haugan, Erik Solligård, Jan Kristian Damås, Stig Harthug, Tom-Harald Edna
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of bloodstream infection (BSI) and antimicrobial resistance have been increasing in many countries. We studied trends in antimicrobial resistance and empiric antibiotic therapy at a medium-sized general hospital in Mid-Norway. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2013, 1995 prospectively recorded episodes of BSI in 1719 patients aged 16-99 years were included. We analyzed the antimicrobial non-susceptibility according to place of acquisition, site of infection, microbe group, and time period...
February 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145786/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-listeria-monocytogenes-endophthalmitis-a-systematic-review
#19
Matthew F Chersich, Johanna Takkinen, Caroline Charlier, Alexandre Leclercq, Paul E Adams, Gauri Godbole, Ursula Altmeyer, Ingrid H M Friesema, Lisa Labbé Sandelin, Lorna Jenkin, Luigi Fontana, Raffaella Aldigeri, Francois Venter, Stanley M F Luchters, Marc Lecuit, Luca Cimino
PURPOSE: Describe patient characteristics, treatment, and vision outcomes of Listeria monocytogenes endophthalmitis, an exceedingly rare form of listeriosis. METHODS: L. monocytogenes endophthalmitis cases in human adults, located through Medline (32) and from disease surveillance centers (11). L. monocytogenes conjunctivitis and keratitis were excluded. RESULTS: Most cases occurred in 2000-2015 (22/43), and almost all in Europe or North America (40/43)...
February 1, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145464/tdtest-easy-detection-of-bacterial-tolerance-and-persistence-in-clinical-isolates-by-a-modified-disk-diffusion-assay
#20
Orit Gefen, Betty Chekol, Jacob Strahilevitz, Nathalie Q Balaban
Antibiotic tolerance - the ability for prolonged survival under bactericidal treatments - is a potentially clinically significant phenomenon that is commonly overlooked in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Recent in vitro experiments show that high tolerance can evolve under intermittent antibiotic treatments in as little as eight exposures to high doses of antibiotics, suggesting that tolerance may evolve also in patients. However, tests for antibiotic susceptibilities, such as the disk-diffusion assay, evaluate only the concentration at which a bacterial strain stops growing, namely resistance level...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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