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Case series review if the literature

Hanna Ferløv Schwensen, Carol Kan, Janet Treasure, Niels Høiby, Magnus Sjögren
PURPOSE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a poorly understood and often chronic condition. Deviations in the gut microbiota have been reported to influence the gut-brain axis in other disorders. Therefore, if present in AN, it may impact on symptoms and illness progression. A review of the gut microbiota studies in AN is presented. METHOD: A literature search on PubMed yielded 27 articles; 14 were selected and based on relevance, 9 articles were included. The findings were interpreted in the larger context of preclinical research and clinical observations...
March 14, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Boaz Palterer, Gianfranco Vitiello, Alessia Carraresi, Maria Grazia Giudizi, Daniele Cammelli, Paola Parronchi
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies represent a heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases with systemic involvement. Even though numerous specific autoantibodies have been recognized, they have not been included, with the only exception of anti-Jo-1, into the 2017 Classification Criteria, thus perpetuating a clinical-serologic gap. The lack of homogeneous grouping based on the antibody profile deeply impacts the diagnostic approach, therapeutic choices and prognostic stratification of these patients. This review is intended to highlight the comprehensive scenario regarding myositis-related autoantibodies, from the molecular characterization and biological significance to target antigens, from the detection tools, with a special focus on immunofluorescence patterns on HEp-2 cells, to their relative prevalence and ethnic diversity, from the clinical presentation to prognosis...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
Pina Violano, Stephanie Bonne, Thomas Duncan, Peter Pappas, A Britton Christmas, Andrew Dennis, Stephanie Goldberg, Wendy Greene, Michael Hirsh, William Shillinglaw, Bryce Robinson, Marie Crandall
BACKGROUND: Over 50,000 homicides and suicides occur each year. An estimated half of all U.S. households are believed to have a firearm present, making them one of the most ubiquitous consumer products. Our goal was to determine if the manner of storage of a firearm in a home could potentially make a difference in the outcomes of intentional and unintentional injuries involving a firearm; specifically addressing the use of gun safes and devices that block/disable firearm function (trigger locks, cable locks, etc...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Carolina L Haass-Koffler
The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) exerts its effects by acting on its receptors and on the binding protein (CRFBP). Extensive literature suggests a role of CRF in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Less is known about the specific role, if any, of CRFBP in AUD. In this review, we summarize recent interdisciplinary efforts toward identifying the contribution of CRFBP in mediating CRF activation. The role of CRFBP in alcohol-related behaviors has been evaluated with the ultimate goal of designing effective novel therapeutic strategies for AUD...
October 13, 2017: Alcohol
Anthony Tickner, Cheri Klinghard, Jonathan F Arnold, Valerie Marmolejo
INTRODUCTION: As the majority of diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs) occur on the plantar foot, excessive pressure is a major contributing factor to delayed healing. The gold standard for offloading is the total contact cast (TCC); yet, TCC use is contraindicated in patients with ischemia. Lower extremity ischemia typically presents in the more severe end stages of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). As PAD exists on a severity spectrum from mild to severe, designation of a clear cutoff where TCC use is an absolute contraindication would assist those who treat DFUs on a daily basis...
February 2018: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
Tali Capua, Amir Klivitsky, Efraim Bilavsky, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Jonathan Roth, Shlomi Constantini, Galia Grisaru-Soen
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a rare cause of central nervous system infections. We describe 3 new cases of GAS brain abscess in previously healthy children treated by us between 2015-2016 and review the 5 cases reported in the literature since 1988. All 8 children received early empiric antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention, and 5 made a full recovery. GAS brain abscess is a rare infection; however its incidence may be rising. We suggest that if patients show symptoms such as fever, vomiting, and lethargy, with contiguous infection such as otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis, or meningitis, GAS brain abscess should be suspected...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
G Filardo, S Zaffagnini, R De Filippis, F Perdisa, L Andriolo, C Candrian
PURPOSE: To assess whether the combination of HTO and cartilage treatment produced an additional clinical benefit compared to HTO alone. The secondary aim was to identify if there was any difference among different cartilage procedures in terms of healing potential and clinical outcome. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed on PubMed database by three independent observers according to the following inclusion criteria: clinical reports of any level of evidence, written in the English language, with no time limitation, about HTO associated with cartilage surgical and injective treatment, including surveys reporting clinical, radiological, or second-look outcomes at any follow-up time...
February 16, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Vincent J Noori, Kanika Trehan, Alisa Savetamal, Damien W Carter
INTRODUCTION: Marjolin' s ulcer, an aggressive ulcerating squamous cell carcinoma, is a well-known phenomenon that occurs in chronically inflamed or scarred tissue; however, squamous cell carcinoma arising in the acute setting after tissue trauma - specifically autograft donor harvest sites for burns - is a rare, but notable event. METHODS: This case series describes three instances of squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed in split-thickness skin graft donor sites in the immediate post-operative period...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
R W Jordan, A W P Chapman, D Buchanan, P Makrides
BACKGROUND: Ankle fractures are one of the most commonly occurring fractures in the elderly population. The overall incidence has been reported to be up to 184 fractures per 100,000 persons per year, of which 20-30% occur in the elderly. Medical co-morbidities, osteoporosis, suboptimal skin quality and poor toleration of non-weight bearing status all contribute to difficulties in managing these injuries in this population. Intramedullary implants are advantageous as they utilise smaller incisions, minimise soft tissue disruption and may allow early weight bearing...
February 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
J L Damman, E A Rodriguez, A H Ali, C W Buness, K L Cox, E J Carey, K D Lindor
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: PSC is an autoimmune biliary inflammatory disorder that is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with 50%-75% of patients with PSC having coexisting IBD, most commonly ulcerative colitis. Currently, no medical therapies have been shown to improve the disease course or slow its progression. However, ongoing research has resulted in a growing interest in the use of antibiotics for treatment of PSC, of which vancomycin is the most studied. In this review, we summarise the current evidence on the use of vancomycin in PSC and comment on future research areas of interest...
February 7, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Stephen Clive Hayes, Christopher Richard James Wilcox, Hollie Samantha Forbes White, Natalie Vanicek
CONTEXT: Robotic assisted gait training (RAGT) technology can be used as a rehabilitation tool or as an assistive device for spinal cord injured (SCI) individuals. Its impact on upright stepping characteristics of SCI individuals using treadmill or overground robotic exoskeleton systems has yet to be established. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature and identify if overground or treadmill based RAGT use in SCI individuals elicited differences in temporal-spatial characteristics and functional outcome measures...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Michael Karsy, Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Christian A Bowers, Richard H Schmidt
OBJECTIVE Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), or pseudotumor cerebri, is a complex and difficult-to-manage condition that can lead to permanent vision loss and refractory headaches if untreated. Traditional treatment options, such as unilateral ventriculoperitoneal (VP) or lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt placement, have high complication and failure rates and often require multiple revisions. The use of bilateral proximal catheters has been hypothesized as a method to improve shunt survival. The use of stereotactic technology has improved the accuracy of catheter placement and may improve treatment of IIH, with fewer complications and greater shunt patency time...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Angelo Territo, Bear Foerster, Shahrokh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt, Jose M Gaya, Joan Palou, Alberto Breda
INTRODUCTION: Conservative management of upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) is becoming increasingly popular: the key to success is correct selection of patients with low-risk UTUC based on size (≤ 2 cm), focality (single lesion), stage (< T2), and grade (low grade). Despite the recent growing interest in the conservative approach to UTUC, the diagnostic process is still a challenge, and kidney-sparing surgery (KSS) is traditionally reserved for patients with contraindications to radical nephroureterectomy...
February 1, 2018: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Po-Hsiung Chang, Chin-Ming Jeng, Der-Fang Chen, Lung-Huang Lin
RATIONALE: Sigmoid volvulus (SV) is an exceptionally rare but potentially life-threatening condition in children. CHIEF COMPLAINT: Abdominal distention for 1 week. DIAGNOSES: Sigmoid volvulus. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 12-year-old boy with mechanical ileus who was finally confirmed to have SV with the combination of abdominal plain film, sonography, and computed tomography (CT) with the finding of mesenteric artery rotation...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jeffrey Garcia, Austin Dodge, Paul Luepke, Hom-Lay Wang, Yvonne Kapila, Guo-Hao Lin
AIMS: This review aimed at investigating the effect of membrane exposure on guided bone regeneration (GBR) outcomes at peri-implant sites and edentulous ridges. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Electronic and manual literature searches were conducted by two independent reviewers using four databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, for articles up to February 2017. Articles were included if they were human clinical trials or case series reporting outcomes of GBR procedures with and without membrane exposure...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Georgia Ntali, John A Wass
PURPOSE: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are benign pituitary neoplasms that do not cause a hormonal hypersecretory syndrome. An improved understanding of their epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis is needed. METHOD: A literature review was performed using Pubmed to identify research reports and clinical case series on NFPAs. RESULTS: They account for 14-54% of pituitary adenomas and have a prevalence of 7-41.3/100,000 population...
January 24, 2018: Pituitary
Emmanuel Touzé, Yves Gruel, Isabelle Gouin-Thibault, Emmanuel De Maistre, Sophie Susen, Pierre Sie, Laurent Derex
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whereas intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is allowed in acute ischaemic stroke (IS) in patients on vitamin K antagonists if INR≤1.7, there is no similar recommendations for patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), notably due to the lack of coagulation tests to assess the therapeutic effects. Although the literature is scarce, consisting in small case series and retrospective studies, considering the frequency of this situation, the French Vascular Neurology Society and the French study Group on Haemostasis and Thrombosis have worked on a joined position paper to provide a practical position regarding emergency management of IS in patients on DOACs...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Neus Lanau, Javier Mareque, Lluis Giner, Michel Zabalza
Background: Four novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) named dabigatran, rivaroxaban, edoxaban and apixaban have been recently introduced to overcome some of the drawbacks of existing anticoagulants. They have less interactions and do not require routine monitoring. However, there is not enough scientific data about the protocol to apply in these patients on DOACs undergoing dental treatment. Thus is necessary to evaluate the potential bleeding risk of these drugs, the possibility of thromboembolic events occurring if they are withdrawn or the need to change to heparin previously...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Christof T Kaltenmeier, Young Erben, Jeffrey Indes, Alfred Lee, Alan Dardik, Timur Sarac, Cassius Iyad Ochoa Chaar
OBJECTIVE: May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) is increasingly recognized as a frequent source of leg swelling and a precipitating factor for venous thromboembolism. This paper is a systematic review of the English literature on MTS with an analysis focusing on gender differences in presentation and treatment. METHODS: A systematic review of the English literature between April 1967 and December 2014 was performed using the following terms: "May-Thurner syndrome," "Cockett syndrome," and "iliac vein compression syndrome...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Kanaan Mansoor, Murad Kheetan, Saba Shahnawaz, Anna P Shapiro, Eva Patton-Tackett, Larry Dial, Gary Rankin, Prasanna Santhanam, Antonios H Tzamaloukas, Tibor Nadasdy, Joseph I Shapiro, Zeid J Khitan
BACKGROUND: The United States is faced with an unprecedented epidemic of drug abuse. Every year thousands of Americans visit the emergency departments all over the country with illicit drug related complaints. These drugs have been known to be associated with a range of renal pathologies, from reversible acute kidney injuries to debilitating irreversible conditions like renal infarction. So far, no comprehensive study or systematic review has been published that includes the commonly used street drugs and designer drugs with potential nephrotoxic outcomes...
December 29, 2017: BMC Nephrology
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