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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875995/high-throughput-gene-expression-quantification-of-grapevine-defense-responses-in-the-field-using-microfluidic-dynamic-arrays
#1
Marie-Cécile Dufour, Noël Magnin, Bernard Dumas, Sophie Vergnes, Marie-France Corio-Costet
BACKGROUND: The fight against grapevine diseases due to biotrophic pathogens usually requires the massive use of chemical fungicides with harmful environmental effects. An alternative strategy could be the use of compounds able to stimulate plant immune responses which significantly limit the development of pathogens in laboratory conditions. However, the efficiency of this strategy in natura is still insufficient to be included in pest management programs. To understand and to improve the mode of action of plant defense stimulators in the field, it is essential to develop reliable tools that describe the resistance status of the plant upon treatment...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798416/effect-of-free-and-nanoencapsulated-copaiba-oil-on-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Cristina Campos, Alexandre Luz de Castro, Angela Maria Vicente Tavares, Rafael Oliveira Fernandes, Vanessa Duarte Ortiz, Tatiane Evelyn Barboza, Cláudio Pereira, Miriam Apel, Onilda Santos da Silva, Susana Llesuy, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo, Adriane Belló-Klein
Copaiba oil comes from an Amazonian tree and has been used as an alternative medicine in Brazil. However, it has not been investigated yet in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to test whether copaiba oil or nanocapsules containing this oil could modulate monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Male Wistar rats (170 ± 20 g) received oil or nanocapsules containing this oil (400 mg/kg) by gavage daily for one week. At the end of this period, a single injection of MCT (60 mg/kg i...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789147/utilizing-direct-skin-feeding-assays-for-development-of-vaccines-that-interrupt-malaria-transmission-a-systematic-review-of-methods-and-case-study
#3
REVIEW
Elizabeth B Brickley, Mamadou Coulibaly, Erin E Gabriel, Sara A Healy, Jen C C Hume, Issaka Sagara, Sekou F Traore, Ogobara Doumbo, Patrick E Duffy
Shifting the malaria priorities from a paradigm of control and elimination to a goal of global eradication calls for renewed attention to the interruption of malaria transmission. Sustained progress toward eradication will require both improved understanding of infectious reservoirs and efficient development of novel transmission-blocking interventions, such as rapidly acting and highly efficacious therapeutics and vaccines. Here, we review the direct skin feeding assay (DSF), which has been proposed as a valuable tool for measuring the in natura transmission of malaria parasites from human hosts to mosquito vectors across heterogeneous populations...
October 24, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777735/genetic-signatures-of-a-range-expansion-in-natura-when-clones-play-leapfrog
#4
Ronan Becheler, Constance Xhaard, Etienne K Klein, Katherine J Hayden, Pascal Frey, Stéphane De Mita, Fabien Halkett
The genetic consequences of range expansions have generally been investigated at wide geographical and temporal scales, long after the colonization event. A unique ecological system enabled us to both monitor the colonization dynamics and decipher the genetic footprints of expansion over a very short time period. Each year an epidemic of the poplar rust (Melampsora larici-populina) expands clonally and linearly along the Durance River, in the Alps. The colonization dynamics observed in 2004 showed two phases with different genetic outcomes...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764931/-assessment-of-a-project-for-integrated-management-of-care-given-to-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-local-health-authority-21-of-legnago-veneto-region-northern-italy-in-the-period-2010-2012
#5
Alessandro Marcon, Alberto Vaona, Giulio Rigon, Marco Carazzolo, Franco Del Zotti, Sandro Girotto, Claudio Marafetti
OBIETTIVI: descrivere, nella ASL 21 di Legnago (VR), l'andamento di alcuni indicatori sanitari tra il 2009, anno precedente all'avvio di un progetto triennale per la gestione integrata dell'assistenza al paziente con diabete mellito di tipo 2, e il 2012, ultimo anno del progetto. DISEGNO: studio longitudinale trasversale ripetuto. SETTING E PARTECIPANTI: tutti i pazienti diabetici di tipo 2 della ASL 21, identificati nei database aziendali (in base a esenzioni per patologia, accessi al servizio diabetologico, consumo di farmaci antidiabetici e strisce per la determinazione della glicemia) e nelle cartelle cliniche dei medici di famiglia...
September 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764926/-atmospheric-non-methane-hydrocarbons-near-plants-of-crude-oil-first-treatment
#6
Elisa Bustaffa, Annamaria De Marinis Loiotile, Genoveffa Farella, Stefania Petraccone, Gianluigi De Gennaro, Fabrizio Bianchi
La continua espansione delle attività di perforazione ai fini dell'estrazione petrolifera in prossimità di aree abitate ha fatto sì che negli ultimi anni l'attenzione si focalizzasse sull'impatto di questo processo fortemente industrializzato sulla salute pubblica. Le comunità che vivono nei dintorni di impianti di questo tipo devono, infatti, fronteggiare diversi problemi, quali l'inquinamento atmosferico e acustico, la contaminazione del suolo e delle acque sotterranee, il traffico dei camion da e verso il sito, incidenti e malfunzionamenti all'interno dell'impianto...
September 2016: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764219/study-on-the-cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-clastogenic-potential-of-attalea-phalerata-mart-ex-spreng-oil-pulp-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-experimental-models
#7
Fernando Freitas de Lima, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei Menegati, Giseli Karenina Traesel, Flávio Henrique Souza de Araújo, Caroline Honaiser Lescano, Sara Moraes Peixoto, Felipe Ariel Mao Silva, Silvia Cristina Heredia Vieira, Maria do Carmo Vieira, Silvia Aparecida Oesterreich
Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as "bacuri", is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662519/relating-fitness-to-long-term-environmental-variations-in-natura
#8
Pascal Milesi, Thomas Lenormand, Christophe Lagneau, Mylène Weill, Pierrick Labbé
Quantifying links between ecological processes and adaptation dynamics in natura remains a crucial challenge. Many studies have documented the strength, form and direction of selection, and its variations in space and time, but only a few managed to link these variations to their proximal causes. This step is, however, crucial, if we are to understand how the variation in selective pressure affects adaptive allele dynamics in natural settings. We used data from a long-term survey (about 30 years) monitoring the adaptation to insecticides of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in Montpellier area (France), focusing on three resistance alleles of the Ester locus...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650549/host-plant-range-of-a-fruit-fly-community-diptera-tephritidae-does-fruit-composition-influence-larval-performance
#9
Abir Hafsi, Benoit Facon, Virginie Ravigné, Frédéric Chiroleu, Serge Quilici, Brahim Chermiti, Pierre-François Duyck
BACKGROUND: Phytophagous insects differ in their degree of specialisation on host plants, and range from strictly monophagous species that can develop on only one host plant to extremely polyphagous species that can develop on hundreds of plant species in many families. Nutritional compounds in host fruits affect several larval traits that may be related to adult fitness. In this study, we determined the relationship between fruit nutrient composition and the degree of host specialisation of seven of the eight tephritid species present in La Réunion; these species are known to have very different host ranges in natura...
2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637809/public-attitudes-and-opinions-as-dimensions-of-efficient-management-with-extensive-meadows-in-natura-2000-area
#10
Andrej Šorgo, Natalija Špur, Sonja Škornik
Over time, grassland use has changed from traditional (extensive) to intensive agricultural management, a change which has caused biodiversity loss in the European grassland area. To save Europe's biodiversity, the most important measure was the establishment of the Natura 2000 network. Goričko Landscape Park in Slovenia is in Natura 2000 to preserve its traditional and extensive small-scale farming. The aims of this research were to identify potential obstacles to proper management of the extensively used meadows in this region and identify major factors that would affect such management in order to prepare more appropriate strategies for habitat conservation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634575/branching-patterns-of-root-systems-comparison-of-monocotyledonous-and-dicotyledonous-species
#11
Loïc Pagès
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acropetal root branching is a major process which increases the number of growing tips and distributes their growth potential within the whole root system. METHODS: Using a method presented in a recent paper, the defined branching traits were estimated in 140 different species, and the branching patterns of monocots (45 species) and dicots (95 species) were compared. KEY RESULTS: It was checked that the method also applied to monocots (not considered in the previous paper), and that all traits could be estimated in each species...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591847/private-forest-owners-motivations-for-adopting-biodiversity-related-protection-programs
#12
Philippe Polomé
Since economic incentives are typically fairly low for many non-industrial private forest owners, it is of interest for public policy to examine whether other motives might play a role on adoption of Biodiversity-related Protection Programs. In a survey of non-industrial private forest owners, a number of current programs, that include biodiversity protection to some degree, are investigated: Prosilva, environmental associations, other programs of forest management. Across the survey, adoption amounts to 22% for all the programs jointly, and is shown to depend on economic, social and intrinsic motives, with significant crowding-out only between the economic and intrinsic motives, that is, intrinsic motives likely lessen the effectiveness of economic incentives...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538516/impact-of-the-bolsa-fam%C3%A3-lia-program-on-food-availability-of-low-income-brazilian-families-a-quasi-experimental-study
#13
Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins, Carlos Augusto Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The Bolsa Família Program was created in Brazil in 2003, by the joint of different social programs aimed at poor or very poor families with focus on income transfer to promote immediate poverty relief, conditionalities and complementary programs. Given the contributions of conditional cash transfer programs to poverty alleviation and their potential effects on nutrition and health, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food purchases of low-income households in Brazil...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510803/identification-of-siglec-1-null-individuals-infected-with-hiv-1
#14
Javier Martinez-Picado, Paul J McLaren, Itziar Erkizia, Maureen P Martin, Susana Benet, Margalida Rotger, Judith Dalmau, Dan Ouchi, Steven M Wolinsky, Sudhir Penugonda, Huldrych F Günthard, Jacques Fellay, Mary Carrington, Nuria Izquierdo-Useros, Amalio Telenti
Siglec-1/CD169 is a myeloid-cell surface receptor critical for HIV-1 capture and infection of bystander target cells. To dissect the role of SIGLEC1 in natura, we scan a large population genetic database and identify a loss-of-function variant (Glu88Ter) that is found in ∼1% of healthy people. Exome analysis and direct genotyping of 4,233 HIV-1-infected individuals reveals two Glu88Ter homozygous and 97 heterozygous subjects, allowing the analysis of ex vivo and in vivo consequences of SIGLEC1 loss-of-function...
August 11, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423770/a-systematic-conservation-planning-approach-to-fire-risk-management-in-natura-2000-sites
#15
Massimiliano Foresta, Maria Laura Carranza, Vittorio Garfì, Mirko Di Febbraro, Marco Marchetti, Anna Loy
A primary challenge in conservation biology is to preserve the most representative biodiversity while simultaneously optimizing the efforts associated with conservation. In Europe, the implementation of the Natura 2000 network requires protocols to recognize and map threats to biodiversity and to identify specific mitigation actions. We propose a systematic conservation planning approach to optimize management actions against specific threats based on two fundamental parameters: biodiversity values and threat pressure...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395884/systematics-and-diversity-of-deep-water-cheilostomata-bryozoa-%C3%A2-from-galicia-bank-ne-atlantic
#16
Javier Souto, Björn Berning, Andrew N Ostrovsky
Galicia Bank is a large seamount situated c. 200 km off NW Iberia with a minimum depth of 600 m. It was recently included in Natura 2000, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas. We here present the first taxonomic descriptions of cheilostome bryozoans from this bank. The specimens were collected through the Spanish project INDEMARES (during BANGAL 0811 cruise conducted in 2011) and during two previous campaigns, the French Seamount 1 in 1987 and the German Victor Hensen in 1997). Twenty-five species were found, including 12 that are new to science, while five species remain in open nomenclature...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391666/linnaeus-restless-system-translation-as-textual-engineering-in-eighteenth-century-botany
#17
Bettina Dietz
In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades...
April 2016: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373942/impact-of-prolonged-storm-activity-on-the-ecological-status-of-intertidal-benthic-habitats-within-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-trestle-cultivation-sites
#18
Jack P J O'Carroll, Christina Quinn, James Forde, Adrian Patterson, Francis X O'Beirn, Robert Kennedy
The Ecological Status (ES; sensu the Water Framework Directive) of intertidal benthic communities within six oyster trestle cultivation sites was found to be negatively impacted along the access routes to trestles in a 2013 study. All cultivation sites occur within Natura 2000 sites. The current study revisited four of the 2013 cultivation sites in February 2014 one month after the storm activity of winter 2013/14 to test if the compaction effect along access routes persisted after the storms. Three levels of the fixed factor treatment were sampled; immediately below the trestles, along the access route and 300m away from any anthropogenic activity...
September 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363251/-more-piety-than-profanities-an-expert-report-by-dr-egas-moniz-on-homosexuality
#19
Francisco Molina Artaloytia
At the beginning of the 20th century, the noted Nobel prize-winning Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz made an expert analysis on homosexuality in a marriage annulment case of major value as an example of the effective application of sexological knowledge of that period. Contemporary republican legislation established marriage annulment in medical terms and punished relations between persons of the same sex, or contra natura. In his report, Moniz attempted to interpret distinctive elements of the life of the subject using sexological categories, illustrating the interaction between these categories and the changing forms adopted by homosexuality (or homosexual people) of the time...
2016: Dynamis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342702/comparative-myology-and-evolution-of-marsupials-and-other-vertebrates-with-notes-on-complexity-bauplan-and-scala-naturae
#20
Rui Diogo, Gaelle Bello-Hellegouarch, Tiana Kohlsdorf, Borja Esteve-Altava, Julia L Molnar
Opossums are frequent subjects of developmental studies because marsupials share developmental features not seen in placentals and because Didelphimorpha is the sister-group of other extant Marsupialia. But is the adult marsupial muscular system markedly different from that of placentals or is it, like the skeletal system, very similar? We provide, for the first time, a brief description of all head and limb muscles of Didelphis virginiana based on our dissections and using a unifying nomenclature by integrating the data gathered in our long-term project on the development, homologies, and evolution of the muscles of all major vertebrate taxa...
September 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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