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Steluta Manolache, Andreea Nita, Cristiana M Ciocanea, Viorel D Popescu, Laurentiu Rozylowicz
Successful management of complex social-ecological landscapes overlapping Natura 2000 sites requires collaboration between various actors such as law enforcement agencies, NGOs and enterprises. Natura 2000 governance is stimulated by central actors (e.g., Natura 2000 administrators), with successes and failures of management activities depending on the capacity of the network leader to implement a collaborative approach to environmental governance. By using social network analysis, we analysed the cooperation, information flow and capacity for collective action within Natura 2000 governance networks within two Romanian protected areas: Lower Siret Floodplain and Iron Gates Natural Park...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
F Carvajal, R Rosales, F Palma, S Manzano, J Cañizares, M Jamilena, D Garrido
BACKGROUND: Zucchini fruit is susceptible to chilling injury (CI), but the response to low storage temperature is cultivar dependent. Previous reports about the response of zucchini fruit to chilling storage have been focused on the physiology and biochemistry of this process, with little information about the molecular mechanisms underlying it. In this work, we present a comprehensive analysis of transcriptomic changes that take place after cold storage in zucchini fruit of two commercial cultivars with contrasting response to chilling stress...
February 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
João P Silva, Ricardo Correia, Hany Alonso, Ricardo C Martins, Marcello D'Amico, Ana Delgado, Hugo Sampaio, Carlos Godinho, Francisco Moreira
Background: Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of the Protected Area networks on the conservation status of target species. Here, we assess the effectiveness of the Portuguese Natura 2000 (the European Union network of protected areas) in maintaining a species included in the Annex I of the Bird Directive, namely the population of a priority farmland bird, the little bustard Tetrax tetrax. Methods: We measured the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 by comparing population trends across time (2003-2006 and 2016) in 51 areas, 21 of which within 12 Special Protection Areas (SPA) that were mostly designated for farmland bird conservation and another 30 areas without EU protection...
2018: PeerJ
Lissandra Sousa Dalsecco, Rafael Melo Palhares, Pollyana Carvalho Oliveira, Lilian Viana Teixeira, Marcela Gonçalves Drummond, Denise Aparecida Andrade de Oliveira
Species substitution in meat products is a common problem reported worldwide. This type of food fraud is, typically, an intentional act for economic gain, using sources of low-priced meats in high-value meat products. Consequences include economic, health, and religious concerns. Highly sensitive and efficient techniques are thus required to detect meat species. This paper describes a method based on real-time PCR to detect 10 animal species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Bubalus bubalis, Equus caballus, Felis catus, and Canis familiaris) in meat product...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Scott F Gilbert
Mathematical modeling has recently become a much-lauded enterprise, and many funding agencies seek to prioritize this endeavor. However, there are certain dangers associated with mathematical modeling, and knowledge of these pitfalls should also be part of a biologist's training in this set of techniques. (1) Mathematical models are limited by known science; (2) Mathematical models can tell what can happen, but not what did happen; (3) A model does not have to conform to reality, even if it is logically consistent; (4) Models abstract from reality, and sometimes what they eliminate is critically important; (5) Mathematics can present a Platonic ideal to which biologically organized matter strives, rather than a trial-and-error bumbling through evolutionary processes...
January 20, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Jae Kook Lee, Seung Hee Eom, Tae Kyung Hyun
Kalopanax septemlobus is a medicinal woody species of the family Araliaceae, and the pharmaceutical properties of saponins obtained from K. septemlobus suggest that K. septemlobus has the potential to be a crude drug and dietary health supplement. In this study, we established cell suspension culture of K. septemlobus to develop a sustainable source of natura-ceuticals. Friable calli were used for establishing cell suspension culture. The maximum amount of total saponins (1.56 mg/60 ml suspension) was obtained during the 15th day of incubation, whereas the maximum capacity of saponin production was reached after day 6 (0...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Edoardo Puglisi, Paola Mattarelli, Monica Modesto, Andrea Bonetti, Caterina Spiezio, Camillo Sandri, Lorenzo Morelli
Bifidobacterium sp. strains TRE 1, TRE D, TRE H, and TRI 7 were isolated from two tamarins housed in Parco Natura Viva, Garda Zoological Park S.r.l. (Bussolengo, Verona, Italy). These strains belong to four putative novel species of the genus Bifidobacterium The genome sizes were 2.7 Mb for TRE 1, 2.7 Mb for TRE D, 2.4 Mb for TRE H, and 2.7 Mb for TRI 7. The average GC contents were 63.18% for TRE 1, 58.27% for TRE D, 57.11% for TRE H, and 63.79% for TRI 7.
January 18, 2018: Genome Announcements
Dmup Rocha, Aps Caldas, Bp da Silva, Hh Hermsdorff, Rcg Alfenas
The metabolic effects of cranberry and blueberry consumption on glycemic control have been evaluated in vitro and in animal models as well as in human studies, although findings have not been systematically reviewed yet. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out of relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in order to assess the effect of berries (blueberry and cranberry) consumption on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) glycemic control. Some evidences were also discussed on the anti-diabetic mechanisms exerted by berries polyphenols...
January 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Francisco Guil, Mª Ángeles Soria, Antoni Margalida, Juan M Pérez-García
The interaction between wildlife and power lines has collateral effects that include wildfires and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, currently available information is scarce and so new approaches are needed to increase our understanding of this issue. Here, we present the first analysis of wildfires and their incidence as a result of this interaction in Spain during the period 2000-2012. Amongst the 2788 Power-Line Mediated Wildfires (PLMW recorded) during this period, 30 records of Fauna Mediated Wildfires (FMW) were found, with an average affected vegetation cover of 9...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Natura Myeku, Karen E Duff
Aggregates of misfolded proteins can compromise the function of the 26S proteasome complex, leaving neurons susceptible to accelerated and impaired protein homeostasis, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Strategies aimed at enhancing the function of the 26S proteasome via phosphorylation of key subunit epitopes have been effective in reducing protein aggregates in mouse models of disease. We discuss how phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-targeted drugs might be considered as candidate therapeutics, acting on second messenger signal transduction...
December 9, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Ari W Schaler, Natura Myeku
Alzheimer's disease and several variants of frontotemporal degeneration including progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal tau protein into aggregates. Most proteins, including tau, are degraded via the ubiquitin proteasome system, but when abnormal tau accumulates, the function of 26S proteasomes is downregulated. The negative effect of tau aggregates on the function of the proteasome can have deleterious consequences on protein homeostasis and disease progression...
November 23, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Javier Martinez-Picado, Paul J McLaren, Amalio Telenti, Nuria Izquierdo-Useros
Myeloid cells initiate immune responses and are crucial to control infections. In the case of retroviruses, however, myeloid cells also promote pathogenesis by enabling viral dissemination; a process extensively studied in vitro using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This viral hijacking mechanism does not rely on productive myeloid cell infection but requires HIV-1 capture via Siglec-1/CD169, a receptor expressed on myeloid cells that facilitates the infection of bystander target cells. Murine retroviruses are also recognized by Siglec-1, and this interaction is required for robust retroviral infection in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Rui Diogo
I focus on the crucial links between the discovery of nonhuman primates by Westerners, discussions on our place in nature, the chain of being, racism, and the history of primate comparative anatomy and of so-called "anatomical human racial studies." Strikingly, for more than a millennium humans knew more about the internal anatomy of a single monkey species than about that of their own bodies. This is because Galen used monkeys to infer human anatomy, in line with the human-animal continuity implied by the Greek notion of scala naturae...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Morphology
Francesco Cerasoli, Mattia Iannella, Paola D'Alessandro, Maurizio Biondi
Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) is one of the modelling techniques most recently applied to biodiversity conservation and it can be implemented with presence-only data through the generation of artificial absences (pseudo-absences). In this paper, three pseudo-absences generation techniques are compared, namely the generation of pseudo-absences within target-group background (TGB), testing both the weighted (WTGB) and unweighted (UTGB) scheme, and the generation at random (RDM), evaluating their performance and applicability in distribution modelling and species conservation...
2017: PloS One
Marianna Biró, János Bölöni, Zsolt Molnár
Habitat loss is a key driver of biodiversity loss. However, hardly any long-term time series analyses of habitat loss are available above the local scale for finer-level habitat categories. In this paper we analyse, from a long-term perspective, the habitat specificity of habitat area loss, the change in trends since the fall of communism and the impact of protected areas on habitat loss. We studied twenty semi-natural habitat types in 5000 randomly selected localities over seven time periods between 1783 and 2013, using historical maps, archival and recent aerial/satellite imagery, botanical descriptions and field data...
October 26, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Caterina Spiezio, Carola Leonardi, Barbara Regaiolli
Tortoises perceive different colours and rely on the visual system to find food. However, few studies have considered colour preference in tortoises, especially in land species. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Aldabra giant tortoises (Geochelone gigantea) housed in Parco Natura Viva (VR), an Italian zoological garden, show a specific colour preference in their social context. The study was divided into two different periods in which red and yellow balls of the same size were scattered around in the outdoor enclosure...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Matheus Bertanha, Marcone Lima Sobreira, Ana Lívia de Carvalho Bovolato, Jaqueline de Carvalho Rinaldi, Patricia Pintor Reis, Andrei Moroz, Leonardo Nazario de Moraes, Elenice Deffune
PURPOSE: To investigate the ultrastructural characteristics and analysis of residual DNA in scaffold models, produced with decellularized vena cava in an experimental model with rabbits. METHODS: Three groups were created for ultrastructural and residual DNA analysis: group 1 - control, consisting of samples of vena cava in natura; group 2 - SD, consisting of vein fragments submitted to 2% sodium deoxycholate decellularization by shaking (160rpm - Shaker News Brunswick Scientific®) for 1 hour at controlled temperature shaker at 37°C; group 3 - SDS, consisting of vein fragments submitted to 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate decellularization under the same previous condition, for 2 hours...
September 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Juliane Geyer, Stefan Kreft, Florian Jeltsch, Pierre L Ibisch
Protected areas are arguably the most important instrument of biodiversity conservation. To keep them fit under climate change, their management needs to be adapted to address related direct and indirect changes. In our study we focus on the adaptation of conservation management planning, evaluating management plans of 60 protected areas throughout Germany with regard to their climate change-robustness. First, climate change-robust conservation management was defined using 11 principles and 44 criteria, which followed an approach similar to sustainability standards...
2017: PloS One
Agata Bartkowiak, Joanna Lemanowicz, Piotr Hulisz
This paper aimed to evaluate the ecological risk posed by the accumulation of heavy metals in the salt-affected soils of the habitat covered by the EU Natura 2000 program in relation to the activity of soil redox enzymes. The research was carried out in the halophyte reserve in Ciechocinek (north-central Poland) which is a very specific habitat as it undergoes a long-term human impact related to both the operation of the medical spa town and the agricultural use of soils in the adjacent areas. The obtained results showed that the content of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in the studied soils exceeded the Polish standards...
September 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bruna M A Bento, Andressa da C Moreira, Ariene S do Carmo, Luana C Dos Santos, Paula M Horta
OBJECTIVE: To compare the participation of food groups - fresh and minimally processed, processed, and ultra-processed - in the diet of students (n=1357) from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, in accordance with the number of school meals consumed daily. METHODS: Four groups were defined: children that did not consume school meals and children that consumed one, two, or three school meals daily. Food groups participation, in g/1000kcal, was obtained using two 24-hour recalls...
September 26, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
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