Read by QxMD icon Read


Kévin Rinaldi, Than Tran Trong, Florence Riera, Katharina Appel, Olivier Hue
Endurance exercise performance is impaired in a hot and humid environment. This study compared the effects of cold water immersion, with (CMWI) and without (CWI) menthol, on the recovery of cycling performance. Eight heat-acclimatized cyclists (24.1 ± 4.4 years; 65.3 ± 5.2 kg) performed two randomized sessions, each consisting of a 20-min cycling trial (T1) followed by 10 min of immersion during recovery and then a second 20-min cycling trial (T2). Mean power output (PO) and perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded for both trials...
March 13, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Alfonso Reimúndez, Carlos Fernández-Peña, Guillermo García, Rubén Fernández, Purificación Ordás, Rosalía Gallego, José L Pardo-Vazquez, Victor Arce, Félix Viana, Rosa Señarís
The coupling of energy homeostasis to thermoregulation is essential to maintain homeothermy in changing external environments. We studied the role of the cold thermoreceptor TRPM8 in this interplay in mice of both sexes. We demonstrate that TRPM8 is required for a precise thermoregulation in response to cold, in fed and fasting. Trpm8-/- mice exhibited a fall of 0.7 °C in core body temperature (Tc) when housed at cold temperatures, and a deep hypothermia (below 30 °C) during food deprivation. In both situations TRPM8-deficiency induced an increase in tail heat loss...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Justyna Maliszewska, Sonia Marcinkowska, Anna Nowakowska, Hanna Kletkiewicz, Justyna Rogalska
Some natural alkaloids, e.g. capsaicin and camphor, are known to induce a desensitization state, causing insensitivity to pain or noxious temperatures in mammals by acting on TRP receptors. Our research, for the first time, demonstrated that a phenomenon of pharmacological blockade of heat sensitivity may operate in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.). We studied the escape reaction time from 50°C for American cockroaches exposed to multiple doses of different drugs affecting thermo-TRP. Capsaicin, capsazepine, and camphor induced significant changes in time spent at noxious ambient temperatures...
2018: PloS One
Martin Jastroch, Rebecca Oelkrug, Susanne Keipert
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) enables adaptive thermoregulation through heat production that is catalyzed by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). BAT is frequently studied in rodent model organisms, and recently in adult humans to treat metabolic diseases. However, complementary studies of many non-model species, which have diversified to many more ecological niches, may significantly broaden our understanding of BAT regulation and its physiological roles. This Review highlights the research on non-model organisms, which was instrumental to the discovery of BAT function, and the unique evolutionary history of BAT/UCP1 in mammalian thermogenesis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Michelle F Goody, Clarissa A Henry
Skeletal muscle enables posture, breathing, and locomotion. Skeletal muscle also impacts systemic processes such as metabolism, thermoregulation, and immunity. Skeletal muscle is energetically expensive and is a major consumer of glucose and fatty acids. Metabolism of fatty acids and glucose requires NAD+ function as a hydrogen/electron transfer molecule. Therefore, NAD+ plays a vital role in energy production. In addition, NAD+ also functions as a cosubstrate for post-translational modifications such as deacetylation and ADP-ribosylation...
March 7, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
Ruchi Masand, Esther Paulo, Dongmei Wu, Yangmeng Wang, Danielle L Swaney, David Jimenez-Morales, Nevan J Krogan, Biao Wang
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical for thermoregulation and contributes to total energy expenditure. However, whether BAT has non-thermogenic functions is largely unknown. Here, we describe that BAT-specific liver kinase b1 knockout (Lkb1BKO ) mice exhibited impaired BAT mitochondrial respiration and thermogenesis but reduced adiposity and liver triglyceride accumulation under high-fat-diet feeding at room temperature. Importantly, these metabolic benefits were also present in Lkb1BKO mice at thermoneutrality, where BAT thermogenesis was not required...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Luisa M Diele-Viegas, Laurie J Vitt, Barry Sinervo, Guarino R Colli, Fernanda P Werneck, Donald B Miles, William E Magnusson, Juan C Santos, Carla M Sette, Gabriel H O Caetano, Emerson Pontes, Teresa C S Ávila-Pires
We summarize thermal-biology data of 69 species of Amazonian lizards, including mode of thermoregulation and field-active body temperatures (Tb). We also provide new data on preferred temperatures (Tpref), voluntary and thermal-tolerance ranges, and thermal-performance curves (TPC's) for 27 species from nine sites in the Brazilian Amazonia. We tested for phylogenetic signal and pairwise correlations among thermal traits. We found that species generally categorized as thermoregulators have the highest mean values for all thermal traits, and broader ranges for Tb, critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and optimal (Topt) temperatures...
2018: PloS One
Catherine M Ivy, Julia M York, Sabine L Lague, Beverly A Chua, Luis Alza, Kevin G McCracken, William K Milsom, Graham R Scott
Hypoxia at high altitudes constrains O2 supply to support metabolism, thermoregulation in the cold, and exercise. High-altitude natives that somehow overcome this challenge-who live, reproduce, and sometimes perform impressive feats of exercise at high altitudes-are a powerful group in which to study the evolution of physiological systems underlying hypoxia resistance. Here, we sought to determine whether a common pulse oximetry system for rodents (MouseOx Plus) can be used reliably in studies of high-altitude birds by examining the hypoxia responses of the Andean goose...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
J D Adams, Yasuki Sekiguchi, Hyun-Gyu Suh, Adam D Seal, Cameron A Sprong, Tracie W Kirkland, Stavros A Kavouras
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance independently of thirst with subjects blinded of their hydration status. METHODS: Seven male cyclists (weight: 72±9 kg, body fat: 14±6%, VO2peak: 59.4±6 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg·min) exercised for 2 hours on a cycle ergometer at 55% VO2peak, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% rh), with a nasogastric (NG) tube under euhydrated - non-thirst (EUH-NT) and dehydrated - non-thirst (DEH-NT) conditions...
March 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David A Story
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Anesthesiology
Fred Rincon
Evidence from animal models indicates that lowering temperature by a few degrees can produce substantial neuroprotection. In humans, hypothermia has been found to be neuroprotective with a significant impact on mortality and long-term functional outcome only in cardiac arrest and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Clinical trials have explored the potential role of maintaining normothermia and treating fever in critically ill brain injured patients. This review concentrates on basic concepts to understand the physiologic interactions of thermoregulation, effects of thermal modulation in critically ill patients, proposed mechanisms of action of temperature modulation, and practical aspects of targeted temperature management...
April 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Ilse Corkery, Ben D Bell, Nicola J Nelson
A major focus in zoology is to understand the phenotypic responses of animals to environmental variation. This is particularly important when dealing with ectotherms in a thermally heterogenous environment. We measured body temperatures of a free-ranging, medium sized temperate reptile, the tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus, to investigate its thermal opportunities and the degree to which the animal actively regulates its body temperature. We found high variation in body temperature between individuals, but this variation could not be attributed to sex or body size...
February 7, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Karin Nurme, Enno Merivee, Anne Must, Andrea Di Giulio, Maurizio Muzzi, Ingrid Williams, Marika Mänd
The main purpose of this study was to explain the internal fine structure of potential antennal thermo- and hygroreceptive sensilla, their innervation specifics, and responses of the sensory neurons to thermal and humidity stimuli in an elaterid beetle using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy and electrophysiology, respectively. Several essential, high temperature induced turning points in the locomotion were determined using automated video tracking. Our results showed that the sensilla under study, morphologically, are identical to the dome-shaped sensilla (DSS) of carabids...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Eva Maria Griebeler, Jan Werner
In his 2016 paper, Myhrvold criticized ours from 2014 on maximum growth rates (Gmax, maximum gain in body mass observed within a time unit throughout an individual's ontogeny) and thermoregulation strategies (ectothermy, endothermy) of 17 dinosaurs. In our paper, we showed that Gmax values of similar-sized extant ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates overlap. This strongly questions a correct assignment of a thermoregulation strategy to a dinosaur only based on its Gmax and (adult) body mass (M). Contrary, Gmax separated similar-sized extant reptiles and birds (Sauropsida) and Gmax values of our studied dinosaurs were similar to those seen in extant similar-sized (if necessary scaled-up) fast growing ectothermic reptiles...
2018: PloS One
B A Yates, L A Ellis, C L Butts, B P McDermott, K H Williamson, L E Armstrong
OBJECTIVES: Water is an essential nutrient for thermoregulation, metabolism, cognition, and overall physiological homeostatic function. However, aging adults display a blunted thirst mechanism and subsequently have an increased risk for dehydration or hyponatremia. Fluid consumption behaviors are modifiable and the importance of practicing adequate drinking behaviors for aging adults is amplified during exercise. Identification of aging adult's hydration beliefs and how they attain hydration advice could provide valuable information into ways to promote better drinking habits to reduce fluid imbalances...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Yun Su, Jie Yang, Guowen Song, Rui Li, Chunhui Xiang, Jun Li
This paper aims to develop a numerical model to predict heat stress of firefighter under low-level thermal radiation. The model integrated a modified multi-layer clothing model with a human thermoregulation model. We took the coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer in the clothing, the size-dependent heat transfer in the air gaps, and the controlling active and controlled passive thermal regulation in human body into consideration. The predicted core temperature and mean skin temperature from the model showed a good agreement with the experimental results...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Duncan Mitchell, Edward P Snelling, Robyn S Hetem, Shane K Maloney, W Maartin Strauss, Andrea Fuller
1.The accuracy of predictive models (also known as mechanistic or causal models) of animal responses to climate change depends on properly incorporating the principles of heat transfer and thermoregulation into those models. Regrettably, proper incorporation of these principles is not always evident. 2.We have revisited the relevant principles of thermal physiology and analyzed how they have been applied in predictive models of large mammals, which are particularly vulnerable, to climate change. We considered dry heat exchange, evaporative heat transfer, the thermoneutral zone and homeothermy, and we examined the roles of size and shape in the thermal physiology of large mammals...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Yujiro Umezaki, Sean E Hayley, Michelle L Chu, Hanna W Seo, Prasun Shah, Fumika N Hamada
Starvation is life-threatening and therefore strongly modulates many aspects of animal behavior and physiology [1]. In mammals, hunger causes a reduction in body temperature and metabolism [2], resulting in conservation of energy for survival. However, the molecular basis of the modulation of thermoregulation by starvation remains largely unclear. Whereas mammals control their body temperature internally, small ectotherms, such as Drosophila, set their body temperature by selecting an ideal environmental temperature through temperature preference behaviors [3, 4]...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
S Hamzaoui, C A Burger, J L Collier, R J Collier
Apocrine sweat glands in bovine skin are involved in thermoregulation. Human, horse, and sheep sweat gland epithelial cells have been isolated and grown in vitro. The present study was conducted to identify a method to isolate bovine sweat glands and culture apocrine bovine sweat gland epithelial cells in vitro. Mechanical shearing, collagenase digestion, centrifugation, and neutral red staining were used to identify and isolate the apocrine glands from skin. Bovine sweat glands in situ and after isolation comprised 2 major cell types consisting of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells resting on a layer of myoepithelial cells...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
N J Lee, I M Clarke, R F Enriquez, V Nagy, J Penninger, P A Baldock, H Herzog
RANKL signalling known to be important for the control of bone mass, has recently also been implicated in the brain to control thermoregulation, however, it is not known which neuronal pathways are involved and whether other aspects of energy homeostasis are also affected. Here we show that selective deletion of RANK from NPY neurons down-regulated NPY mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. While comprehensive phenotyping of germline-induced NPY neuron specific RANK deficient mice revealed no significant changes in physical or metabolic parameters, adult onset deletion of RANK from NPY neurons led to a significant increase in fat mass and a decrease in whole body bone mineral content and bone mineral density...
February 15, 2018: Neuropeptides
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"