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Thermoregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920541/the-effect-of-body-mass-index-on-perioperative-thermoregulation
#1
Ayşe Belin Özer, Aysun Yildiz Altun, Ömer Lütfi Erhan, Tuba Çatak, Ümit Karatepe, İsmail Demirel, Gonca Çağlar Toprak
PURPOSE: We evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) on thermoregulation in obese patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery with no pre-medication were included in the study. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to BMI <24.9, 25-39.9, 40-49.9, and >50. Anesthesia was provided with routine techniques. Tympanic and peripheral temperatures were recorded every 5 minutes starting with the induction of anesthesia...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917783/understanding-thermal-sensitivity-at-the-molecular-level-and-developing-temperature-based-systems-using-rna-thermometers
#2
Fatih Gul, Ibrahim Y Orhan, Furkan S Ceylan, Nadir B Akdeniz, H Abdulkadir Karadag
PURPOSE: Temperature sensitivity is found in all multicelleular organisms, as well as in most primitive life forms. The ubiquity of this temperature sensitivity is an indicator of its effects at the multicellular, cellular and molecular levels [1]. Previous studies have shown that temperature-based regulation is present in the transcriptional process [2]. RNA Thermometers, temperature-sensitive sequences, have been shown to act on heat-shock genes to regulate temperature-dependant systems in many organisms [3,4]...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917566/perioperative-hypothermia-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-patients-effectiveness-of-a-thermoregulation-intervention-and-associated-risk-factors
#3
Branden M Engorn, Stephanie L Kahntroff, Karen M Frank, Sarabdeep Singh, Helen A Harvey, Charles T Barkulis, Annika M Barnett, Olamide O Olambiwonnu, Eugenie S Heitmiller, Robert S Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia in neonatal intensive care unit patients is associated with morbidity. Perioperative normothermia is the standard of care. AIMS: We hypothesized that a quality improvement intervention (transport protocol, transport education, ongoing monitoring) would decrease the incidence of perioperative hypothermia. Secondarily, we hypothesized that patients undergoing surgery at a postmenstrual age of <37 weeks or at a weight of <1.5 kg would be at higher risk for perioperative hypothermia...
December 5, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917468/dry-skin-conditions-are-related-to-the-recovery-rate-of-skin-temperature-after-cold-stress-rather-than-to-blood-flow
#4
Yasuko Yoshida-Amano, Tomoko Nomura, Yoshinori Sugiyama, Kayoko Iwata, Yuko Higaki, Masanori Tanahashi
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. METHODS: Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916764/serotonergic-system-does-not-contribute-to-the-hypothermic-action-of-acetaminophen
#5
Akihiro Fukushima, Wakana Sekiguchi, Kizuku Mamada, Yumi Tohma, Hideki Ono
Acetaminophen (AcAP), a widely-used antipyretic and analgesic drug, has been considered to exert its effects via central mechanisms, and many studies have demonstrated that the analgesic action of AcAP involves activation of the serotonergic system. Although the serotonergic system also plays an important role in thermoregulation, the contribution of serotonergic activity to the hypothermic effect of AcAP has remained unclear. In the present study, we examined whether the serotonergic system is involved in AcAP-induced hypothermia...
December 3, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911393/a-detailed-protocol-for-perspiration-monitoring-using-a-novel-small-wireless-device
#6
Kazuhiro Ogai, Masakazu Fukuoka, Kei-Ichiro Kitamura, Kiyoshi Uchide, Tetsu Nemoto
Perspiration monitoring can be utilized for the detection of certain diseases, such as thermoregulation and mental disorders, particularly when the patients are unaware of such disorders or are having difficulty expressing their symptoms. Until now, several devices for perspiration monitoring have been developed; however, such devices tend to have a relatively large exterior, considerable power consumption, and/or less sensitivity. Recently, we developed a small, wireless device for perspiration monitoring...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908721/stress-response-in-honeybees-is-associated-with-changes-in-task-related-physiology-and-energetic-metabolism
#7
Célia Bordier, Séverine Suchail, Maryline Pioz, Jean Marc Devaud, Claude Collet, Mercedes Charreton, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
In a rapidly changing environment, honeybee colonies are increasingly exposed to diverse sources of stress (e.g., new parasites, pesticides, climate warming), which represent a challenge to individual and social homeostasis. However, bee physiological responses to stress remain poorly understood. We therefore exposed bees specialised in different tasks (nurses, guards and foragers) to ancient (immune and heat stress) or historically more recent sources of stress (pesticides), and we determined changes in the expression of genes linked to behavioural maturation (vitellogenin - vg and juvenile hormone esterase - jhe) as well as in energetic metabolism (glycogen level, expression level of the receptor to the adipokinetic hormone - akhr, and endothermic performance)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901369/involvement-of-endogenous-central-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-in-hypoxia-induced-hypothermia-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#8
João Paulo J Sabino, Renato N Soriano, Alberto F Donatti, Rodrigo Restrepo Fernandez, Marcelo Kwiatkoski, Heloísa D C Francescato, Terezila M Coimbra, Luiz G S Branco
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) display autonomic imbalance and abnormal body temperature (Tb) adjustments. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) modulates hypoxia-induced hypothermia, but its role in SHR thermoregulation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that SHR display peculiar thermoregulatory response to hypoxia and that endogenous H2S overproduced in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of SHR modulates this response. SHR and Wistar rats were microinjected into the fourth ventricle with aminooxyacetate (AOA, H2S-synthezing enzyme inhibitor) or sodium sulfide (Na2S, H2S donor) and exposed to normoxia (21% inspired O2) or hypoxia (10% inspired O2, 30 min)...
September 6, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900769/influence-of-menstrual-phase-and-arid-vs-humid-heat-stress-on-autonomic-and-behavioural-thermoregulation-during-exercise-in-trained-but-unacclimated-women
#9
Tze-Huan Lei, Stephen R Stannard, Blake G Perry, Zachary J Schlader, James D Cotter, Toby Mündel
We studied thermoregulatory responses of ten well-trained (VO2 max, 57 (7) mL min(-1) kg(-1) ) eumenorrheic women exercising in dry and humid heat, across their menstrual cycle. They completed four trials, each of resting and cycling at fixed intensities (125 and 150 W), to assess autonomic regulation, then self-paced intensity (30-min work trial), to assess behavioural regulation. Trials were in early-follicular (EF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases in dry (DRY) and humid (HUM) heat matched for wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, 27°C)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891281/septooptic-dysplasia-with-an-associated-arachnoid-cyst
#10
Skyler V McLaurin-Jiang, Julie K Wood, David F Crudo
A 4-week-old male infant presented with hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. His medical history was remarkable for hydrocephalus secondary to an arachnoid cyst, intermittent hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and poor feeding requiring nasogastric tube for nutrition. Physical exam revealed retrognathia, mild hypotonia, micropenis, and clinodactyly. Ophthalmologic exam demonstrated bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH). Laboratory data confirmed inadequate cortisol and growth hormone response to hypoglycemia, a low thyroxine level, and direct hyperbilirubinemia...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890151/a-simplified-thermoregulation-model-of-the-human-body-in-warm-conditions
#11
Baizhan Li, Yu Yang, Runming Yao, Hong Liu, Yongqiang Li
Thermoregulation models of the human body have been widely used in thermal comfort studies. The existing models are complicated and not fully verified for application in China. This paper presents a simplified thermoregulation model which has been statistically validated by the predicted and measured mean skin temperature in warm environments, including 21 typical conditions with 400 Chinese subjects. This model comprises three parts: i) the physical model; ii) the controlled system; and iii) the controlling system, and considers three key questions formerly ignored by the existing models including: a) the evaporation efficiency of regulatory sweat; b) the proportional relation of total skin blood flow and total heat loss by regulatory sweating against body surface area; and c) discrepancies in the mean skin temperatures by gender...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888933/review-on-modeling-heat-transfer-and-thermoregulatory-responses-in-human-body
#12
REVIEW
Ming Fu, Wenguo Weng, Weiwang Chen, Na Luo
Several mathematical models of human thermoregulation have been developed, contributing to a deep understanding of thermal responses in different thermal conditions and applications. In these models, the human body is represented by two interacting systems of thermoregulation: the controlling active system and the controlled passive system. This paper reviews the recent research of human thermoregulation models. The accuracy and scope of the thermal models are improved, for the consideration of individual differences, integration to clothing models, exposure to cold and hot conditions, and the changes of physiological responses for the elders...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888930/thermoregulation-in-premature-infants-a-mathematical-model
#13
Carina Barbosa Pereira, Konrad Heimann, Michael Czaplik, Vladimir Blazek, Boudewijn Venema, Steffen Leonhardt
PURPOSE: In 2010, approximately 14.9 million babies (11.1%) were born preterm. Because preterm infants suffer from an immature thermoregulatory system they have difficulty maintaining their core body temperature at a constant level. Therefore, it is essential to maintain their temperature at, ideally, around 37°C. For this, mathematical models can provide detailed insight into heat transfer processes and body-environment interactions for clinical applications. METHODS: A new multi-node mathematical model of the thermoregulatory system of newborn infants is presented...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881668/restoration-of-thermoregulation-after-exercise
#14
Glen P Kenny, Ryan McGinn
Performing exercise, especially in the hot conditions, can heat the body causing significant increases in internal body temperature. To offset this increase, powerful and highly developed autonomic thermoregulatory responses (i.e., skin blood flow and sweating) are activated to enhance whole-body heat loss; a response mediated by temperature sensitive receptors in both the skin and the internal core regions of the body. Independent of thermal control of heat loss, nonthermal factors can have profound consequences on the body's ability to dissipate heat during exercise...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881398/separate-and-shared-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-coordinately-regulate-thermoregulation-and-beige-adipocyte-recruitment
#15
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Candace L Barr, Vitaly Ryu, Qiang Cao, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). It is not clear, however, whether there are shared or separate central SNS outflows to WAT and BAT that regulate their function. We injected two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, with unique fluorescent reporters into interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT) of the same Siberian hamsters to define SNS pathways to both. To test the functional importance of SNS coordinated control of BAT and WAT, we exposed hamsters with denervated SNS nerves to IBAT to 4°C for 16-24 hours, and measured core and fat temperatures, and norepinephrine turnover (NETO) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in fat tissues...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880791/common-noctule-bats-are-sexually-dimorphic-in-migratory-behaviour-and-body-size-but-not-wing-shape
#16
M Teague O'Mara, Karla Bauer, Dominik Blank, Justin W Baldwin, Dina K N Dechmann
Within the large order of bats, sexual size dimorphism measured by forearm length and body mass is often female-biased. Several studies have explained this through the effects on load carrying during pregnancy, intrasexual competition, as well as the fecundity and thermoregulation advantages of increased female body size. We hypothesized that wing shape should differ along with size and be under variable selection pressure in a species where there are large differences in flight behaviour. We tested whether load carrying, sex differential migration, or reproductive advantages of large females affect size and wing shape dimorphism in the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), in which females are typically larger than males and only females migrate long distances each year...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876809/cold-induced-thermogenesis-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
R J Brychta, K Y Chen
A basic property of endothermic thermoregulation is the ability to generate heat by increasing metabolism in response to cold ambient temperatures to maintain a stable core body temperature. This process, known as cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT), has been measured in humans as early as 1780 by Antoine Lavoisier, but has found renewed interest because of the recent 'rediscovery' of thermogenic, cold-activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans. In this review, we summarize some of the key findings of the work involving CIT over the past two centuries and highlight some of the seminal studies focused on this topic...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874299/cooling-effectiveness-of-a-modified-cold-water-immersion-method-after-exercise-induced-hyperthermia
#18
Katherine E Luhring, Cory L Butts, Cody R Smith, Jeffrey A Bonacci, Ramon C Ylanan, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon P McDermott
CONTEXT:  Recommended treatment for exertional heat stroke includes whole-body cold-water immersion (CWI). However, remote locations or monetary or spatial restrictions can challenge the feasibility of CWI. Thus, the development of a modified, portable CWI method would allow for optimal treatment of exertional heat stroke in the presence of these challenges. OBJECTIVE:  To determine the cooling rate of modified CWI (tarp-assisted cooling with oscillation [TACO]) after exertional hyperthermia...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861647/the-link-between-autonomic-and-behavioral-thermoregulation
#19
COMMENT
Boris R M Kingma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860512/color-change-for-thermoregulation-versus-camouflage-in-free-ranging-lizards
#20
Kathleen R Smith, Viviana Cadena, John A Endler, Michael R Kearney, Warren P Porter, Devi Stuart-Fox
Animal coloration has multiple functions including thermoregulation, camouflage, and social signaling, and the requirements of each function may sometimes conflict. Many terrestrial ectotherms accommodate the multiple functions of color through color change. However, the relative importance of these functions and how color-changing species accommodate them when they do conflict are poorly understood because we lack data on color change in the wild. Here, we show that the color of individual radio-tracked bearded dragon lizards, Pogona vitticeps, correlates strongly with background color and less strongly, but significantly, with temperature...
December 2016: American Naturalist
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