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Thermoregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936178/a-comparison-of-oral-sensory-effects-of-three-trpa1-agonists-in-young-adult-smokers-and-non-smokers
#1
Eva Ø Hansen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Shellie A Boudreau
This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde) in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30) and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25) participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg), nicotine (4 mg), or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg) chewing gum...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934746/temperature-probe-placement-during-preterm-infant-resuscitation-a-randomised-trial
#2
Brahim Bensouda, Romain Mandel, Abdelwaheb Mejri, Jean Lachapelle, Marie St-Hilaire, Nabeel Ali
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia on admission to intensive care is associated with poor outcomes in preterm infants. The neonatal resuscitation program recommends the use of servo-control thermoregulation during resuscitation. Very little evidence exists to guide optimal temperature probe placement in the delivery room. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to determine, in moderately preterm infants, if temperature probe placement in the dorsal, thoracic, or axillary area during delivery room resuscitation would result in differing temperatures on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
September 22, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924262/prenatal-glucocorticoid-exposure-modifies-endocrine-function-and-behaviour-for-3-generations-following-maternal-and-paternal-transmission
#3
Vasilis G Moisiadis, Andrea Constantinof, Alisa Kostaki, Moshe Szyf, Stephen G Matthews
Fetal exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids programs long-term changes in the physiologic stress response and behaviours. However, it is not known whether effects manifest in subsequent generations of offspring following maternal (MT) or paternal (PT) transmission. We treated pregnant guinea pigs with three courses of saline or synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) at a clinically relevant dose. Altered cortisol response to stress and behaviours transmitted to juvenile female and male F2 and F3 offspring from both parental lines...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918147/invited-review-effects-of-heat-stress-on-dairy-cattle-welfare
#4
Liam Polsky, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
The effects of high ambient temperatures on production animals, once thought to be limited to tropical areas, has extended into northern latitudes in response to the increasing global temperature. The number of days where the temperature-humidity index (THI) exceeds the comfort threshold (>72) is increasing in the northern United States, Canada, and Europe. Compounded by the increasing number of dairy animals and the intensification of production, heat stress has become one of the most important challenges facing the dairy industry today...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912257/nurse-honeybee-workers-tend-capped-brood-which-does-not-require-feeding-around-the-clock
#5
Moshe Nagari, Yafit Brenner, Guy Bloch
"Nurse" honeybees tend brood around-the-clock with attenuated or no circadian rhythms, but the brood signals inducing this behavior remain elusive. We first tested the hypothesis that worker circadian rhythms are regulated by brood pheromones. We monitored locomotor activity of individually isolated nurse bees that were either exposed to various doses of larval extracts or synthetic brood ester pheromone (BEP). Bees orally treated with larvae extracts showed attenuated circadian rhythms in one of four tested colonies; a similar but statistically non-significant trend was seen in two additional colonies...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910548/time-of-day-effects-of-exposure-to-solar-radiation-on-thermoregulation-during-outdoor-exercise-in-the-heat
#6
Hidenori Otani, Takayuki Goto, Heita Goto, Minayuki Shirato
High solar radiation has been recognised as a contributing factor to exertional heat-related illness in individuals exercising outdoors in the heat. Although solar radiation intensity has been known to have similar time-of-day variation as body temperature, the relationship between fluctuations in solar radiation associated with diurnal change in the angle of sunlight and thermoregulatory responses in individuals exercising outdoors in a hot environment remains largely unknown. The present study therefore investigated the time-of-day effects of variations in solar radiation associated with changing solar elevation angle on thermoregulatory responses during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat of summer...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904762/influences-of-thermal-environment-on-fish-growth
#7
Sebastián Boltaña, Nataly Sanhueza, Andrea Aguilar, Cristian Gallardo-Escarate, Gabriel Arriagada, Juan Antonio Valdes, Doris Soto, Renato A Quiñones
Thermoregulation in ectothermic animals is influenced by the ability to effectively respond to thermal variations. While it is known that ectotherms are affected by thermal changes, it remains unknown whether physiological and/or metabolic traits are impacted by modifications to the thermal environment. Our research provides key evidence that fish ectotherms are highly influenced by thermal variability during development, which leads to important modifications at several metabolic levels (e.g., growth trajectories, microstructural alterations, muscle injuries, and molecular mechanisms)...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904761/too-hot-to-die-the-effects-of-vegetation-shading-on-past-present-and-future-activity-budgets-of-two-diurnal-skinks-from-arid-australia
#8
Annegret Grimm-Seyfarth, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub, Klaus Henle
Behavioral thermoregulation is an important mechanism allowing ectotherms to respond to thermal variations. Its efficiency might become imperative for securing activity budgets under future climate change. For diurnal lizards, thermal microhabitat variability appears to be of high importance, especially in hot deserts where vegetation is highly scattered and sensitive to climatic fluctuations. We investigated the effects of a shading gradient from vegetation on body temperatures and activity timing for two diurnal, terrestrial desert lizards, Ctenotus regius, and Morethia boulengeri, and analyzed their changes under past, present, and future climatic conditions...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903474/nitric-oxide-heat-shock-protein-axis-in-menopausal-hot-flushes-neglected-metabolic-issues-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-associated-with-deranged-heat-shock-response
#9
Antônio Azambuja Miragem, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt
BACKGROUND: Although some unequivocal underlying mechanisms of menopausal hot flushes have been demonstrated in animal models, the paucity of similar approaches in humans impedes further mechanistic outcomes. Human studies might show some as yet unexpected physiological mechanisms of metabolic adaptation that permeate the phase of decreased oestrogen levels in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. This is particularly relevant because both the severity and time span of hot flushes are associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory disease...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887693/staying-cool-or-staying-safe-in-a-human-dominated-landscape-which-is-more-relevant-for-brown-bears
#10
Andrés Ordiz, Ole-Gunnar Støen, Miguel Delibes, Jon E Swenson
Pigeon et al. (2016) Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum daily ambient temperature on grizzly bear habitat selection. Oecologia 181:1101. doi: 10.1007/s00442-016-3630-5 analyzed the effect of ambient temperature on the habitat selection of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. They concluded that temperature played a significant role in bear habitat selection and that it was unlikely that human activity introduced biases to the habitat selection of bears. However, Pigeon et al...
September 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887185/role-of-monoaminergic-systems-and-ambient-temperature-in-bath-salts-constituent-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-elicited-hyperthermia-and-locomotor-stimulation-in-mice
#11
REVIEW
Brenda M Gannon, Adrian Williamson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of illicit bath salts products, and in vitro studies implicate monoamine transporters as mediators of its pharmacological effects. Locomotor and thermoregulatory effects of MDPV depend on ambient temperature, so the current studies aimed to gauge the involvement of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) in MDPV-induced locomotor stimulation and hyperthermia in the mouse at different ambient temperatures. Mice were pretreated with the selective 5-HT-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (3 mg/kg), the NE-reuptake inhibitor desipramine (3 mg/kg), the DA-reuptake inhibitor bupropion (10 mg/kg), or saline, followed by 10 mg/kg MDPV while thermoregulation and locomotor activity were monitored via radiotelemetry...
September 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886399/effectiveness-of-a-measure-program-to-prevent-admission-hypothermia-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants
#12
Jamil Pedro de Siqueira Caldas, Fernanda de Castro Millen, Juliana Fernandes de Camargo, Paula Almeida Cavalcanti Castro, Ana Letícia da Fonseca Camilo, Sérgio Tadeu Martins Marba
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a thermoregulation bundle for preventing admission hypothermia (AH) in very low-birth weight preterm infants. METHODS: Interventional study with retrospective evaluation of data undertaken in a tertiary neonatal unit including all very low-birth weight preterm infants (<1500g) born at and admitted to the unit. Two periods were compared: before intervention (PI; 01/01/2012 to 02/28/2014_ and after intervention (PII; 04/01/2014 to 11/30/2016)...
September 5, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884411/role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-energy-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
William Gustavo Lima, Gleuber Henrique Marques-Oliveira, Thaís Marques da Silva, Valéria Ernestânia Chaves
PURPOSE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide produced by alternative tissue-specific splicing of the primary transcript of the CALC genes. CGRP is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in several organs and tissues. The presence of CGRP in the liver and brown and white adipose tissue suggests an effect of this neuropeptide on regulation of energy homeostasis. METHODS: In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effect of CGRP on the control of energy metabolism, primarily focusing on food intake, thermoregulation and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, liver and muscle...
September 7, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883799/rem-sleep-and-endothermy-potential-sites-and-mechanism-of-a-reciprocal-interference
#14
REVIEW
Matteo Cerri, Marco Luppi, Domenico Tupone, Giovanni Zamboni, Roberto Amici
Numerous data show a reciprocal interaction between REM sleep and thermoregulation. During REM sleep, the function of thermoregulation appears to be impaired; from the other hand, the tonic activation of thermogenesis, such as during cold exposure, suppresses REM sleep occurrence. Recently, both the central neural network controlling REM sleep and the central neural network controlling thermoregulation have been progressively unraveled. Thermoregulation was shown to be controlled by a central "core" circuit, responsible for the maintenance of body temperature, modulated by a set of accessory areas...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881466/a-hot-lunch-for-herbivores-physiological-effects-of-elevated-temperatures-on-mammalian-feeding-ecology
#15
Phillipa K Beale, Karen J Marsh, William J Foley, Ben D Moore
Mammals maintain specific body temperatures (Tb ) across a broad range of ambient temperatures. The energy required for thermoregulation ultimately comes from the diet, and so what animals eat is inextricably linked to thermoregulation. Endothermic herbivores must balance energy requirements and expenditure with complicated thermoregulatory challenges from changing thermal, nutritional and toxicological environments. In this review we provide evidence that plant-based diets can influence thermoregulation beyond the control of herbivores, and that this can render them susceptible to heat stress...
September 7, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881142/thermal-and-cytokine-responses-to-endotoxin-challenge-during-early-life
#16
Fiona Brigid McDonald, Ahmad M Khawaja, Ahmad Ali Imran, Margot E Ellis, Kumaran Chandrasekharan, Shabih U Hasan
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of infant mortality beyond the neonatal period. An increase in body temperature as a result of high environmental temperature, over-wrapping of infants and/or infection are associated with SIDS. Endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and heat stress may perturb cardiorespiratory function and thermoregulation. Although LPS-mediated body temperature and cytokine responses are well-documented in older animals, the capacity of LPS to induce fever and cytokine response in young rats remains unclear...
September 7, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879005/starvation-effects-on-nitrogen-and-carbon-stable-isotopes-of-animals-an-insight-from-meta-analysis-of-fasting-experiments
#17
Hideyuki Doi, Fumikazu Akamatsu, Angélica L González
Nitrogen and carbon stable isotopic compositions (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) of consumers have been used for physiological and food web studies. Previous studies have shown δ(15)N and δ(13)C values are affected by several biological and environmental factors during starvation, but the generality of the effect of starvation on δ(15)N and δ(13)C values has not yet been tested. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of starvation on δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of consumers, and the underlying factors that may explain the observed variation...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863074/interval-walking-training-and-nutritional-intake-to-increase-plasma-volume-in-elderly
#18
Koji Uchida, Yoshi-Ichiro Kamijo, Shigeki Ikegawa, Koichiro Hamada, Shizue Masuki, Hiroshi Nose
PURPOSE: Aerobic training-induced plasma volume (PV) expansion improves thermoregulation, and carbohydrate (CHO) + whey protein supplementation enhanced the effects in older people; however, these were suggested by studies on gym-based cycling training but not on home-based interval walking training (IWT). Moreover, long-term walking training effects on PV remain unknown. METHODS: Seventeen male and 10 female subjects (~69 yr), having performed IWT for ≥24 months before the study, were used...
August 31, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861261/to-forage-mate-or-thermoregulate-influence-of-resource-manipulation-on-male-rattlesnake-behavior
#19
Sasha J Tetzlaff, Evin T Carter, Brett A DeGregorio, Michael J Ravesi, Bruce A Kingsbury
Male animals should preferentially allocate their time to performing activities that promote enhancing reproductive opportunity, but the need to acquire resources for growth and survival may compete with those behaviors in the short term. Thus, behaviors which require differing movement patterns such as ambushing prey and actively searching for mates can be mutually exclusive. Consequently, males that succeed at foraging could invest greater time and energy into mate searching. We radio-tracked sixteen male massasauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus catenatus) and supplemented the diets of half the snakes with mice across an active season...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861042/3-iodothyronamine-a-novel-endogenous-modulator-of-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-8
#20
REVIEW
Noushafarin Khajavi, Stefan Mergler, Heike Biebermann
The decarboxylated and deiodinated thyroid hormone (TH) derivative, 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM), is suggested to be involved in energy metabolism and thermoregulation. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known as the main targets for 3-T1AM; however, transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) were also recently identified as new targets of 3-T1AM. This article reviews the current knowledge of a putative novel role of 3-T1AM in the modulation of TRPs. Specifically, the TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) was identified as a target of 3-T1AM in different cell types including neoplastic cells, whereby 3-T1AM significantly increased cytosolic Ca(2+) through TRPM8 activation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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