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Thermoregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072840/locomotor-activity-and-body-temperature-patterns-over-a-temperature-gradient-in-the-highveld-mole-rat-cryptomys-hottentotus-pretoriae
#1
Meghan Haupt, Nigel C Bennett, Maria K Oosthuizen
African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071784/a-continued-role-for-signalling-functions-in-the-early-evolution-of-feathers
#2
Graeme D Ruxton, Walter S Persons, Philip J Currie
Persons and Currie (2015) argued against either flight, thermoregulation, or signalling as a functional benefit driving the earliest evolution of feathers; rather, they favoured simple feathers having an initial tactile sensory function, which changed to a thermoregulatory function as density increased. Here, we explore the relative merits of early simple feathers that may have originated as tactile sensors progressing instead towards a signalling, rather than (or in addition to), a thermoregulatory function...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067740/update-on-management-of-type-1-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-in-athletes
#3
Jane E Yardley, Sheri R Colberg
Optimal blood glucose management still remains the biggest challenge in active individuals with diabetes, particularly in insulin users, but some newer strategies have been introduced to maintain blood glucose control. Recent studies emphasize the importance of exercise intensity on glycemic balance. In individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, both resistance and high-intensity intermittent exercise have been shown to confer beneficial physiological adaptations in training studies, while also showing acute glycemic benefits from single sessions...
January 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063822/-hospital-discharge-criteria-for-very-low-birth-weight-newborns
#4
Isabel Benavente Fernández, María Dolores Sánchez Redondo, Jose Luis Leante Castellanos, Alejandro Pérez Muñuzuri, Segundo Rite Gracia, Cèsar W Ruiz Campillo, Ester Sanz López, Manuel Sánchez Luna
Hospital discharge criteria for the pre-term newborn are mainly based on physiological competences (thermoregulation, respiratory stability, and feeding skills), although family support and ability to care for the baby, as well as a well-planned discharge are also cornerstones to ensure a successful discharge. In this article, the Committee of Standards of the Spanish Society of Neonatology reviews the current hospital discharge criteria in order for it to be useful as a clinical guide in Spanish neonatal units...
January 4, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058803/would-behavioral-thermoregulation-enables-pregnant-viviparous-tropical-lizards-to-cope-with-a-warmer-world
#5
Saúl López-Alcaide, Miguel Nakamura, Eric N Smith, Enrique Martínez-Meyer
Sceloporus lizards depend on external heat to achieve their preferred temperature (Tse1 ) for performing physiological processes. Evidence both in the field and laboratory indicates that pregnant females of this genus select body temperatures (Tb ) lower than 34°C as higher temperatures may be lethal to embryos. Therefore, thermoregulation is crucial for successful embryo development. Given the increase in global air temperature, it is expected that the first compensatory response of species that inhabit tropical climates will be behavioral thermoregulation...
January 5, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057077/ice-ingestion-with-a-long-rest-interval-increases-the-endurance-exercise-capacity-and-reduces-the-core-temperature-in-the-heat
#6
Takashi Naito, Yuka Iribe, Tetsuro Ogaki
BACKGROUND: The timing in which ice before exercise should be ingested plays an important role in optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion before exercise on cycling capacity, and thermoregulation has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of length of time after ice ingestion on endurance exercise capacity in the heat. METHODS: Seven males ingested 1.25 g kg body mass(-1) of ice (0...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052937/here-and-there-but-not-everywhere-repeated-loss-of-uncoupling-protein-1-in-amniotes
#7
Suzanne McGaugh, Tonia S Schwartz
Endothermy is an evolutionary innovation in eutherian mammals and birds. In eutherian mammals, UCP1 is a key protein in adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). Although ucp1 arose early in the vertebrate lineage, the loss of ucp1 was previously documented in several reptile species (including birds). Here we determine that ucp1 was lost at the base of the reptile lineage, as we fail to find ucp1 in every major reptile lineage. Furthermore, though UCP1 plays a key role in mammalian NST, we confirm that pig has lost several exons from ucp1 and conclude that pig is not a sole outlier as the only eutherian mammal lineage to do so...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052042/a-printed-yagi-uda-antenna-for-application-in-magnetic-resonance-thermometry-guided-microwave-hyperthermia-applicators
#8
Margarethus Marius Paulides, R Mestrom, Ghassan Salim, Bedilu Adela, Wouter Numan, Tomas Drizdal, Desmond Yeo, Bart Smolders
Biological studies and clinical trials show that addition of hyperthermia stimulates conventional cancer treatment modalities and significantly improves treatment outcome. This supra-additive stimulation can be optimized by adaptive hyperthermia to counteract strong and dynamic thermoregulation. The only clinically proven method for the 3D non-invasive temperature monitoring required is by magnetic resonance (MR) temperature imaging, but the currently available set of MR compatible hyperthermia applicators lack the degree of heat control required...
January 4, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049450/yawning-reduces-facial-temperature-in-the-high-yawning-subline-of-sprague-dawley-rats
#9
Jose R Eguibar, Carlos A Uribe, Carmen Cortes, Amando Bautista, Andrew C Gallup
BACKGROUND: Yawning is a stereotyped behavior that enhances blood flow to the skull, and the resulting counterflow has been hypothesized as a mechanism for brain cooling. Studies have shown that yawns are strongly associated with physiological and pathological conditions that increase brain temperature, and that they are followed by equivalent decreases in brain temperature. However, measured reductions in cranial or facial temperatures following yawning have yet to be reported, to our knowledge...
January 3, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043031/liver-5-ht7-receptors-a-novel-regulator-target-of-fibrosis-and-inflammation-induced-chronic-liver-injury-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#10
Beyzagul Polat, Zekai Halici, Elif Cadirci, Emre Karakus, Yasin Bayir, Abdulmecit Albayrak, Deniz Unal
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and liver fibrosis is strongly associated with HCC. Treatment options are limited, and preventive strategies should be developed. An important step in the beginning of liver fibrosis is a strong inflammatory response. 5-HT7 is the last recognized member of the serotonin receptor family and is expressed in both central nerve system and peripheral system and have a lot of functions like learning, memory, smooth muscular relaxation, in the control of circadian rhythms and thermoregulation, pain and migraine, schizophrenia, anxiety, cognitive disturbances, and even inflammation...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040211/plumage-micro-organisms-and-preen-gland-size-in-an-urbanizing-context
#11
Mathieu Giraudeau, Ryan Stikeleather, Jennifer McKenna, Pierce Hutton, Kevin J McGraw
Urbanization of Earth's habitats has led to considerable loss of biodiversity, but the driving ecological mechanism(s) are not always clear. Vertebrates like birds typically experience urban alterations to diet, habitat availability, and levels of predation or competition, but may also be exposed to greater or more pathogenic communities of microbes. Birds have been popular subjects of urban ecological research but, to our knowledge, no study has assessed how urban conditions influence the microbial communities on bird plumage...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032186/encoding-noxious-heat-by-spike-bursts-of-antennal-bimodal-hygroreceptor-dry-neurons-in-the-carabid-pterostichus-oblongopunctatus
#12
Anne Must, Enno Merivee, Karin Nurme, Ivar Sibul, Maurizio Muzzi, Andrea Di Giulio, Ingrid Williams, Ene Tooming
Despite thermosensation being crucial in effective thermoregulation behaviour, it is poorly studied in insects. Very little is known about encoding of noxious high temperatures by peripheral thermoreceptor neurons. In carabids, thermo- and hygrosensitive neurons innervate antennal dome-shaped sensilla (DSS). In this study, we demonstrate that several essential fine structural features of dendritic outer segments of the sensory neurons in the DSS and the classical model of insect thermo- and hygrosensitive sensilla differ fundamentally...
December 28, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028676/impact-of-autonomic-dysfunctions-on-the-quality-of-life-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#13
Svetlana Tomic, Ines Rajkovaca, Vlasta Pekic, Tamer Salha, Sanja Misevic
Autonomic dysfunctions are part of a spectrum of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of autonomic dysfunctions and their influence on the quality of life (QoL) in PD patients, adjusted for age, sex, disease duration and motor symptoms. Patients were evaluated for motor function (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, UPDRS part III), disease stage (Hoehn and Yahr scale, H&Y scale), autonomic dysfunction (Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease, Autonomic, SCOPA-AUT) and QoL (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39, PDQ-39)...
December 27, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025662/the-effect-of-a-live-high-train-high-exercise-regimen-on-behavioural-temperature-regulation
#14
Shawnda A Morrison, Urša Ciuha, Daniela Zavec-Pavlinić, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic
PURPOSE: Acute hypoxia alters the threshold for sensation of cutaneous thermal stimuli. We hypothesised that hypoxia-induced alterations in cutaneous temperature sensation may lead to modulation of the perception of temperature, ultimately influencing behavioural thermoregulation and that the magnitude of this effect could be influenced by daily physical training. METHODS: Fourteen men were confined 10 days to a normobaric hypoxic environment (PIO2 = 88.2 ± 0...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018644/how-self-organization-can-guide-evolution
#15
Jonathan Glancy, James V Stone, Stuart P Wilson
Self-organization and natural selection are fundamental forces that shape the natural world. Substantial progress in understanding how these forces interact has been made through the study of abstract models. Further progress may be made by identifying a model system in which the interaction between self-organization and selection can be investigated empirically. To this end, we investigate how the self-organizing thermoregulatory huddling behaviours displayed by many species of mammals might influence natural selection of the genetic components of metabolism...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013390/antagonistic-effects-of-biological-invasion-and-environmental-warming-on-detritus-processing-in-freshwater-ecosystems
#16
Daniel Kenna, William N W Fincham, Alison M Dunn, Lee E Brown, Christopher Hassall
Global biodiversity is threatened by multiple anthropogenic stressors but little is known about the combined effects of environmental warming and invasive species on ecosystem functioning. We quantified thermal preferences and then compared leaf-litter processing rates at eight different temperatures (5.0-22.5 °C) by the invasive freshwater crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus and the Great Britain native Gammarus pulex at a range of body sizes. D. villosus preferred warmer temperatures but there was considerable overlap in the range of temperatures that the two species occupied during preference trials...
December 24, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012859/endogenous-opiates-and-behavior-2015
#17
REVIEW
Richard J Bodnar
This paper is the thirty-eighth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2015 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia, stress and social status, tolerance and dependence, learning and memory, eating and drinking, drug abuse and alcohol, sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology, mental illness and mood, seizures and neurologic disorders, electrical-related activity and neurophysiology, general activity and locomotion, gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions, cardiovascular responses, respiration and thermoregulation, and immunological responses...
December 22, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010818/geographic-variation-and-acclimation-effects-on-thermoregulation-behavior-in-the-widespread-lizard-liolaemus-pictus
#18
Paulina Artacho, Julia Saravia, Samuel Perret, José Luis Bartheld, Jean-François Le Galliard
Populations at the warm range margins of the species distribution may be at the greatest risks of extinction from global warming unless they can tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Yet, some studies suggest that the thermal behavior of some lizard species is evolutionarily rigid. During two successive years, we compared the thermal biology of two populations of Liolaemus pictus living at the northern (warmer) and one population living at the southern (colder) range limits, thus spanning an 800km latitudinal distance...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008608/increasing-pulmonary-blood-flow-at-birth-the-nerve-of-the-baby
#19
Noah H Hillman
The transition from a fetus to a newborn infant is one of the most dramatic and important physiologic changes in an individual's life. With the cutting of the umbilical cord, the fetus must almost instantly convert to newborn physiology, which relies on efficient gas exchange in the lungs, energy metabolism in the liver, and thermoregulation through brown fat (Hillman et al., 2012). The most crucial of these physiologic shifts at birth is the transition from the fetal circulator pattern to normal dual ventricular physiology (Hooper et al...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006018/potential-host-manipulation-by-the-aphid-parasitoid-aphidius-avenae-to-enhance-cold-tolerance
#20
Lucy Alford, Annabelle Androdias, Thomas Franco, Jean-Sébastien Pierre, Françoise Burel, Joan van Baaren
During parasitoid development, the immature parasitoid is confined to the host species. As a result, any potential to modify the physiology or behaviour of the host could play an important role in parasitoid fitness. The potential for host manipulation by the aphid parasitoid Aphidius avenae to increase cold thermotolerance was investigated using the aphid host species Metopolophium dirhodum and Sitobion avenae. Aphids were parasitized at L3/L4 instar stage (5 d old) and allowed to develop into pre-reproductive adults (10 d old) containing a 5 d old parasitoid larva...
2016: PloS One
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