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Thermoregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632939/acute-skin-trauma-induces-hyperemia-but-superficial-papillary-nutritive-perfusion-remains-unchanged
#1
Liv Kristin Sundheim, Ane Halse Sporastøyl, Torjus Wester, Göran Salerud, Knut Kvernebo
OBJECTIVES: Superficial skin papillary capillaries with blood supply from a superficial vascular plexus and regulated by local metabolic needs, supply oxygen and nutrient for epithelial cell proliferation. A deep vascular plexus regulated by autonomous nerves serves body thermoregulation. In healthy volunteers we assessed circulatory effects of a standardised skin trauma by computer assisted video m microscopy (CAVM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and laser Doppler perfusion measurements (LDPM) to assess the measuring depth of the three techniques and to describe the acute trauma effects on nutritive and thermoregulatory perfusion...
June 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631110/expression-of-hsp27-and-hsp70-and-vacuolization-in-the-pituitary-glands-in-cases-of-fatal-hypothermia
#2
Elke Doberentz, Philipp Markwerth, Rebecca Wagner, Burkhard Madea
Hypothermia causes systemic cellular stress. The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland and plays an important role in thermoregulation. When the core body temperature drops, the pituitary gland is activated by stimulation of hypothalamic hormones. In this study, we investigated morphological alterations of the pituitary gland in cases of fatal hypothermia. Several morphological alterations of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, such as hemorrhage, vacuolization, and hyperemia, have been previously described in fatal hypothermia...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630407/colony-adaptive-response-to-simulated-heat-waves-and-consequences-at-the-individual-level-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#3
Célia Bordier, Hélène Dechatre, Séverine Suchail, Mathilde Peruzzi, Samuel Soubeyrand, Maryline Pioz, Michel Pélissier, Didier Crauser, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
Since climate change is expected to bring more severe and frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, assessing the physiological and behavioural sensitivity of organisms to temperature becomes a priority. We therefore investigated the responses of honeybees, an important insect pollinator, to simulated heat waves (SHW). Honeybees are known to maintain strict brood thermoregulation, but the consequences at the colony and individual levels remain poorly understood. For the first time, we quantified and modelled colony real-time activity and found a 70% increase in foraging activity with SHW, which was likely due to the recruitment of previously inactive bees...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629794/uncoupling-effect-of-palmitate-is-exacerbated-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-sea-acclimatized-king-penguins-aptenodytes-patagonicus
#4
Benjamin Rey, Claude Duchamp, Damien Roussel
In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628625/neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-in-the-hypothalamus-is-involved-in-acquired-heat-tolerance-in-long-term-heat-acclimated-rats
#5
Kentaro Matsuzaki, Masanori Katakura, Naotoshi Sugimoto, Toshiko Hara, Michio Hashimoto, Osamu Shido
Constant exposure to moderate heat facilitates progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus of heat-acclimated (HA) rats. In this study, we investigated neural phenotype and responsiveness to heat in HA rats' hypothalamic newborn cells. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic neurogenesis on heat acclimation in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 32°C for 6 days (STHA) or 40 days (LTHA), while control (CN) rats were kept at a Ta of 24°C for 6 days (STCN) or 40 days (LTCN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623225/high-peripheral-temperatures-in-king-penguins-while-resting-at-sea-thermoregulation-versus-fat-deposition
#6
Agnes Lewden, Manfred R Enstipp, Baptiste Picard, Tessa van Walsum, Yves Handrich
Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621365/bio-inspired-intelligent-evaporation-modulation-in-a-thermo-sensitive-nanogel-colloid-solution-for-self-thermoregulation
#7
Zhi Huang, Kang Liu, Yanhui Feng, Jun Zhou, Xinxin Zhang
Intelligent evaporation and temperature modulation plays an important role in self-regulation of living organisms and many industrial applications. Here we demonstrate that a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanogel colloid solution can spontaneously and intelligently modulate its evaporation rate with temperature variation, which has a larger evaporation rate than distilled water at a temperature higher than its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and a smaller evaporation rate at a temperature lower than its LCST...
June 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620980/case-of-autoimmune-autonomic-ganglionopathy-manifesting-anhidrosis
#8
Asuka Yoshifuku, Koichi Yoneda, Yusuke Sakiyama, Osamu Higuchi, Shunya Nakane, Takuro Kanekura
Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), clinically characterized by gastrointestinal dysmotility, orthostatic hypotension and tonic pupils, is an idiopathic acquired disorder of the autonomic nervous system elicited by antibodies against ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR). We encountered a 60-year-old man who presented with severe anhidrosis, difficulty in thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, tonic pupils and ptosis. Histologically, an anhidrotic skin sample was normal...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620440/feeling-cold-and-other-underestimated-symptoms-in-breast-cancer-anecdotes-or-individual-profiles-for-advanced-patient-stratification
#9
REVIEW
Olga Golubnitschaja
Breast cancer (BC) epidemic is recognised as being characteristic for the early twenty-first century. BC is a multifactorial disease, and a spectrum of modifiable (preventable) factors significantly increasing risks has been described. This article highlights a series of underestimated symptoms for consequent BC risk assessment and patient stratification. Phenomena of the deficient thermoregulation, altered sensitivity to different stimuli (pain, thirst, smell, light, stress provocation), dehydration, altered circadian and sleep patterns, tendency towards headache, migraine attacks and dizziness, as well as local and systemic hypoxic effects are discussed for BC patients providing functional links and proposing new approaches in the overall BC management...
March 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619291/body-mass-modulates-huddling-dynamics-and-body-temperature-profiles-in-rabbit-pups
#10
Amando Bautista, José Alfredo Zepeda, Verónica Reyes-Meza, Christophe Féron, Heiko G Rödel, Robyn Hudson
Altricial mammals typically lack the physiological capacity to thermoregulate independently during the early postnatal period, and in litter-bearing species the young benefit strongly from huddling together with their litter siblings. Such litter huddles are highly dynamic systems, often characterized by competition for energetically favorable, central positions. In the present study, carried out in domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, we asked whether individual differences in body mass affect changes in body temperature during changes in the position within the huddle...
June 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615996/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-safety-and-efficacy-of-creatine-supplementation-in-exercise-sport-and-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Richard B Kreider, Douglas S Kalman, Jose Antonio, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Robert Wildman, Rick Collins, Darren G Candow, Susan M Kleiner, Anthony L Almada, Hector L Lopez
Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614731/potentiation-of-ecological-factors-on-the-disruption-of-thyroid-hormones-by-organo-halogenated-contaminants-in-female-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus-from-the-barents-sea
#12
Sophie Bourgeon, Astrid Kolind Riemer, Sabrina Tartu, Jon Aars, Anuschka Polder, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Heli Routti
As apex predators, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are among the most heavily polluted organisms in the Arctic. In addition to this anthropogenic stressor, climate warming has been shown to negatively affect their body condition, reproductive output and survival. Among potential underlying physiological mechanisms, thyroid hormones (THs), which control thermoregulation, metabolism and reproduction, can be affected by a variety of both natural and anthropogenic factors. While THs have been extensively used as proxies for pollution exposure in mammals, including polar bears, there is a lack of knowledge of their natural variations...
June 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602745/effect-of-systemic-estradiol-administration-on-tail-hiding-behavior-and-cfos-expression-of-brain-areas-in-female-rats-exposed-to-cold-environment
#13
Yuki Uchida, Kei Nagashima, Kazunari Yuri
Rats place their tails underneath their body trunks in the cold (tail-hiding behavior), which is a new behavioral indicator of thermoregulation in the cold. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of estradiol (E2) on tail-hiding behavior and neural activity in brain areas in the cold. Ovariectomized rats were implanted with a silastic tube with or without E2 underneath the dorsal skin (E2 (-) and E2 (+) groups), and exposed to 27°C, 16°C, and 10°C for 2 hours with continuous body temperature (Tb), tail skin temperature (Ttail), and behavioral measurements...
June 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599579/forced-air-pre-warming-prevents-peri-anaesthetic-hypothermia-and-shortens-recovery-in-adult-rats
#14
C J Schuster, D S J Pang
General anaesthesia disrupts thermoregulation in mammals, which can cause hypothermia. Decreases in core body temperature of 1℃ cause significant postoperative complications in humans, and peri-anaesthetic hypothermia in mice increases data variability, which can potentially increase animal use. In rats, the impact of different temperature management strategies on the incidence and severity of hypothermia, and the accuracy of different temperature measurement methods, is unknown. Eighteen adult male and female SD rats were block-randomized to one of three treatment groups: no-warming (NW), limited-warming (LW, heat pad during anaesthesia), and pre-warming (PW, warm air exposure before anaesthesia, followed by heat pad)...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597340/upregulation-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-larvae-but-not-adults-of-the-flesh-fly-during-hot-summer-days
#15
Eri Harada, Shin G Goto
Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are highly expressed when organisms are exposed to thermal stresses. The HSPs are considered to play significant roles in thermal adaptation because they function as molecular chaperones facilitating proper protein synthesis. The expression of HSPs under field conditions, however, has not been evaluated much, and their importance, based on the ecological contexts in nature, is still unclear. We investigated this aspect in the larvae and adults of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga similis...
June 8, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595610/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-danggui-sayuk-ga-osuyu-saenggang-tang-on-korean-patients-with-cold-hypersensitivity-in-the-hands-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-clinical-trial
#16
Youme Ko, Ho-Yeon Go, Yoon-Young Cho, Ji-Hye Shin, Tae-Hoon Kim, Dong-Jun Choi, Jin-Moo Lee, Jun-Bok Jang, Yun-Kyung Song, Seong-Gyu Ko, Seung-Ho Sun, Chan-Yong Jeon
BACKGROUND: In recent years, cold hypersensitivity in the hands (CHH) has become a common ailment of women in Korea. It can lead to gynecological problems such as irregular menstruation, miscarriage, and infertility. Traditionally, Korean herbal medicine has been the primary treatment method used to balance thermoregulation in the human body; however, its effectiveness has not been confirmed through systematic study. Thus, in this trial, we will investigate the feasibility of a full randomized clinical trial, Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Saenggang-tang (DSGOST) in Korean women with CHH...
June 8, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579739/quantitative-study-of-thermal-disturbances-due-to-nonuniformly-perfused-tumors-in-peripheral-regions-of-women-s-breast
#17
Akshara Makrariya, Neeru Adlakha
BACKGROUND: Mathematical modeling of biothermal processes is widely used to enhance the quantitative understanding of thermoregulation system of human body organs. This quantitative knowledge of thermal information of various human body organs can be used for developing clinical applications. In the past, investigators have studied thermal distribution in hemisphere-shaped human breast in the presence of sphere-shaped tumor. The shape and size of the breast as well as tumor may also affect thermal distribution which can have serious implications in thermography...
2017: Cancer Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576243/metabolic-and-endocrine-considerations-after-burn-injury
#18
REVIEW
Felicia N Williams, David N Herndon
Severe burn injury is followed by a profound hypermetabolic response that persists up to 2 years after injury. It is mediated by up to 50-fold elevations in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and glucagon that lead to whole-body catabolism, elevated resting energy expenditures, and multiorgan dysfunction. Modulation of the response by early excision and grafting of burn wounds, thermoregulation, control of infection, early and continuous enteral nutrition, and pharmacologic treatments aimed at mitigating physiologic derangements have markedly decreased morbidity...
July 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569202/a-health-partnership-to-reduce-neonatal-mortality-in-four-hospitals-in-rwanda
#19
Placide Ntigurirwa, Kathy Mellor, Daniel Langer, Mari Evans, Emily Robertson, Lisine Tuyisenge, Alan Groves, Tom Lissauer
BACKGROUND: A health partnership to improve hospital based neonatal care in Rwanda to reduce neonatal mortality was requested by the Rwandan Ministry of Health. Although many health system improvements have been made, there is a severe shortage of health professionals with neonatal training. METHODS: Following a needs assessment, a health partnership grant for 2 years was obtained. A team of volunteer neonatologists and paediatricians, neonatal nurses, lactation consultants and technicians with experience in Rwanda or low-income countries was assembled...
June 1, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566355/spiders-have-rich-pigmentary-and-structural-colour-palettes
#20
Bor-Kai Hsiung, Nicholas M Justyn, Todd A Blackledge, Matthew D Shawkey
Elucidating the mechanisms of colour production in organisms is important for understanding how selection acts upon a variety of behaviours. Spiders provide many spectacular examples of colours used in courtship, predation, defence and thermoregulation, but are thought to lack many types of pigments common in other animals. Ommochromes, bilins and eumelanin have been identified in spiders, but not carotenoids or melanosomes. Here, we combined optical microscopy, refractive index matching, confocal Raman microspectroscopy and electron microscopy to investigate the basis of several types of colourful patches in spiders...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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