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Thermoregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772467/yawning-and-cortisol-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-potential-new-diagnostic-tool
#1
Simon B N Thompson, Alister Coleman, Nicola Williams
Yawning is a significant behavioural response and, together with cortisol, is potentially a new diagnostic marker of neurological diseases. Evidence of an association between yawning and cortisol was found which supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis and thermoregulation hypotheses, indication that brain cooling occurs when yawning. 117 volunteers aged 18-69 years were randomly allocated to experimentally controlled conditions to provoke yawning. Thirty-three had been diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Saliva cortisol samples were collected before and after yawning or after stimuli presentation in the absence of yawning...
May 2, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771387/functional-brown-adipose-tissue-and-sympathetic-activity-after-cold-exposure-in-humans-with-type-1-narcolepsy
#2
Lotte Hahn Enevoldsen, Marie Tindborg, Nichlas Lindegaard Hovmand, Christina Christoffersen, Helga Ellingsgaard, Charlotte Suetta, Bente Merete Stallknecht, Poul Joergen Jennum, Andreas Kjær, Steen Gammeltoft
Study objectives: To investigate the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in type 1 narcolepsy patients during cold exposure using two separate scans of sympathetic and metabolic activity of BAT in order to evaluate whether orexin deficiency leads to altered non-shivering thermoregulation in narcolepsy. Methods: Seven patients with type 1 narcolepsy and seven healthy controls underwent two consecutive scans after 2 h cold exposure: 123I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (123I-MIBG) single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-2-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography to visualize sympathetic innervation and metabolic activity of BAT, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769361/convergence-of-biannual-moulting-strategies-across-birds-and-mammals
#3
REVIEW
Roxanne S Beltran, Jennifer M Burns, Greg A Breed
Birds and mammals have developed numerous strategies for replacing worn feathers and hair. Moulting usually occurs on an annual basis; however, moults that take place twice per year (biannual moults) also occur. Here, we review the forces driving the evolution of various moult strategies, focusing on the special case of the complete biannual moult as a convergence of selection pressures across birds and mammals. Current evidence suggests that harsh environmental conditions or seasonality (e.g. larger variation in temperatures) drive evolution of a biannual moult...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768466/core-non-coding-rnas-of-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#4
Cristopher Segovia, Raul Arias-Carrasco, Alejandro J Yañez, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho, Javier Santander
Piscirickettsia salmonis, a fastidious Gram-negative intracellular facultative bacterium, is the causative agent o Piscirickettsiosis. P. salmonis has broad host range with a nearly worldwide distribution, causing significant mortality. The molecular regulatory mechanisms of P. salmonis pathogenesis are relatively unknown, mainly due to its difficult in vitro culture and genomic differences between genogroups. Bacterial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of bacterial physiology and virulence that are predominantly transcribed from intergenic regions (trans-acting) or antisense strand of open reading frames (cis-acting)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765692/the-cascading-pathogenic-consequences-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-infection-that-manifest-in-host-disease
#5
Alynn M Martin, Tamieka A Fraser, John A Lesku, Kellie Simpson, Georgia L Roberts, Jillian Garvey, Adam Polkinghorne, Christopher P Burridge, Scott Carver
Sarcoptic mange, caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei , causes a substantive burden of disease to humans, domestic animals and wildlife, globally. There are many effects of S. scabiei infection, culminating in the disease which hosts suffer. However, major knowledge gaps remain on the pathogenic impacts of this infection. Here, we focus on the bare-nosed wombat host ( Vombatus ursinus ) to investigate the effects of mange on: (i) host heat loss and thermoregulation, (ii) field metabolic rates, (iii) foraging and resting behaviour across full circadian cycles, and (iv) fatty acid composition in host adipose, bone marrow, brain and muscle tissues...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761712/an-alternative-introduction-to-reading-and-evaluating-the-primary-literature-for-beginning-graduate-students
#6
David C Randall, Bobby R Baldridge
Students are challenged in transitioning from acquiring knowledge and understanding through reading textbooks to their learning to select, read, evaluate, and synthesize the primary literature. A customary approach to teaching this transition to beginning graduate students is for a faculty member to assign "readings" from the recent literature that promise to become key publications; such assignments generally underscore recent, novel scientific content. We advocate here an alternative approach for coaching students very early in their training: first, to read, analyze, and discuss a paper that highlights critically important features of effective and valid experimental design; and, second, to study a paper that can be shown historically to have fundamentally changed the way in which physiological function is understood...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760898/difference-in-plasticity-of-resting-metabolic-rate-the-proximate-explanation-to-different-niche-breadth-in-sympatric-ficedula-flycatchers
#7
S Eryn McFarlane, Murielle Ålund, Päivi M Sirkiä, Anna Qvarnström
Variation in relative fitness of competing recently formed species across heterogeneous environments promotes coexistence. However, the physiological traits mediating such variation in relative fitness have rarely been identified. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is tightly associated with life history strategies, thermoregulation, diet use, and inhabited latitude and could therefore moderate differences in fitness responses to fluctuations in local environments, particularly when species have adapted to different climates in allopatry...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758459/arterial-blood-flow-is-the-main-source-of-testicular-heat-in-bulls-and-higher-ambient-temperatures-significantly-increase-testicular-blood-flow
#8
C M Q Barros Adwell, L F C Brito, E Oba, R E Wilde, G Rizzoto, J C Thundathil, J P Kastelic
Two experiments were done in bulls to determine: total testicular blood flow, testis oxygenation and heat, and effects of ambient temperature on testicular temperatures and blood flow. In Experiment 1, arterial blood flow to testes and testicular oxygenation and heat were determined in Angus bulls (n = 8). Blood temperature and hemoglobin O2 saturation were both greater (P < 0.0001) in the testicular artery than in the testicular vein (39.2 ± 0.2 vs 36.9 ± 0.4 °C and 95.3 ± 0.7 vs 42...
April 26, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745799/sweat-from-gland-to-skin-surface-production-transport-and-skin-absorption
#9
Nicola Margaret Gerrett, Katy E Griggs, Bernard Redortier, Thomas Voelcker, Narihiko Kondo, George Havenith
By combining galvanic skin conductance (GSC), stratum corneum hydration (HYD) and regional surface sweat rate (RSR) measurements at the arm, thigh, back and chest, we closely monitored the passage of sweat from gland to skin surface. Through a varied exercise-rest protocol, sweating was increased slowly and decreased in 16 male and female human participants (25.3 {plus minus} 4.7 yrs, 174.6 {plus minus} 10.1 cm, 71.3 {plus minus} 12.0 kg, 53.0 {plus minus} 6.8 ml∙kg∙min-1 ). ∆GSC and HYD increased prior to RSR, indicating pre-secretory sweat gland activity and skin hydration...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743492/mesoscale-eddies-influence-the-movements-of-mature-female-white-sharks-in-the-gulf-stream-and-sargasso-sea
#10
Peter Gaube, Camrin D Braun, Gareth L Lawson, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Alice Della Penna, Gregory B Skomal, Chris Fischer, Simon R Thorrold
Satellite-tracking of mature white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) has revealed open-ocean movements spanning months and covering tens of thousands of kilometers. But how are the energetic demands of these active apex predators met as they leave coastal areas with relatively high prey abundance to swim across the open ocean through waters often characterized as biological deserts? Here we investigate mesoscale oceanographic variability encountered by two white sharks as they moved through the Gulf Stream region and Sargasso Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740356/behavioural-pharmacokinetic-metabolic-and-hyperthermic-profile-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-the-wistar-rat
#11
Rachel R Horsley, Eva Lhotkova, Katerina Hajkova, Barbara Feriancikova, Michal Himl, Martin Kuchar, Tomas Páleníček
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent pyrovalerone cathinone that is substituted for amphetamines by recreational users. We report a comprehensive and detailed description of the effects of subcutaneous MDPV (1-4 mg/kg) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism, acute effects on thermoregulation under isolated and aggregated conditions, locomotion (open field) and sensory gating (prepulse inhibition, PPI). All studies used male Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics after single dose of 2 mg/kg MDPV was measured over 6 h in serum, brain and lungs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732473/thermoregulatory-responses-and-reproductive-traits-in-composite-beef-bulls-raised-in-a-tropical-climate
#12
Narian Romanello, José de Brito Lourenço Junior, Waldomiro Barioni Junior, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão, Cintia Righetti Marcondes, José Ricardo Macedo Pezzopane, Messy Hannear de Andrade Pantoja, Daniela Botta, Alessandro Giro, Ana Beatriz Bossois Moura, Andréa do Nascimento Barreto, Alexandre Rossetto Garcia
It is believed that increased livestock production is limited by tropical climate. Thermal imbalance in bulls can lead to hyperthermia and alter testicular metabolism, causing subfertility or infertility. Therefore, the thermoregulation of composite Canchim bulls (5/8 Charolais × 3/8 Zebu) raised in tropical climate as well as their consequences in the physiological, hematological, hormonal, and andrological parameters were evaluated monthly. The bulls (n = 18; 30.0 ± 1.5 months; 503.8 ± 23...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723195/human-local-adaptation-of-the-trpm8-cold-receptor-along-a-latitudinal-cline
#13
Felix M Key, Muslihudeen A Abdul-Aziz, Roger Mundry, Benjamin M Peter, Aarthi Sekar, Mauro D'Amato, Megan Y Dennis, Joshua M Schmidt, Aida M Andrés
Ambient temperature is a critical environmental factor for all living organisms. It was likely an important selective force as modern humans recently colonized temperate and cold Eurasian environments. Nevertheless, as of yet we have limited evidence of local adaptation to ambient temperature in populations from those environments. To shed light on this question, we exploit the fact that humans are a cosmopolitan species that inhabit territories under a wide range of temperatures. Focusing on cold perception-which is central to thermoregulation and survival in cold environments-we show evidence of recent local adaptation on TRPM8...
May 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722144/is-the-number-and-size-of-scales-in-liolaemus-lizards-driven-by-climate
#14
María José Tulli, Félix B Cruz
Ectothermic vertebrates are sensitive to thermal fluctuations in the environments where they occur. To buffer these fluctuations, ectotherms use different strategies, including the integument, which is a barrier that minimizes temperature exchange between the inner body and the surrounding air. In lizards, this barrier is constituted by keratinized scales of variable size, shape and texture, and its main function is protection, water loss avoidance and thermoregulation. The size of scales in lizards has been proposed to vary in relation to climatic gradients; however, it has also been observed that in some groups of Iguanian lizards could be related to phylogeny...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722138/behavioural-thermoregulation-is-highly-repeatable-and-unaffected-by-digestive-status-in-agama-atra
#15
Jenna van Berkel, Susana Clusella-Trullas
The precision and the extent of behavioral thermoregulation are likely to provide fitness benefits to ectotherms. Yet the factors driving variation in selected or preferred body temperature (Tset ) and its usefulness as a proxy for optimal physiological temperature (Topt ) are still debated. Although Tset is often conserved among closely related species, substantial variation at the individual, population, and species level has also been reported but repeatability (sensu the intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC) of Tset is generally low...
May 3, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719119/thermoregulatory-profile-of-neurodegeneration-induced-dementia-of-the-alzheimer-s-type-using-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-in-rats
#16
A C P Motzko-Soares, R C L Vizin, T M S Martins, A R O Hungaro, J R Sato, M C Almeida, D C Carrettiero
AIM: Here, we have extensively investigated the relationship between thermoregulation and neurodegeneration-induced dementia of the Alzheimer's type using intracerebroventricular injections of streptozotocin (icv-STZ). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with bilateral injections of icv-STZ, and their thermoregulatory profiles (core body temperature, tail-skin temperature, cold and heat defence responses and thermal place preference) were evaluated. Spatial memory, locomotor activity, social interaction, brain ventricular volume, and Aβ1-42 and tau protein levels in the brain were analysed in order to characterize the effects of STZ on the brain and behaviour...
May 2, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717682/review-abnormalities-of-the-bull-occurrence-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-abnormalities-of-the-bull-including-structural-soundness
#17
D F Wolfe
Selecting bulls for reproductive soundness requires that the bull be structurally sound, free of abnormalities that impair his ability to produce adequate numbers of motile, morphologically normal spermatozoa, and be able to successfully complete coitus. This review discusses the diagnosis and etiology of abnormalities of the penis, prepuce as well as common musculoskeletal conditions that prevent normal pasture breeding soundness. A review of testicular and thermoregulation addresses the potential impact of musculoskeletal disorders on normal sperm production...
May 2, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713492/effect-of-cold-stress-on-infanticide-by-female-swiss-albino-mice-mus-musculus-a-pilot-study
#18
Tabassum Zafar, Ab Qayoom Naik, Vinoy K Shrivastava
Background: Mice are widely accepted research models of great clinical significance. Maintenance of laboratory mice breed is an essential aspect for performing research activities in various fields of science. Infanticide is one of the prominent causes of litter loss during maintenance of laboratory mice stock. The present study is an effort to monitor the effect of change in ambient temperature of female mice below the normal range on cannibalism and infanticide during early postparturition phase...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700598/mammalian-cold-trp-channels-impact-on-thermoregulation-and-energy-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Rosa Señarís, Purificación Ordás, Alfonso Reimúndez, Félix Viana
Body temperature regulation is a fundamental homeostatic function in homeothermic animals. It is governed by the central nervous system that integrates temperature signals from internal body structures and the skin and provides efferent responses to adjust heat-exchange rates with the environment. Thermoregulation has a major influence on energy balance by regulating food intake as well as heat production and energy expenditure. Surprisingly, although almost 50% of our energy expenditure is dedicated to maintaining homeothermy, very little is yet known about the molecular aspects and the neural wiring involved in the intimate interrelationship between these two critical homeostatic systems...
April 26, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688543/natural-selection-and-origin-of-a-melanistic-allele-in-north-american-gray-wolves
#20
Rena M Schweizer, Arun Durvasula, Joel Smith, Samuel H Vohr, Daniel R Stahler, Marco Galaverni, Olaf Thalmann, Douglas W Smith, Ettore Randi, Elaine A Ostrander, Richard E Green, Kirk E Lohmueller, John Novembre, Robert K Wayne
Pigmentation is often used to understand how natural selection affects genetic variation in wild populations since it can have a simple genetic basis, and can affect a variety of fitness-related traits (e.g., camouflage, thermoregulation, and sexual display). In gray wolves, the K locus, a β-defensin gene, causes black coat color via a dominantly inherited KB allele. The allele is derived from dog-wolf hybridization and is at high frequency in North American wolf populations. We designed a DNA capture array to probe the geographic origin, age, and number of introgression events of the KB allele in a panel of 331 wolves and 20 dogs...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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