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neuro psychiatry

Melany L Hendricks, R A Emsley, D G Nel, H B Thornton, G P Jordaan
AIMS: This study aimed to explore the neuro-cognitive deficits of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder as compared to the cognitive deficits of uncomplicated alcohol dependence. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the acute psychiatric admission wards of the Department of Psychiatry, University of Stellenbosch and Stikland and Tygerberg Academic Hospitals in the Western-Cape, South Africa. Participants who met DSM IV TR criteria (American Psychiatric Association...
April 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Mohamed Ben Said, Laurence Robel, Bernard Golse, Jean Philippe Jais
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neuro-developmental disorders affecting children in their early age. The diagnosis of ASD relies on multidisciplinary investigations, in psychiatry, neurology, genetics, electrophysiology, neuro-imagery, audiology and ophthalmology. In order to support clinicians, researchers and public health decision makers, we designed an information system dedicated to ASD, called TEDIS. TEDIS was designed to manage systematic, exhaustive and continuous multi-centric patient data collection via secured Internet connections...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Guillermo Velasco, Sonia Hernández-Tiedra, David Dávila, Mar Lorente
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Wolfgang Mastnak
Music can serve as a shelter and music therapy can provide spaces for symbolic experience and the modification of behavioural and cognitive patterns. Explaining the power of music, ancient theories speak of an analogy between music and man. Similar views are also found in modern music therapy such as Sound Work, a voice-body-based model. Complementary to the aspect of analogy, the principle of transformation is of vital importance, such as the transitions between the five elements, the solid organs and the pentatonic scale in Chinese music therapy, for instance...
December 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Aude Paquet, Bertrand Olliac, Manuel-Pierre Bouvard, Bernard Golse, Laurence Vaivre-Douret
BACKGROUND: Altered motor performance has been described in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with disturbances in walking; posture, coordination, or arm movements, but some individuals with ASD show no impairment of motor skills. The neuro-developmental processes that underpin the performance of neuro-psychomotor functions have not been widely explored, nor is it clear whether there are neuro-psychomotor functions specifically affected in ASD. Our objective was to focus on the semiology of motor disorders among children with ASD using a neuro-developmental assessment tool...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ryan Smith, Richard D Lane
While psychiatry and clinical psychology have long discussed the topic of unconscious emotion, and its potentially explanatory role in psychopathology, this topic has only recently begun to receive attention within cognitive neuroscience. In contrast, neuroscientific research on conscious vs. unconscious processes within perception, memory, decision-making, and cognitive control has seen considerable advances in the last two decades. In this article, we extrapolate from this work, as well as from recent neural models of emotion processing, to outline multiple plausible neuro-cognitive mechanisms that may be able to explain why various aspects of one's own emotional reactions can remain unconscious in specific circumstances...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Stavroula Rakitzi, Polyxeni Georgila, Konstantinos Efthimiou, Daniel R Mueller
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of cognitive remediation group therapy in patients with schizophrenia in Greece. For this purpose, the cognitive part of the Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT), focusing on neuro- and social cognition, was compared in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with treatment as usual (TAU). 48 outpatients took part in the study. IPT groups received 20 biweekly 1-h-therapy sessions. A test-battery was assessed at baseline, after therapy, and at a 3-month follow-up...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
L Schmaal, D P Hibar, P G Sämann, G B Hall, B T Baune, N Jahanshad, J W Cheung, T G M van Erp, D Bos, M A Ikram, M W Vernooij, W J Niessen, H Tiemeier, A Hofman, K Wittfeld, H J Grabe, D Janowitz, R Bülow, M Selonke, H Völzke, D Grotegerd, U Dannlowski, V Arolt, N Opel, W Heindel, H Kugel, D Hoehn, M Czisch, B Couvy-Duchesne, M E Rentería, L T Strike, M J Wright, N T Mills, G I de Zubicaray, K L McMahon, S E Medland, N G Martin, N A Gillespie, R Goya-Maldonado, O Gruber, B Krämer, S N Hatton, J Lagopoulos, I B Hickie, T Frodl, A Carballedo, E M Frey, L S van Velzen, B W J H Penninx, M-J van Tol, N J van der Wee, C G Davey, B J Harrison, B Mwangi, B Cao, J C Soares, I M Veer, H Walter, D Schoepf, B Zurowski, C Konrad, E Schramm, C Normann, K Schnell, M D Sacchet, I H Gotlib, G M MacQueen, B R Godlewska, T Nickson, A M McIntosh, M Papmeyer, H C Whalley, J Hall, J E Sussmann, M Li, M Walter, L Aftanas, I Brack, N A Bokhan, P M Thompson, D J Veltman
The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world...
June 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Heather E Moss
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of obesity increases, so, too, do the prevalences of weight-related diseases and surgical procedures to promote weight loss. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to be familiar with these procedures and possible downstream effects on afferent and efferent visual function. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, psychiatry, and neurosurgery literature. RESULTS: Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective treatment for weight loss in obese individuals...
March 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
S Mrabet, F Ellouze, S Ellini, M F Mrad
Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia...
December 2015: L'Encéphale
Om Prakash, Neelu Sharma, Amool R Singh, K S Sengar, Suprakash Chaudhury, Jay Kumar Ranjan
AIM: To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level...
January 2015: Industrial Psychiatry Journal
Susan Lamb
Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine's traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the 'New Psychiatry', a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other 'new' progressive reform movements in the United States...
July 2015: Medical History
Michele Ribolsi, Jasper Feyaerts, Stijn Vanheule
Starting from the theories of leading psychiatrists, like Kraepelin and de Clérambault, the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan (1901-1981) formulated an original theory of psychosis, focusing on the subject and on the structuring role of language. In particular, he postulated that language makes up the experience of subjectivity and that psychosis is marked by the absence of a crucial metaphorization process. Interestingly, in contemporary psychiatry there is growing empirical evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal interpretation of verbal and non-verbal information, with a great difficulty to put such information in the appropriate context...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
F Vinckier, R Gaillard, S Palminteri, L Rigoux, A Salvador, A Fornito, R Adapa, M O Krebs, M Pessiglione, P C Fletcher
A state of pathological uncertainty about environmental regularities might represent a key step in the pathway to psychotic illness. Early psychosis can be investigated in healthy volunteers under ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Here, we explored the effects of ketamine on contingency learning using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed an instrumental learning task, in which cue-outcome contingencies were probabilistic and reversed between blocks...
July 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Enrique Santos-Bueso, Mercedes Serrador-García, Jesús Porta-Etessam, Octavio Rodríguez-Gómez, José M Martínez-de-la-Casa, Julián García-Feijoo, Julián García-Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is a condition characterised by the presence of visual hallucinations, mainly complex, in patients with significant vision loss and without cognitive impairment. The rise in CBS cases is due to an increased life expectancy and to the development of age-related pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We herein analyse the main characteristics present in 45 patients diagnosed with CBS at the Neuro-ophthalmology Unit in Hospital Clinico San Carlos...
April 16, 2015: Revista de Neurologia
Grazia Giana, Emilia Romano, Maria Cristina Porfirio, Roberto D'Ambrosio, Silvia Giovinazzo, Miriam Troianiello, Eleonora Barlocci, Domenica Travaglini, Oleg Granstrem, Esterina Pascale, Luigi Tarani, Paolo Curatolo, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
UNLABELLED: Interest is rising for auto-immune contribution in neuro-psychiatry. We evaluated the auto-antibodies against dopamine transporter (DAT aAbs) in 61 children (46 ADHD who met DSM-IV-TR criteria, 15 healthy controls). METHODS: ADHD patients were assigned, according to severity, either to a non-pharmacological therapy (NPT, N=32) or to a pharmacological treatment (PT, N=14) with methylphenidate (MPH). In ADHD children, blood samples were withdrawn twice, at recruitment (T0 basal) and after 6 weeks (T1); following 16 excluded subjects, DAT genotype was characterized (9-repeat or 10-repeat alleles; N=15 each)...
January 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
C Laurent, S Burnouf, B Ferry, V L Batalha, J E Coelho, Y Baqi, E Malik, E Mariciniak, S Parrot, A Van der Jeugd, E Faivre, V Flaten, C Ledent, R D'Hooge, N Sergeant, M Hamdane, S Humez, C E Müller, L V Lopes, L Buée, D Blum
Consumption of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist, reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans and mitigates both amyloid and Tau burden in transgenic mouse models. However, the impact of selective A2AR blockade on the progressive development of AD-related lesions and associated memory impairments has not been investigated. In the present study, we removed the gene encoding A2AR from THY-Tau22 mice and analysed the subsequent effects on both pathological (Tau phosphorylation and aggregation, neuro-inflammation) and functional impairments (spatial learning and memory, hippocampal plasticity, neurotransmitter profile)...
January 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
E Y Plotnikov, D N Silachev, L D Zorova, I B Pevzner, S S Jankauskas, S D Zorov, V A Babenko, M V Skulachev, D B Zorov
For many decades pharmacological drugs based on lithium salts have been successfully used in psychiatry to treat bipolar disorder, and they remain the "gold standard" of pharmacological therapy of patients with this disease. At the same time, over recent years in experiments in vitro and in vivo a plethora of evidence has accumulated on a positive effect of lithium ions in other areas including their neuro-, cardio-, and nephroprotective properties, regulation of stem cells functions, regulation of inflammation, and others...
August 2014: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Ketan D Jethwa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Psychiatric Bulletin
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