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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672371/the-semiology-of-motor-disorders-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-as-highlighted-from-a-standardized-neuro-psychomotor-assessment
#1
Aude Paquet, Bertrand Olliac, Manuel-Pierre Bouvard, Bernard Golse, Laurence Vaivre-Douret
BACKGROUND: Altered motor performance has been described in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with disturbances in walking; posture, coordination, or arm movements, but some individuals with ASD show no impairment of motor skills. The neuro-developmental processes that underpin the performance of neuro-psychomotor functions have not been widely explored, nor is it clear whether there are neuro-psychomotor functions specifically affected in ASD. Our objective was to focus on the semiology of motor disorders among children with ASD using a neuro-developmental assessment tool...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522011/unconscious-emotion-a-cognitive-neuroscientific-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Ryan Smith, Richard D Lane
While psychiatry and clinical psychology have long discussed the topic of unconscious emotion, and its potentially explanatory role in psychopathology, this topic has only recently begun to receive attention within cognitive neuroscience. In contrast, neuroscientific research on conscious vs. unconscious processes within perception, memory, decision-making, and cognitive control has seen considerable advances in the last two decades. In this article, we extrapolate from this work, as well as from recent neural models of emotion processing, to outline multiple plausible neuro-cognitive mechanisms that may be able to explain why various aspects of one's own emotional reactions can remain unconscious in specific circumstances...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280523/efficacy-and-feasibility-of-the-integrated-psychological-therapy-for-outpatients-with-schizophrenia-in-greece-final-results-of-a-rct
#3
Stavroula Rakitzi, Polyxeni Georgila, Konstantinos Efthimiou, Daniel R Mueller
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the feasibility of cognitive remediation group therapy in patients with schizophrenia in Greece. For this purpose, the cognitive part of the Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT), focusing on neuro- and social cognition, was compared in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with treatment as usual (TAU). 48 outpatients took part in the study. IPT groups received 20 biweekly 1-h-therapy sessions. A test-battery was assessed at baseline, after therapy, and at a 3-month follow-up...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137745/cortical-abnormalities-in-adults-and-adolescents-with-major-depression-based-on-brain-scans-from-20-cohorts-worldwide-in-the-enigma-major-depressive-disorder-working-group
#4
L Schmaal, D P Hibar, P G Sämann, G B Hall, B T Baune, N Jahanshad, J W Cheung, T G M van Erp, D Bos, M A Ikram, M W Vernooij, W J Niessen, H Tiemeier, A Hofman, K Wittfeld, H J Grabe, D Janowitz, R Bülow, M Selonke, H Völzke, D Grotegerd, U Dannlowski, V Arolt, N Opel, W Heindel, H Kugel, D Hoehn, M Czisch, B Couvy-Duchesne, M E Rentería, L T Strike, M J Wright, N T Mills, G I de Zubicaray, K L McMahon, S E Medland, N G Martin, N A Gillespie, R Goya-Maldonado, O Gruber, B Krämer, S N Hatton, J Lagopoulos, I B Hickie, T Frodl, A Carballedo, E M Frey, L S van Velzen, B W J H Penninx, M-J van Tol, N J van der Wee, C G Davey, B J Harrison, B Mwangi, B Cao, J C Soares, I M Veer, H Walter, D Schoepf, B Zurowski, C Konrad, E Schramm, C Normann, K Schnell, M D Sacchet, I H Gotlib, G M MacQueen, B R Godlewska, T Nickson, A M McIntosh, M Papmeyer, H C Whalley, J Hall, J E Sussmann, M Li, M Walter, L Aftanas, I Brack, N A Bokhan, P M Thompson, D J Veltman
The neuro-anatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) are still not well understood, despite many neuroimaging studies over the past few decades. Here we present the largest ever worldwide study by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group on cortical structural alterations in MDD. Structural T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 2148 MDD patients and 7957 healthy controls were analysed with harmonized protocols at 20 sites around the world...
May 3, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26764529/bariatric-surgery-and-the-neuro-ophthalmologist
#5
REVIEW
Heather E Moss
BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of obesity increases, so, too, do the prevalences of weight-related diseases and surgical procedures to promote weight loss. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to be familiar with these procedures and possible downstream effects on afferent and efferent visual function. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, psychiatry, and neurosurgery literature. RESULTS: Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective treatment for weight loss in obese individuals...
March 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26345354/-neuropsychiatric-manifestations-ushering-pernicious-anemia
#6
S Mrabet, F Ellouze, S Ellini, M F Mrad
Biermer disease or pernicious anemia is an autoimmune atrophic gastritis characterized by the lack of secretion of gastric intrinsic factor. This leads to an insufficient absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum. Clinical manifestations are mainly hematologic. Neuropsychiatric manifestations are known but are less frequent especially early in the disease. Inaugural neuropsychiatric arrays are rare and various thus making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we report through two clinical cases different neuropsychiatric manifestations revealing pernicious anemia...
December 2015: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26257482/personality-disorder-emotional-intelligence-and-locus-of-control-of-patients-with-alcohol-dependence
#7
Om Prakash, Neelu Sharma, Amool R Singh, K S Sengar, Suprakash Chaudhury, Jay Kumar Ranjan
AIM: To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level...
January 2015: Industrial Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26090738/social-skills-adolf-meyer-s-revision-of-clinical-skill-for-the-new-psychiatry-of-the-twentieth-century
#8
Susan Lamb
Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine's traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the 'New Psychiatry', a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other 'new' progressive reform movements in the United States...
July 2015: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26089805/metaphor-in-psychosis-on-the-possible-convergence-of-lacanian-theory-and-neuro-scientific-research
#9
Michele Ribolsi, Jasper Feyaerts, Stijn Vanheule
Starting from the theories of leading psychiatrists, like Kraepelin and de Clérambault, the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan (1901-1981) formulated an original theory of psychosis, focusing on the subject and on the structuring role of language. In particular, he postulated that language makes up the experience of subjectivity and that psychosis is marked by the absence of a crucial metaphorization process. Interestingly, in contemporary psychiatry there is growing empirical evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal interpretation of verbal and non-verbal information, with a great difficulty to put such information in the appropriate context...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26055423/confidence-and-psychosis-a-neuro-computational-account-of-contingency-learning-disruption-by-nmda-blockade
#10
F Vinckier, R Gaillard, S Palminteri, L Rigoux, A Salvador, A Fornito, R Adapa, M O Krebs, M Pessiglione, P C Fletcher
A state of pathological uncertainty about environmental regularities might represent a key step in the pathway to psychotic illness. Early psychosis can be investigated in healthy volunteers under ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist. Here, we explored the effects of ketamine on contingency learning using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed an instrumental learning task, in which cue-outcome contingencies were probabilistic and reversed between blocks...
July 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25857856/-charles-bonnet-syndrome-a-45-case-series
#11
Enrique Santos-Bueso, Mercedes Serrador-García, Jesús Porta-Etessam, Octavio Rodríguez-Gómez, José M Martínez-de-la-Casa, Julián García-Feijoo, Julián García-Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is a condition characterised by the presence of visual hallucinations, mainly complex, in patients with significant vision loss and without cognitive impairment. The rise in CBS cases is due to an increased life expectancy and to the development of age-related pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We herein analyse the main characteristics present in 45 patients diagnosed with CBS at the Neuro-ophthalmology Unit in Hospital Clinico San Carlos...
April 16, 2015: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25468771/detection-of-auto-antibodies-to-dat-in-the-serum-interactions-with-dat-genotype-and-psycho-stimulant-therapy-for-adhd
#12
Grazia Giana, Emilia Romano, Maria Cristina Porfirio, Roberto D'Ambrosio, Silvia Giovinazzo, Miriam Troianiello, Eleonora Barlocci, Domenica Travaglini, Oleg Granstrem, Esterina Pascale, Luigi Tarani, Paolo Curatolo, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
UNLABELLED: Interest is rising for auto-immune contribution in neuro-psychiatry. We evaluated the auto-antibodies against dopamine transporter (DAT aAbs) in 61 children (46 ADHD who met DSM-IV-TR criteria, 15 healthy controls). METHODS: ADHD patients were assigned, according to severity, either to a non-pharmacological therapy (NPT, N=32) or to a pharmacological treatment (PT, N=14) with methylphenidate (MPH). In ADHD children, blood samples were withdrawn twice, at recruitment (T0 basal) and after 6 weeks (T1); following 16 excluded subjects, DAT genotype was characterized (9-repeat or 10-repeat alleles; N=15 each)...
January 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25450226/a2a-adenosine-receptor-deletion-is-protective-in-a-mouse-model-of-tauopathy
#13
C Laurent, S Burnouf, B Ferry, V L Batalha, J E Coelho, Y Baqi, E Malik, E Mariciniak, S Parrot, A Van der Jeugd, E Faivre, V Flaten, C Ledent, R D'Hooge, N Sergeant, M Hamdane, S Humez, C E Müller, L V Lopes, L Buée, D Blum
Consumption of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist, reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans and mitigates both amyloid and Tau burden in transgenic mouse models. However, the impact of selective A2AR blockade on the progressive development of AD-related lesions and associated memory impairments has not been investigated. In the present study, we removed the gene encoding A2AR from THY-Tau22 mice and analysed the subsequent effects on both pathological (Tau phosphorylation and aggregation, neuro-inflammation) and functional impairments (spatial learning and memory, hippocampal plasticity, neurotransmitter profile)...
January 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25365484/lithium-salts-simple-but-magic
#14
REVIEW
E Y Plotnikov, D N Silachev, L D Zorova, I B Pevzner, S S Jankauskas, S D Zorov, V A Babenko, M V Skulachev, D B Zorov
For many decades pharmacological drugs based on lithium salts have been successfully used in psychiatry to treat bipolar disorder, and they remain the "gold standard" of pharmacological therapy of patients with this disease. At the same time, over recent years in experiments in vitro and in vivo a plethora of evidence has accumulated on a positive effect of lithium ions in other areas including their neuro-, cardio-, and nephroprotective properties, regulation of stem cells functions, regulation of inflammation, and others...
August 2014: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25285229/challenges-and-opportunities-in-neuro-psychiatry
#15
Ketan D Jethwa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Psychiatric Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24940728/topiramate-induced-psychotic-exacerbation-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Ersin Hatice Karslioğlu, Hande Karakiliç, Ender Taner, Behçet Coşar
Background. Topiramate (TPM) is a new antiepileptic drug that is used mainly in the treatment of refractory partial epileptic seizures. There are some studies reporting TPM's effectiveness in the treatment and maintenance of some psychiatric illnesses such as acute mania, some other affective disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and binge-eating disorder. On the other hand, it has been shown that TPM may cause mild to moderate cognitive impairment and is thought to be responsible for a series of neuro-psychiatric signs and symptoms...
2007: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24761817/complexity-of-pain-management-among-patients-with-nociceptive-or-neuropathic-neck-back-or-osteoarthritis-diagnoses
#17
Chris M Kozma, David A Provenzano, Terra L Slaton, Aarti A Patel, Carmela J Benson
BACKGROUND: Approaches to pain management are diverse, requiring prescribers to evaluate an array of clinical issues and potential solutions. In addition to the difficult task of selecting a treatment option, pain treatment may be further complicated by multiple prescribers, multiple medications, and multiple mechanisms of pain origination. OBJECTIVE: To describe patient demographics (e.g., age, gender); comorbidities; office visits (e.g., physician, chiropractor, physical therapy, psychiatry, allergist); number of different prescribers overall prescription use; pain medications as classified by the World Health Organization's (WHO) pain ladder; adjuvant medications; nonpharmacologic procedures; and potential drug interactions in a broad sample of patients with nociceptive or neuropathic neck or back diagnoses, or osteoarthritis diagnoses, in a commercial population...
May 2014: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24615846/the-cost-of-war-then-and-now-commentary-on-neuro-psychiatry-1943
#18
COMMENT
Heiner Fangerau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2014: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24539176/-review-of-recent-foreign-literature-of-neuro-psychopathology
#19
SCHACHTER
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1950: Archives Internationales de Neurologie, des Maladies Héréditaires, de Médecine Mentale et Psychosomatique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24442525/what-is-a-balanced-program
#20
Paul C Mohl
"Balance" has become the watchword of psychiatry programs. It seems that almost all residency training programs claim to be balanced. But what do we mean by this term? This article summarizes the author's evolving thinking about what makes for a balanced program and suggests that diversity may be a better term. The author advocates that balance is not as simple as teaching both psychodynamics and biological psychiatry. Instead, it entails a considered, intellectual approach that involves long-term vs. other psychotherapies, neuro-science vs...
June 1995: Academic Psychiatry
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