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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333360/gammadelta-t-cells-in-crohn-s-disease-a-new-player-in-the-disease-pathogenesis
#1
Catalan-Serra Ignacio, Arne Kristian Sandvik, Torunn Bruland, Juan Carlos Andreu-Ballester
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing systemic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract. An altered immune response to commensal intestinal bacteria takes place in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in chronic inflammation in the gut. Several alterations in the innate immunity mechanisms have been described in recent years. Thus, the study of the immunological aspects of CD, specifically the role of lymphocytes, is a key element for understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. Gammadelta T cells (γδ T cells) constitute only a small proportion of the lymphocytes that circulate in the blood and peripheral organs and they are present mainly in the epithelia, where they can constitute up to 40% of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in the intestinal mucosa...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333284/revisiting-the-mutant-prevention-concentration-to-guide-dosing-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#2
Devan Jaganath, H Simon Schaaf, Peter R Donald
The mutant prevention concentration (MPC) is a well-known concept in the chemotherapy of many bacterial infections, but is seldom considered in relation to tuberculosis (TB) treatment, as the required concentrations are generally viewed as unachievable without undue toxicity. Early studies revealed single mutations conferring high MICs of first- and second-line anti-TB agents; however, the growing application of genomics and quantitative drug susceptibility testing in TB suggests a wide range of MICs often determined by specific mutations and strain type...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332461/global-public-goods-for-health-weaknesses-and-opportunities-in-the-global-health-system
#3
Suerie Moon, John-Arne Røttingen, Julio Frenk
Since at least the 1990s, there has been growing recognition that societies need global public goods (GPGs) in order to protect and promote public health. While the term GPG is sometimes used loosely to denote that which is 'good' for the global public, we restrict our use of the term to its technical definition (goods that are non-excludable and non-rival in consumption) for its useful analytical clarity. Examples of important GPGs for health include standards and guidelines, research on the causes and treatment of disease, and comparative evidence and analysis...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330250/deciphering-the-evolutionary-affiliations-among-bacterial-strains-pseudomonas-and-frankia-sp-inhabiting-same-ecological-niche-using-virtual-rflp-and-simulation-based-approaches
#4
Meenakshi Srivastava, Manish Singh Kaushik, Amrita Srivastava, Anumeha Singh, Ekta Verma, Arun Kumar Mishra
To decipher an evolutionary lineage between two different but important bacterial groups, i.e., Pseudomonas strain (γ-Proteobacteria) and Frankia strain (actinobacteria) growing in the same ecological niche in and around of an actinorhizal plant Hippophae salicifolia D. Don, genetic diversity and comparative molecular phylogeny have been investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequences and computer-simulated and virtually directed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) through 10 restriction enzymes. Bayesian and coalescent analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested three major groups with close proximity between Pseudomonas and Frankia isolates...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325237/global-health-in-radiation-oncology-the-emergence-of-a-new-career-pathway
#5
REVIEW
Danielle Rodin, Mei Ling Yap, Surbhi Grover, John M Longo, Onyinye Balogun, Sandra Turner, Jesper G Eriksen, C Norman Coleman, Meredith Giuliani
The massive global shortfall in radiotherapy equipment and human resources in developing countries is an enormous challenge for international efforts in cancer control. This lack of access to treatment has been long-standing, but there is now a growing consensus about the urgent need to prioritize solutions to this problem and that a global strategy is required for them to be successful. An essential element of making radiotherapy universally accessible is a coordinated approach to clinical training and practice...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323454/interaction-behaviors-of-bilingual-parents-with-their-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Kristelle Hudry, Lisa Rumney, Nicole Pitt, Josephine Barbaro, Giacomo Vivanti
Given concerns that bilingual exposure might confuse children with disabilities-including autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-bilingual parents may restrict exposure to one language, often the community-dominant language. We investigated a potential consequence of this decision; the possibility that non-native language use might influence parental communicative behaviors during interaction with the child. We recruited 39 parent-child dyads, each with a young child with ASD (mostly boys) and parent/carer (mostly mothers)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322833/treatment-of-novel-il17a-inhibitor-in-glioblastoma-implementing-3rd-generation-co-culture-cell-line-and-patient-derived-tumor-model
#7
Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan, Muhammad Asif, Mohammed Khadeer Ahamed Basheer, Cheng Wei Kang, Fouad Saleh Al-Suede, Oon Chern Ein, Jing Tang, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
Despite many treatment options, cancer remains a growing problem and has become the second leading cause of death globally. Here, we present fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) data regarding the reversion of third generation co-cultured U87+DBTRG and patient-derived GBM tumor model after treatment with novel IL17A inhibitor named FLVM and FLVZ (organic derivatives of caffeic acid). FMT was used to determine tumor angiogenesis volume (assessment of number of blood vessel; the expression of angiogenic factors CD34 and other angiogenic cancer bio-markers) in U87+DBTRG and patient-derived gliomas...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321973/cortical-and-subcortical-mechanisms-of-brain-machine-interfaces
#8
Silvia Marchesotti, Roberto Martuzzi, Aaron Schurger, Maria Laura Blefari, José R Del Millán, Hannes Bleuler, Olaf Blanke
Technical advances in the field of Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) enable users to control a variety of external devices such as robotic arms, wheelchairs, virtual entities and communication systems through the decoding of brain signals in real time. Most BMI systems sample activity from restricted brain regions, typically the motor and premotor cortex, with limited spatial resolution. Despite the growing number of applications, the cortical and subcortical systems involved in BMI control are currently unknown at the whole-brain level...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318916/radiation-free-3d-head-shape-and-volume-evaluation-after-endoscopically-assisted-strip-craniectomy-followed-by-helmet-therapy-for-trigonocephaly
#9
Guido de Jong, Manon Tolhuisen, Jene Meulstee, Ferdi van der Heijden, Erik van Lindert, Wilfred Borstlap, Thomas Maal, Hans Delye
INTRODUCTION: Radiation-free 3D post-operative sequential follow-up in craniosynostosis is hindered by the lack of consistent markers restricting evaluation to subjective comparison. However, using the computed cranial focal point (CCFP), it is possible to perform correct sequential image superposition and objective evaluation. We used this technique for mean volume and shape change evaluation of the head utilizing 3D photos after endoscopically assisted trigonocephaly surgery. METHODS: We performed a mean head shape and volume evaluation on age grouped 3D photos (n = 86) of children who underwent endoscopically assisted strip craniectomy with helmet therapy...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303235/a-civic-turn-in-scandinavian-family-migration-policies-comparing-denmark-norway-and-sweden
#10
Emily Cochran Bech, Karin Borevi, Per Mouritsen
Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners' possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely - from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants' labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate...
2017: Comp Migr Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301695/justifying-clinical-nudges
#11
Moti Gorin, Steven Joffe, Neal Dickert, Scott Halpern
The shift away from paternalistic decision-making and toward patient-centered, shared decision-making has stemmed from the recognition that in order to practice medicine ethically, health care professionals must take seriously the values and preferences of their patients. At the same time, there is growing recognition that minor and seemingly irrelevant features of how choices are presented can substantially influence the decisions people make. Behavioral economists have identified striking ways in which trivial differences in the presentation of options can powerfully and predictably affect people's choices...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299798/sterol-glycosyltransferases-required-for-adaptation-of-withania-somnifera-at-high-temperature
#12
Gaurav Singh, Manish Tiwari, Surendra Pratap Singh, Ruchi Singh, Surendra Singh, Pramod Arvind Shirke, Prabodh K Trivedi, Pratibha Misra
Heat is a major environmental stress factor that confines growth, productivity, and metabolism of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable conditions through changes in their physiological, biochemical and developmental processes. Withania somnifera, an important medicinal plant, grows in hot and dry conditions, however, molecular mechanisms related to such adaptive properties are not known. Here, we elucidated that members of the SGT gene family play important roles in the survival of W. somnifera under adverse conditions through maintaining the integrity of the membrane...
March 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295170/implementing-universal-cervical-length-screening-in-asymptomatic-women-with-singleton-pregnancies-challenges-and-opportunities
#13
Michelle K Pedretti, Brenda M Kazemier, Jan E Dickinson, Ben W J Mol
Cervical length (CL) screening has been successfully utilised to identify asymptomatic women, with a singleton pregnancy, at risk of preterm birth (PTB), thereby providing an opportunity to offer interventions that may reduce that risk. Cervical length screening with ultrasound is most effectively performed with a transvaginal approach. Universal cervical length screening, encompassing all singleton pregnancies rather than restricting screening to those considered at increased risk of PTB, is currently not widely used, despite a growing body of evidence in support of its utility for PTB prevention...
March 10, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294313/suppression-of-murine-tumor-growth-through-cd8-ctls-via-activated-dec-205-dendritic-cells-by-sequential-administration-of-%C3%AE-galactosylceramide-in-vivo
#14
Hideki Kogo, Masumi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Negishi, Eiji Uchida, Hidemi Takahashi
Cancer immunity is mediated through the effective priming and activation of tumor-specific class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecule-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). DEC-205(+) dendritic cells (DCs) can cross-present the epitope(s) of captured tumor antigens associated with class I MHC molecules alongside co-stimulatory molecules to prime and activate tumor-specific CD8(+) CTLs. Immunosuppressive tolerogenic DCs with reduced co-stimulatory molecules may be a cause of impaired CTL induction...
March 12, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291658/how-do-they-get-here-does-the-method-of-transportation-impact-salvage-for-patients-with-testicular-torsion
#15
D A Weiss, N Tsarouhas, M C Carr, A Kalmus, S A Zderic
INTRODUCTION: A growing number of patients are arriving at our tertiary care center for evaluation of possible testicular torsion using ambulance or helicopter transport. In many cases the parents arrive by car before the patient arrives. Are these advanced methods of medical transport worth the expense and risk in the case of suspected testicular torsion? OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the total number of patients presenting to our emergency room for suspected testicular torsion to see if the means of transport affected testicular survival...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290558/-real-world-data-on-novel-oral-anticoagulants-the-added-value-of-registries-and-observational-studies-focus-on-apixaban
#16
Francesco Pelliccia, Gaetano Tanzilli, Michele Schiariti, Nicola Viceconte, Cesare Greco, Carlo Gaudio
Anticoagulant therapy has been used with great effect for decades for the prevention of stroke among patients with atrial fibrillation. In recent years, the therapeutic armamentarium has been strengthened considerably, with the addition of anticoagulants acting through novel pathways. The currently available novel agents are apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran. These novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were approved for use on the basis of major clinical trials clearly demonstrating improved risk reductions compared to warfarin for stroke and/or major bleeding events...
December 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289185/fifteen-years-of-research-on-oral-facial-digital-syndromes-from-1-to-16-causal-genes
#17
REVIEW
Ange-Line Bruel, Brunella Franco, Yannis Duffourd, Julien Thevenon, Laurence Jego, Estelle Lopez, Jean-François Deleuze, Diane Doummar, Rachel H Giles, Colin A Johnson, Martijn A Huynen, Véronique Chevrier, Lydie Burglen, Manuela Morleo, Isabelle Desguerres, Geneviève Pierquin, Bérénice Doray, Brigitte Gilbert-Dussardier, Bruno Reversade, Elisabeth Steichen-Gersdorf, Clarisse Baumann, Inusha Panigrahi, Anne Fargeot-Espaliat, Anne Dieux, Albert David, Alice Goldenberg, Ernie Bongers, Dominique Gaillard, Jesús Argente, Bernard Aral, Nadège Gigot, Judith St-Onge, Daniel Birnbaum, Shubha R Phadke, Valérie Cormier-Daire, Thibaut Eguether, Gregory J Pazour, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Jaclyn S Goldstein, Laurent Pasquier, Philippe Loget, Sophie Saunier, André Mégarbané, Olivier Rosnet, Michel R Leroux, John B Wallingford, Oliver E Blacque, Maxence V Nachury, Tania Attie-Bitach, Jean-Baptiste Rivière, Laurence Faivre, Christel Thauvin-Robinet
Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterised by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFDS subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285985/cryopreservation-related-loss-of-antigen-specific-ifn%C3%AE-producing-cd4-t-cells-can-skew-immunogenicity-data-in-vaccine-trials-lessons-from-a-malaria-vaccine-trial-substudy
#18
Tom Ford, Claire Wenden, Alison Mbekeani, Len Dally, Josephine H Cox, Merribeth Morin, Nicola Winstone, Adrian V S Hill, Jill Gilmour, Katie J Ewer
Ex vivo functional immunoassays such as ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) by flow cytometry are crucial tools in vaccine development both in the identification of novel immunogenic targets and in the immunological assessment of samples from clinical trials. Cryopreservation and subsequent thawing of PBMCs via validated processes has become a mainstay of clinical trials due to processing restrictions inherent in the disparate location and capacity of trial centres, and also in the need to standardize biological assays at central testing facilities...
March 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284100/the-relationship-between-perceived-role-and-appropriate-use-of-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-a-survey-of-vascular-access-nurses-in-the-united-states
#19
Sarah L Krein, Latoya Kuhn, David Ratz, Suzanne Winter, Valerie M Vaughn, Vineet Chopra
BACKGROUND: The presence and proliferation of vascular access nursing in hospital settings has been identified as a potential contributor to growing demand, and possible overuse, of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). OBJECTIVE: We examined vascular access nurses' perceived role related to use of PICCs and the association with appropriateness of PICC use in hospitals. DESIGN: A web-based survey was administered to members of two vascular access professional organizations...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282720/precision-medicine-approach-to-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-advances-in-targeted-drug-therapy-based-on-specific-signaling-pathways
#20
Hilda Samimi, Parviz Fallah, Alireza Naderi Sohi, Rezvan Tavakoli, Mahmood Naderi, Masoud Soleimani, Bagher Larijani, Vahid Haghpanah
Personalized medicine is a set of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches in which medical interventions are carried out based on individual patient characteristics. As life expectancy increases in developed and developing countries, the incidence of diseases such as cancer goes up among people in the community. Cancer is a disease that the response to treatment varies from one person to another and also it is costly for individuals, families, and society. Among thyroid cancers, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive, lethal and unresponsive form of the disease...
March 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
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