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Grow restriction

Phaniendra Alugoju, Vkd Krishan Swamy, Latha Periyasamy
Aging is characterized by gradual accumulation of macromolecular damage leading to progressive loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases. Effective anti-aging strategies involving caloric restriction or antioxidant supplementation are receiving growing attention to attenuate macromolecular damage in age associated pathology. In the present study, we for the first time investigated the effect of quercetin, caloric restriction and combined treatment (caloric restriction with quercetin) on oxidative stress parameters, acetylcholinesterase and ATPases enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of aged male wistar rat brain...
March 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Fiona R Macfarlane, Tommaso Lorenzi, Mark A J Chaplain
A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that immune cells move in an unrestricted search pattern if they are in the pre-activated state, whilst they tend to stay within a more restricted area upon activation induced by the presence of tumour antigens. This change in movement is not often considered in the existing mathematical models of the interactions between immune cells and cancer cells. With the aim to fill such a gap in the existing literature, in this work we present a spatially structured individual-based model of tumour-immune competition that takes explicitly into account the difference in movement between inactive and activated immune cells...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Katharine L Cary, Jarmila Pittermann
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pygmy forest, a plant community of severely stunted conifers and ericaceous angiosperms, occurs on patches of highly acidic, nutrient-poor soils along the coast of Northern California, USA. This system is an excellent opportunity to study the effect of severe nutrient deficiency on leaf physiology in a naturally-occurring ecosystem. In this study, we seek to understand the physiological mechanisms stunting the plants' growth and their implications for whole plant function...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
X Zhang, S Tsuruta, S Andonov, D A L Lourenco, R L Sapp, C Wang, I Misztal
Four performance-related traits [growth trait (GROW), feed efficiency trait 1 (FE1) and trait 2 (FE2), and dissection trait (DT)] and 4 categorical traits [mortality (MORT) and 3 disorder traits (DIS1, DIS2, and DIS3)] were analyzed using linear and threshold single- and multi-trait models. Field data included 186,596 records of commercial broilers from Cobb-Vantress, Inc. Average-information restricted maximum likelihood and Gibbs sampling-based methods were used to obtain estimates of the (co)variance components, heritabilities, and genetic correlations in a traditional approach using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP)...
February 24, 2018: Poultry Science
Aleksandar N Neskovic, Henry Skinner, Susanna Price, Gabriele Via, Stefan De Hert, Ivan Stankovic, Maurizio Galderisi, Erwan Donal, Denisa Muraru, Erik Sloth, Luna Gargani, Nuno Cardim, Alexandros Stefanidis, Matteo Cameli, Gilbert Habib, Bernard Cosyns, Patrizio Lancellotti, Thor Edvardsen, Bogdan A Popescu
There is a growing trend of using ultrasound examination of the heart as a first-line diagnostic tool for initial patient evaluation in acute settings. Focus cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) is a standardized but restricted cardiac ultrasound examination that may be undertaken by a range of medical professionals with diverse backgrounds. The intention of this core curriculum and syllabus is to define a unifying framework for educational and training processes/programmes that should result in competence in FoCUS for various medical professionals dealing with diagnostics and treatment of cardiovascular emergencies...
February 26, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Julia Tasset, Lisa H Harris
Access to abortion in the United States has eroded significantly. Accordingly, there is a growing movement to empower women to self-induce abortion. To date, physicians' roles and responsibilities in this changing environment have not been defined. Here, we consider a harm reduction approach to first-trimester abortion as a way for physicians to honor clinical and moral obligations to care for women, negotiate ever-increasing abortion restrictions, and support women who consider abortion self-induction. Harm reduction approaches to abortion have been successfully implemented in a range of countries around the world and typically take the form of teaching women how to use misoprostol...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Tewodros T Wakie, Wee L Yee, Lisa G Neven
The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) (Rosaceae) in Europe and Asia. In 2016, R. cerasi was detected in Ontario, Canada, and in 2017 in New York State, USA, the first records of this pest in North America. The initial detections in Canada caused concern for the major cherry-growing states of Michigan, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. Establishment of R. cerasi in the United States could restrict cherry exports to other markets and increase costs needed for fly control, but it is unknown if R...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Soumaya Kouidhi, Farhat Ben Ayed, Amel Benammar Elgaaied
Currently, a marked number of clinical trials on cancer treatment have revealed the success of immunomodulatory therapies based on immune checkpoint inhibitors that activate tumor-specific T cells. However, the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapies is only restricted to a small fraction of patients. A deeper understanding of key mechanisms generating an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) remains a major challenge for more effective antitumor immunity. There is a growing evidence that the TME supports inappropriate metabolic reprogramming that dampens T cell function, and therefore impacts the antitumor immune response and tumor progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Deborah Gleeson, David B Menkes
There is growing international concern about the risks posed by direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription pharmaceuticals, including via the internet. Recent trade agreements negotiated by the United States, however, incorporate provisions that may constrain national regulation of DTCA. Some provisions explicitly mention DTCA; others enable foreign investors to seek compensation if new regulations are seen to harm their investments. These provisions may thus prevent countries from restricting DTCA or put them at risk of expensive legal action from companies seeking damages due to restrictions on advertising...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND: In July 2013 New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA) to establish the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ("legal highs"). AIM: To critically analyse the implementation of the PSA. METHODS: Synthesis of findings from interviews with 30 key informants (i.e. politicians, civil servants, legal high industry actors, toxicologists, NGO representatives and drug policy academics), analysis of relevant laws and policy documents, and a review of academic and grey literature on the PSA...
March 7, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Carolin Laqua, Eric Hahn, Kerem Böge, Lara K Martensen, Tat Dinh Nguyen, Georg Schomerus, Tien Duc Cao, Michael Dettling, Anita von Poser, Joerg-Christian Lanca, Albert Diefenbacher, Matthias C Angermeyer, Thi Minh Tam Ta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the need to protect human rights in psychiatry. Within the last years, considerable effort has been made to reduce restrictive measures in mental health settings. Reducing restrictive measures within mental health care has also moved increasingly into the focus of public debate. This study aims, for the first time in a Southeast Asian sample, to explore whether socio-demographic factors affect public attitudes toward restrictions on mentally ill people in Hanoi, Vietnam...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Naveen L Pereira, Martha Grogan, G William Dec
Restrictive cardiomyopathies are the least common form of heart muscle disease. They are characterized as infiltrative and noninfiltrative, storage diseases, and endomyocardial disorders. Genetic diseases commonly present during childhood or adolescence. However, a growing percentage of elderly patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are being recognized as having forms of restrictive cardiomyopathy, particularly cardiac amyloidosis. Noninvasive evaluation has replaced endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of most suspected etiologies...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Naveen L Pereira, Martha Grogan, G William Dec
Restrictive cardiomyopathies are the least common form of heart muscle disease. They are characterized as infiltrative and noninfiltrative, storage diseases, and endomyocardial disorders. Genetic diseases commonly present during childhood or adolescence. However, a growing percentage of elderly patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are being recognized as having forms of restrictive cardiomyopathy, particularly cardiac amyloidosis. Noninvasive evaluation has replaced endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of most suspected etiologies...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Chie Furuta, Hitoshi Murakami
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: This study was aimed at understanding the relationship between plasma amino acids and protein malnutrition and at determining whether amino acid supplementation associated with malnutrition and growth improves linear growth in growing rats. METHODS: Body length and plasma amino acids were measured in young male rats that were fed the following diet for 3 weeks, mimicking a low and imbalanced protein diets based on maize, a major staple consumed in developing countries: a 70% calorically restricted cornmeal-based diet (C), C + micronutrients (CM), CM + casein (CMC), CM + soy protein (CMS) or CMS + 0...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Claudia Andrea Tortone, MartIn José Zumárraga, Andrea Karina Gioffr, Delia Susana Oriani
Background: The environment is the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) reservoir, opportunistic pathogens of great diversity and ubiquity, which is observed in the constant description of new species capable of causing infection. Since its introduction, molecular methods are essential for species identification. Most comparative studies between molecular and conventional methods, have used isolated strains from clinical samples. Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of molecular methods, especially the hsp65-PRA (PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis), and biochemical tests in the identification of NTM recovered from water of different origins, using the sequencing of 16S rRNA and hsp 65 genes as assessment methods of the previous ones...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Paul R Scully, Gorka Bastarrika, James C Moon, Thomas A Treibel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article discusses the evolution of extracellular volume (ECV) quantification using both cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and computed tomography (CT). RECENT FINDINGS: Visualizing diffuse myocardial fibrosis is challenging and until recently, was restricted to the domain of the pathologist. CMR and CT both use extravascular, extracellular contrast agents, permitting ECV measurement. The evidence base around ECV quantification by CMR is growing rapidly and just starting in CT...
March 6, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Ileana M Howard, Marla S Kaufman
Telehealth describes the provision of medical services remotely through technology, and may enhance patient access to specialty care services. Although teleneurology has expanded widely since the introduction of telestroke in 1999, telehealth services for outpatients with neuromuscular or musculoskeletal disorders are less widespread. In this narrative review, we will describe the current technology, applications, outcomes, and limitations of this dynamically growing field. Evidence for telehealth applications related to neuromuscular diseases, palliative care, specialized multidisciplinary services, and musculoskeletal care are reviewed...
March 6, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Arnd Scheel, Jasper Weinburd
The Swift-Hohenberg equation describes an instability which forms finite-wavenumber patterns near onset. We study this equation posed with a spatial inhomogeneity; a jump-type parameter that renders the zero solution stable for x <0 and unstable for x >0. Using normal forms and spatial dynamics, we prove the existence of a family of steady-state solutions that represent a transition in space from a homogeneous state to a striped pattern state. The wavenumbers of these stripes are contained in a narrow band whose width grows linearly with the size of the jump...
April 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Paolo Capogrosso, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Luca Boeri, Walter Cazzaniga, Francesco Chierigo, Filippo Pederzoli, Nicola Frego, Costantino Abbate, Federico Dehò, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
BACKGROUND: The awareness regarding erectile dysfunction (ED) may have increased over the past decade due to the widespread availability of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and the growing knowledge of a link between ED and men's overall health. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether the increased awareness of ED has led to observable changes in patient characteristics among first-time assessments for ED. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data was collected from 1586 men seeking their first medical attention for ED at a single academic center during 2005-2017...
March 2, 2018: European Urology Focus
Desiree Wanders, Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, Barbara E Hasek, William D Johnson, Thomas W Gettys
OBJECTIVE: Dietary methionine restriction (MR) improves biomarkers of metabolic health, in part through coordinated increases in energy intake and energy expenditure (EE). Some metabolic benefits of dietary MR are secondary to its effects on energy balance, so this study's purpose was to examine how age at initiation of MR influences its effects on energy balance and body composition. METHODS: Energy balance was examined in rats provided control or MR diets for 9 months after weaning or in rats between 6 and 12 months of age...
March 4, 2018: Obesity
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