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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149640/change-to-ecosystem-properties-through-changing-the-dominant-species-impact-of-pteridium-aquilinum-control-and-heathland-restoration-treatments-on-selected-soil-properties
#1
G Milligan, K E Booth, E S Cox, R J Pakeman, M G Le Duc, L Connor, S Blackbird, R H Marrs
It is well known that soils are influenced by the plant species that grow in them. Here we consider the effects of management-induced changes to plant communities and their soils during restoration within a 20-year manipulative experiment where the aim was to change a late-successional community dominated by the weed, Pteridium aquilinum, to an earlier-successional grass-heath one. The ecological restoration treatments altered the above- and below-ground components of the community substantially. Untreated plots maintained a dense Pteridium cover with little understory vegetation, cutting treatments produce significant reductions of Pteridium, whereas herbicide (asulam) produced significant immediate reductions in Pteridium but regressed towards the untreated plots within 10 years...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148033/4218t-c-polymorphism-associations-with-post-cesarean-patient-controlled-epidural-fentanyl-consumption-and-pain-perception
#2
W Xie, W Zhuang, L Chen, W Xie, C Jiang, N Liu
BACKGROUND: The utilization of intrathecal opioids is an efficacious component of post-cesarean section pain management. Given that growing evidence indicates that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a key role in the development of peripheral sensitization and is associated with enhanced pain, we hypothesized that CGRP 4218T/C polymorphism is associated with the variability in fentanyl consumption for post-cesarean analgesia. METHODS: We recruited 548 patients who presented for elective cesarean delivery, and used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to analyze CGRP 4218T/C polymorphism...
November 17, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146521/hla-dq-gluten-tetramer-blood-test-accurately-identifies-patients-with-and-without-celiac-disease-in-absence-of-gluten-consumption
#3
Vikas K Sarna, Knut E A Lundin, Lars Mørkrid, Shuo-Wang Qiao, Ludvig M Sollid, Asbjørn Christophersen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease is characterized by HLA-DQ2/8-restricted responses of CD4+ T cells to cereal gluten proteins. A diagnosis of celiac disease based on serologic and histologic evidence and duodenal histology requires patients to be on gluten-containing diets. The growing number of individuals adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD) without exclusion of celiac disease complicates its detection. HLA-DQ-gluten tetramers can be used to detect gluten-specific T cells in blood of patients with celiac disease, even if they are on a GFD...
November 13, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143899/headache-in-resource-limited-settings
#4
REVIEW
Yohannes W Woldeamanuel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the unmet need of headache burden and management in resource-limited settings. It provides a general overview of the nuances and peculiarities of headache disorders in resource-limited settings. The review delivers perspectives and explanations for the emerging burden of both primary and secondary headache disorders. Important discussion on demographic and epidemiologic transition pertinent to low-resource settings is included. A critical analysis of headache disorders is made within the context of growing burden non-communicable disorders in low-resource countries...
November 16, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134922/exploring-the-relationship-between-postmigratory-stressors-and-mental-health-for-asylum-seekers-and-refused-asylum-seekers-in-the-uk
#5
Gareth Morgan, Steve Melluish, Alice Welham
Numerous studies have linked the high rates of traumatic events experienced by refugees to the elevated rate of mental health problems in these populations. A growing body of evidence has also highlighted the importance of considering postmigratory stressors when making sense of displaced person distress. This study explored the relationship between mental health and postmigratory stress for asylum seekers and refused asylum seekers in Britain. The study further examined if those refused asylum experienced elevated distress and postmigratory stress compared to those awaiting the outcome of asylum applications...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134790/soybean-mosaic-virus-a-successful-potyvirus-with-a-wide-distribution-but-restricted-natural-host-range
#6
M R Hajimorad, L L Domier, S A Tolin, S A Whitham, M A Saghai Maroof
Taxonomy. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae that includes almost a quarter of all known plant RNA viruses affecting agriculturally important plants. The Potyvirus genus is the largest of all genera of plant RNA viruses with 160 species. Particle. The filamentous particles of SMV, typical of potyviruses, are about 7,500 Å long and 120 Å in diameter with a central hole of about 15 Å in diameter. Coat protein residues are arranged in helice of about 34 Å pitch having slightly less than 9 subunits per turn...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133286/eosinophilic-esophagitis-update-on-management-and-controversies
#7
REVIEW
Joan W Chen, John Y Kao
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic allergen driven immune mediated disease that is increasingly recognized as a leading cause of dysphagia and foregut symptoms in children and adults. Much knowledge has been gained in recent years on the genetic and environmental risk factors for this disease, the associated inflammatory milieu, and the long term complications from esophageal remodeling. In this review we will highlight recent progress made in research into this disease, focusing on adults. We will discuss ongoing efforts to develop a minimally invasive technique that may obviate the need for repeated endoscopic assessment of disease activity...
November 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124879/hydrogenotrophic-methanogenesis-is-the-dominant-methanogenic-pathway-in-neotropical-tank-bromeliad-wetlands
#8
Guntars O Martinson, Bianca Pommerenke, Franziska B Brandt, Jürgen Homeier, Juan Ignacio Burneo, Ralf Conrad
Several thousands of tank bromeliads per hectare of neotropical forest create a unique wetland ecosystem that emits substantial amounts of CH4 . Tank bromeliads growing in the forest canopy (functional type-II tank bromeliads) were found to emit more CH4 than tank bromeliads growing on the forest floor (functional type-I tank bromeliads) but the reasons for this difference and the underlying microbial CH4-cycling processes have not been studied. Therefore, we characterized archaeal communities in bromeliad tanks of the two different functional types in a neotropical montane forest of southern Ecuador using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and performed tank-slurry incubations to measure CH4 production potential, stable carbon isotope fractionation and pathway of CH4 formation...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124370/popular-weight-loss-strategies-a-review-of-four-weight-loss-techniques
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan Obert, Michelle Pearlman, Lois Obert, Sarah Chapin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss...
November 9, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121237/human-ageing-genomic-resources-new-and-updated-databases
#10
Robi Tacutu, Daniel Thornton, Emily Johnson, Arie Budovsky, Diogo Barardo, Thomas Craig, Eugene Diana, Gilad Lehmann, Dmitri Toren, Jingwei Wang, Vadim E Fraifeld, João P de Magalhães
In spite of a growing body of research and data, human ageing remains a poorly understood process. Over 10 years ago we developed the Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR), a collection of databases and tools for studying the biology and genetics of ageing. Here, we present HAGR's main functionalities, highlighting new additions and improvements. HAGR consists of six core databases: (i) the GenAge database of ageing-related genes, in turn composed of a dataset of >300 human ageing-related genes and a dataset with >2000 genes associated with ageing or longevity in model organisms; (ii) the AnAge database of animal ageing and longevity, featuring >4000 species; (iii) the GenDR database with >200 genes associated with the life-extending effects of dietary restriction; (iv) the LongevityMap database of human genetic association studies of longevity with >500 entries; (v) the DrugAge database with >400 ageing or longevity-associated drugs or compounds; (vi) the CellAge database with >200 genes associated with cell senescence...
November 7, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114390/phospholipase-d-inhibition-by-hexanal-is-associated-with-calcium-signal-transduction-events-in-raspberry
#11
Walid El Kayal, Gopinadhan Paliyath, J Alan Sullivan, Jayasankar Subramanian
Raspberry (Rubus spp.) is an economically important crop with a restricted growing season and very limited fruit shelf-life due to its extreme tenderness. In order to prolong its shelf life, an aqueous composition containing hexanal as the key active ingredient (HC) was applied as a preharvest spray during fruit development. The effects of HC were assessed using physiological, biochemical and anatomical parameters on the treated fruits and compared with the effects of mock inoculation which lacked hexanal. Sugars and acidity did not show a significant change in response to HC treatment, while the pulling force (the tension required to detach the berry from the receptacle) significantly improved in the HC-treated fruits, compared to control...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113774/restricted-presence-of-pou6f2-in-human-corneal-endothelial-cells-uncovered-by-extension-of-the-promoter-level-expression-atlas
#12
Masahito Yoshihara, Susumu Hara, Motokazu Tsujikawa, Satoshi Kawasaki, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Masayoshi Itoh, Hideya Kawaji, Kohji Nishida
Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are essential for maintaining the clarity of the cornea. Because CECs have limited proliferative ability, interest is growing in their potentially therapeutic regeneration from pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of human CEC differentiation remain largely unknown. To determine the key regulators of CEC characteristics, here we generated a comprehensive promoter-level expression profile of human CECs, using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) with a single molecule sequencer...
November 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111747/constructing-ultrahigh-capacity-zinc-nickel-cobalt-oxide-ni-oh-2-core-shell-nanowire-arrays-for-high-performance-coaxial-fiber-shaped-asymmetric-supercapacitors
#13
Qichong Zhang, Weiwei Xu, Juan Sun, Zhenghui Pan, Jingxin Zhao, Xiaona Wang, Jun Zhang, Ping Man, Jiabin Guo, Zhenyu Zhou, Bing He, Zengxing Zhang, Qingwen Li, Yuegang Zhang, Lai Xu, Yagang Yao
Increased efforts have recently been devoted to developing high-energy-density flexible supercapacitors for their practical applications in portable and wearable electronics. Although high operating voltages have been achieved in fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors (FASCs), low specific capacitance still restricts the further enhancement of their energy density. This article specifies a facile and cost-effective method to directly grow three-dimensionally well-aligned zinc-nickel-cobalt oxide (ZNCO)@Ni(OH)2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) on a carbon nanotube fiber (CNTF) with an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2847...
November 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104516/fluorescence-microscopy-imaging-calibration-for-quantifying-nanocarrier-binding-to-cells-during-shear-flow-exposure
#14
Abhay Ranganathan, Jessica Campo, Jacob Myerson, Vladimir Shuvaev, Blaine Zern, Vladimir Muzykantov, David M Eckmann
Targeted drug delivery is a fast growing industry in healthcare and technologies are being developed for applications utilizing nanocarriers as vehicles for drug transport. As the size scale of these particles becomes further reduced, advanced fluorescence microscopy and image analysis techniques become increasingly important for facilitating our understanding of nanocarrier binding and avidity, thereby establishing the basis for nanocarrier design optimization. While there is a significant body of published work using nanocarriers in vitro and in vivo, the advent of smaller particles that have typically been studied (~500 nm) limits the ability to attain quantitative measurements of nanocarrier binding dynamics since image acquisition and analysis methods are restricted by microscopy pixel size...
June 2017: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103882/psychoeducational-interventions-in-adolescent-depression-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Rhys Bevan Jones, Anita Thapar, Zoe Stone, Ajay Thapar, Ian Jones, Daniel Smith, Sharon Simpson
BACKGROUND: Adolescent depression is common and leads to distress and impairment for individuals/families. Treatment/prevention guidelines stress the need for good information and evidence-based psychosocial interventions. There has been growing interest in psychoeducational interventions (PIs), which broadly deliver accurate information about health issues and self-management. OBJECTIVE, METHODS: Systematic search of targeted PIs as part of prevention/management approaches for adolescent depression...
October 24, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103115/perspectives-on-impacts-of-water-quality-on-agriculture-and-community-well-being-a-key-informant-study-from-sri-lanka
#16
Bhadranie Thoradeniya, Uthpala Pinto, Basant Maheshwari
Integrated management of water quality is critical for sustaining food production and achieving overall well-being of a community. Further, understanding people's perceptions and engagement can play an important role in achieving water and food security. The main aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of community and other stakeholders as to how water quality impacts on agriculture, livelihood and community well-being within rural farming communities of two dry zone districts of Sri Lanka. The study adopted 'key informant interviews' as the methodology to investigate community and other stakeholder perspectives to collect primary data over a period of four months...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101110/the-biology-of-bone-metastasis
#17
Mark Esposito, Theresa Guise, Yibin Kang
Bone metastasis, or the development of secondary tumors within the bone of cancer patients, is a debilitating and incurable disease. Despite its morbidity, the biology of bone metastasis represents one of the most complex and intriguing of all oncogenic processes. This complexity derives from the intricately organized bone microenvironment in which the various stages of hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and osteolysis are jointly regulated but spatially restricted. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) from various common malignancies such as breast, prostate, lung, and kidney cancers or myeloma are uniquely primed to subvert these endogenous bone stromal elements to grow into pathological osteolytic or osteoblastic lesions...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095865/beneficial-effects-of-high-dose-taurine-treatment-in-juvenile-dystrophic-mdx-mice-are-offset-by-growth-restriction
#18
Jessica R Terrill, Gavin J Pinniger, Keshav V Nair, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease manifested in young boys, for which there is no current cure. We have shown that the amino acid taurine is safe and effective at preventing dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD. This study aimed to establish if treating growing mdx mice with a higher dose of taurine was more effective at improving strength and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Mice were treated with a dose of taurine estimated to be 16 g/kg/day, in drinking water from 1-6 weeks of age, after which in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength was assessed, as were measures of inflammation, oxidative stress and taurine metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094363/facultative-root-colonizing-fungi-dominate-endophytic-assemblages-in-roots-of-nonmycorrhizal-microthlaspi-species
#19
Kyriaki Glynou, Bora Nam, Marco Thines, Jose G Maciá-Vicente
There is increasing knowledge on the diversity of root-endophytic fungi, but limited information on their lifestyles and dependence on hosts hampers our understanding of their ecological functions. We compared diversity and biogeographical patterns of cultivable and noncultivable root endophytes to assess whether their occurrence is determined by distinct ecological factors. The endophytic diversity in roots of nonmycorrhizal Microthlaspi spp. growing across Europe was assessed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and compared with a previous dataset based on cultivation of endophytes from the same root samples...
November 2, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093200/growing-bacteriophage-m13-in-liquid-culture
#20
Michael R Green, Joseph Sambrook
Stocks of bacteriophage M13 are usually grown in liquid culture. The infected bacteria do not lyse but, instead, grow at a slower than normal rate to form a dilute suspension. The inoculum of bacteriophage is almost always a freshly picked plaque or a suspension of bacteriophage particles obtained from a single plaque, as described here. Infected cells contain up to 200 copies of double-stranded, replicative-form DNA and extrude several hundred bacteriophage particles per generation. Thus, a 1-mL culture of infected cells can produce enough double-stranded viral DNA (1-2 mg) for restriction mapping and recovery of cloned DNA inserts and sufficient single-stranded DNA (∼5-10 mg) for site-directed mutagenesis, DNA sequencing, or synthesis of radiolabeled probes...
November 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
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