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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922367/perihematomal-diffusion-restriction-as-a-common-finding-in-large-intracerebral-hemorrhages-in-the-hyperacute-phase
#1
Tanja Schneider, David Frieling, Julian Schroeder, Jan Regelsberger, Gerhard Schoen, Jens Fiehler, Susanne Gellißen
PURPOSE: There is growing evidence that a perihematomal area of restricted diffusion (PDR) exists in intraparenchymal hemorrhages (IPH) within 1 week of symptom onset (SO). Here, we study characteristics and the clinical impact of the PDR in patients with hyperacute (≤ 6 hours from SO) IPH by means of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). METHODS: This monocentric, retrospective study includes 83 patients with first-ever primary IPH from 09/2002-10/2015. 3D volumetric segmentation was performed for the IPH, PDR, and perihematomal edema (PHE) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2*/susceptibility weighted images, and ADC images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916570/dietary-poly-phenols-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-and-energy-expenditure-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Laura Mele, Guillaume Bidault, Pedro Mena, Alan Crozier, Furio Brighenti, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Daniele Del Rio
The incidence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making the control of body weight and its complications a primary health problem. Diet has long played a first-line role in preventing and managing obesity. However, beyond the obvious strategy of restricting caloric intake, growing evidence supports the specific antiobesity effects of some food-derived components, particularly (poly)phenolic compounds. The relatively new rediscovery of active brown adipose tissue in adult humans has generated interest in this tissue as a novel and viable target for stimulating energy expenditure and controlling body weight by promoting energy dissipation...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915988/learning-to-be-gendered-gender-socialization-in-early-adolescence-among-urban-poor-in-delhi-india-and-shanghai-china
#3
Sharmistha Basu, Xiayun Zuo, Chaohua Lou, Rajib Acharya, Rebecka Lundgren
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. METHODS: The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915819/bacteriophage-therapy-to-combat-bacterial-infections-in-poultry
#4
REVIEW
Andrzej Wernicki, Anna Nowaczek, Renata Urban-Chmiel
Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks in European countries varies from 18% to 90%. In the United States, the prevalence of infected flocks is nearly 90%. A similar percentage of infection has been noted for salmonellosis (about 75-90%) and E. coli (90-95%). The occurence of Clostridium perfringens is a major problem for the poultry industry, with some estimates suggesting colonization of as many as 95% of chickens, resulting in clinical or subclinical infections...
September 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913331/health-effects-and-public-health-concerns-of-energy-drink-consumption-in-the-united-states-a-mini-review
#5
REVIEW
Laila Al-Shaar, Kelsey Vercammen, Chang Lu, Scott Richardson, Martha Tamez, Josiemer Mattei
As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901800/changes-in-expression-of-neuropeptides-and-their-receptors-in-the-hypothalamus-and-gastrointestinal-tract-of-calorie-restricted-hens
#6
Ádám Simon, János Oláh, István Komlósi, András Jávor, József Németh, Zoltán Szilvássy, Dóra Reglődi, Andrea Tamás, Levente Czeglédi
The list of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides, those are known to alter feed intake, is continuously growing. However, most of them are studied in mammalian species. We aimed to investigate plasma level and mRNA expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), gene expression of its receptor (PAC1), furthermore the gene expression of galanin (GAL), neuromedin U (NMU), and its two receptors (NMUR1 and NMUR2) in the hypothalamus, proventriculus, and jejunum of hens exposed to 40% calorie restriction...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898865/automatic-measurement-of-fetal-brain-development-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging-new-reference-data
#7
Daphna Link, Michael B Braginsky, Leo Joskowicz, Liat Ben Sira, Shaul Harel, Ariel Many, Ricardo Tarrasch, Gustavo Malinger, Moran Artzi, Cassandra Kapoor, Elka Miller, Dafna Ben Bashat
BACKGROUND: Accurate fetal brain volume estimation is of paramount importance in evaluating fetal development. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic method for fetal brain segmentation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and to create for the first time a normal volumetric growth chart based on a large cohort. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A semi-automatic segmentation method based on Seeded Region Growing algorithm was developed and applied to MRI data of 199 typically developed fetuses between 18 and 37 weeks' gestation...
September 13, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898648/motor-control-crf-regulates-coordination-and-gait
#8
Mario Manto
The function of the olivo-cerebellar tract is not restricted to the supervision of plasticity in the cerebellar cortex. There is growing evidence that the climbing fibers also tune motor commands. A novel study unravels a role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in motor coordination and gait control.
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898501/growth-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-zinc-poor-environments-is-promoted-by-a-nicotianamine-related-metallophore
#9
Maria Chiara Mastropasqua, Melania D'Orazio, Mauro Cerasi, Francesca Pacello, Angelo Gismondi, Antonella Canini, Lorena Canuti, Ada Consalvo, Domenico Ciavardelli, Barbara Chirullo, Paolo Pasquali, Andrea Battistoni
Previous studies have suggested that P. aeruginosa possesses redundant zinc uptake systems. To identify uncharacterized zinc transporters, we analyzed the genome-wide transcriptional responses of P. aeruginosa PA14 to zinc restriction. This approach led to the identification of an operon (zrmABCD) regulated by the zinc uptake regulator Zur, that encodes for a metallophore-mediated zinc import system. This operon includes the genes for an uncharacterized TonB-dependent Outer Membrane Protein (ZrmA) and for a putative nicotianamine synthase (ZrmB)...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898404/high-versus-standard-volume-enteral-feeds-to-promote-growth-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#10
REVIEW
Thangaraj Abiramalatha, Niranjan Thomas, Vijay Gupta, Anand Viswanathan, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: Breast milk alone, given at standard recommended volumes (150 to 180 mL/kg/d), is not adequate to meet the protein, energy, and other nutrient requirements of growing preterm or low birth weight infants. One strategy that may be used to address these potential nutrient deficits is to give infants enteral feeds in excess of 200 mL/kg/d ('high-volume' feeds). This approach may increase nutrient uptake and growth rates, but concerns include that high-volume enteral feeds may cause feed intolerance, gastro-oesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis, or complications related to fluid overload, including patent ductus arteriosus and bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895921/food-and-beverage-marketing-in-schools-a-review-of-the-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Cayley E Velazquez, Jennifer L Black, Monique Potvin Kent
Despite growing interest from government agencies, non-governmental organizations and school boards in restricting or regulating unhealthy food and beverage marketing to children, limited research has examined the emerging knowledge base regarding school-based food and beverage marketing in high-income countries. This review examined current approaches for measuring school food and beverage marketing practices, and evidence regarding the extent of exposure and hypothesized associations with children's diet-related outcomes...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894191/non-cell-autonomous-effects-yield-lower-clonal-diversity-in-expanding-tumors
#12
Tazzio Tissot, Frédéric Thomas, Benjamin Roche
Recent cancer research has investigated the possibility that non-cell-autonomous (NCA) driving tumor growth can support clonal diversity (CD). Indeed, mutations can affect the phenotypes not only of their carriers ("cell-autonomous", CA effects), but also sometimes of other cells (NCA effects). However, models that have investigated this phenomenon have only considered a restricted number of clones. Here, we designed an individual-based model of tumor evolution, where clones grow and mutate to yield new clones, among which a given frequency have NCA effects on other clones' growth...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894088/a-de-novo-substructure-generation-algorithm-for-identifying-the-privileged-chemical-fragments-of-liver-x-receptor%C3%AE-agonists
#13
He Peng, Zhihong Liu, Xin Yan, Jian Ren, Jun Xu
Liver X receptorβ (LXRβ) is a promising therapeutic target for lipid disorders, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Druggable LXRβ agonists have been explored over the past decades. However, the pocket of LXRβ ligand-binding domain (LBD) is too large to predict LXRβ agonists with novel scaffolds based on either receptor or agonist structures. In this paper, we report a de novo algorithm which drives privileged LXRβ agonist fragments by starting with individual chemical bonds (de novo) from every molecule in a LXRβ agonist library, growing the bonds into substructures based on the agonist structures with isomorphic and homomorphic restrictions, and electing the privileged fragments from the substructures with a popularity threshold and background chemical and biological knowledge...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893743/an-analysis-of-redactions-in-canada-s-common-drug-review-clinical-review-reports-and-how-they-relate-to-the-patients-voice
#14
Allison Soprovich, Sylvia El Kurdi, Dean T Eurich
IMPORTANCE: Canada's Common Drug Review (CDR) evaluates drug data from published and unpublished research, as well as input from patient groups, to recommend provincial coverage. Currently, the CDR process gives manufacturers the opportunity to redact information in the final publicly available report. Patients often have strong feelings regarding the efficacy, harms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and cost associated with the drugs under review and their redacted data. Highlighting Canada's approach will hopefully build on the growing international concern regarding transparency of clinical study data...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893333/review-use-of-human-edible-animal-feeds-by-ruminant-livestock
#15
J M Wilkinson, M R F Lee
The drive to increase the output of animal product in some sectors of ruminant livestock production has led to greater use of feeds such as cereal grains and soyabean meal that are potentially human-edible. This trend has caused concern since, by so doing, ruminants compete not only with monogastric livestock but also with the human population for a limited global area of cultivatable land on which to produce grain crops. Reasons for using potentially human-edible feeds in ruminant diets include increased total daily energy intake, greater supply of essential amino acids and improved ruminal balance between fermentable energy and degradable protein...
September 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891744/caloric-restriction-promotes-rapid-expansion-and-long-lasting-increase-of-lactobacillus-in-the-rat-fecal-microbiota
#16
Cristina Fraumene, Valeria Manghina, Erika Cadoni, Fabio Marongiu, Marcello Abbondio, Monica Serra, Antonio Palomba, Alessandro Tanca, Ezio Laconi, Sergio Uzzau
Previous studies indicated that caloric restricted diet enables to lower significantly the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In experimental animal models, life-long lasting caloric restriction (CR) was demonstrated to induce changes of the intestinal microbiota composition, regardless of fat content and/or exercise. To explore the potential impact of short and long-term CR treatment on the gut microbiota, we conducted an analysis of fecal microbiota composition in young and adult Fisher 344 rats treated with a low fat feed under ad libitum (AL) or CR conditions (70%)...
September 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890657/natural-field-infestation-of-mangifera-casturi-and-mangifera-lalijiwa-by-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-diptera-tephritidae
#17
Grant T McQuate, Charmaine D Sylva, Nicanor J Liquido
Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp ("mango relatives") which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887157/effect-of-a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-ghsr-gene-on-growth-rate-in-pigs
#18
Bo Zhang, Peng Shang, Zhu Tao, Yangzong Qiangba, Zhixiu Wang, Hao Zhang
The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) gene controls growth hormone (GH) release by inducing a strong stimulatory effect on the endogenous ligand, ghrelin. In this study, we examined the possible role of GHSR in the growth traits of four pig breeds, namely Tibetan pigs (n=45), Diannan small-eared pigs (n=40), Yorkshire pigs (n=45), and New Huai pigs (n=122). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these pigs were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing and genotyping was performed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs)...
September 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886721/sex-and-gender-considerations-in-transplantation-research-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#19
Claudie Laprise, Vikas Srinivasan Sridhar, Lori West, Bethany Foster, Louise Pilote, Ruth Sapir-Pichhadze
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing appreciation of the importance of sex and gender considerations in transplantation research, there is currently no framework or good practice guidelines for the appropriate handling of sex and gender issues in human allotransplantation research. METHODS: We will conduct a scoping review to synthesize the evidence on how matters of sex and gender have been handled in human allotransplantation research. We will survey the literature discussing sex and gender in relation to transplantation, including adult and pediatric patients, hematopoietic and solid organ transplant recipients as well as organ donors...
September 8, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886491/interleukin-34-from-pathogenesis-to-clinical-applications
#20
REVIEW
Muhammad Baghdadi, Hiraku Endo, Yoshino Tanaka, Haruka Wada, Ken-Ichiro Seino
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a hematopoietic cytokine that was described for the first time in 2008 as a second ligand of CSF1R in addition to M-CSF. IL-34 and M-CSF share no sequence homology, but have similar functions, affecting the biology of myeloid cell lineage. In contrast to M-CSF, IL-34 shows unique signaling and expression patterns. Physiologically, IL-34 expression is restricted to epidermis and CNS, acting as a regulator of Langerhans cells and microglia, respectively. However, IL-34 expression can be induced and regulated by NF-κB under pathological conditions...
September 5, 2017: Cytokine
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