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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746075/fatigue-in-residency-education-understanding-the-influence-of-work-hours-regulations-in-europe
#1
Taryn S Taylor, Pim W Teunissen, Tim Dornan, Lorelei Lingard
PURPOSE: Although one proposed solution to the problem of fatigued medical trainees is the implementation of work hours regulations, concerns about the effectiveness of these regulations are growing. Canada remains one of the few Western jurisdictions without legislated regulation. Recent research suggests that fatigue is a complex social construct, rather than simply a lack of sleep; thus, the authors explored how regulations and fatigue are understood in countries with established work hours frameworks to better inform other jurisdictions looking to address trainee fatigue...
July 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745613/scalable-transfer-of-vertical-graphene-nanosheets-for-flexible-supercapacitor-applications
#2
Gopinath Sahoo, Subrata Ghosh, S R Polaki, Tom Mathews, M Kamruddin
Vertical graphene nanosheets (VGN) are the material of choice for application in next-generation electronic devices. The growing demand for VGN based flexible devices in electronic industry brings in restriction on VGN growth temperature. The difficulty associated with direct growth of VGN on flexible substrates can be overcome by adopting an effective strategy of transferring the well grown VGN onto arbitrary flexible substrates through soft chemistry route. In the present study we report an inexpensive and scalable technique for the polymer-free transfer of VGN onto arbitrary substrates without disrupting its morphology, structure and properties...
July 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740400/multidisciplinary-care-of-craniosynostosis
#3
REVIEW
Edward P Buchanan, Yunfeng Xue, Amy S Xue, Asaf Olshinka, Sandi Lam
The management of craniosynostosis, especially in the setting of craniofacial syndromes, is ideally done in a multidisciplinary clinic with a team focused toward comprehensive care. Craniosynostosis is a congenital disorder of the cranium, caused by the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. This fusion results in abnormal cranial growth due to the inability of the involved sutures to accommodate the growing brain. Skull growth occurs only at the patent sutures, resulting in an abnormal head shape...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737361/-sex-education-in-tunisia-students%C3%A2-%C3%A2-expectations-and-teachers%C3%A2-conceptions
#4
Sameh Hrairi
Health education, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO 1983), includes sex education. In Tunisia, there is a growing interest in sexuality issues, in contrast with the reigning conservative culture, challenging the taboos and restrictions imposed by religion. A global sex education strategy is therefore required in Tunisian in schools to help students understand their body and its biological functions, construct a real sexual identity and adopt behaviours that promote a healthy and low-risk lifestyle...
July 10, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731631/substrate-curvature-restricts-spreading-and-induces-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Sang Joo Lee, Shengyuan Yang
While cells attach, spread, migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical environments, the mechanical factors of these environments influence the shapes, sizes, and adhesion forces of the cells. Here, we culture human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on a unique class of curvature-defined substrates, micro glass ball embedded polyacrylamide gels, prepared with an improved protocol, and we investigate the spreading responses of the hMSCs on the glass balls to study the effects of substrate curvature on the spreading of hMSCs...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729394/body-fat-of-rats-of-different-age-groups-and-nutritional-states-assessment-by-micro-ct-and-skinfold-thickness
#6
Eva Tekus, Alexandra Miko, Nora Furedi, Ildiko Rostas, Judit Tenk, Tamas Kiss, István Szitter, Marta Balasko, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Marta Wilhelm, Erika Petervari
Obesity presents a growing public health problem. Therefore, the analysis of body composition is important in clinical practice as well as in animal research models of obesity, hence precise methods for the assessment of body fat would be essential. We aimed to evaluate in vivo abdominal micro-computed tomography scan restricted to the L1-L3 region (micro-CT(L1-L3)), a skinfold thickness-based method (STM) and post mortem body composition analysis (PMA) with regard to whole-body micro-CT scan in rats. Male Wistar rats of different age-groups (from 3 to 24 months) and nutritional states (normally fed, high-fat diet-induced obese, calorie-restricted) were used...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729076/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-gene-are-associated-with-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-north-eastern-han-chinese-population
#7
Xiaoyuan Li, Li Xue, Jinfang Sun, Yanping Sun, Anmu Xie
Growing evidences suggested that inflammatory process played a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given that TLR2 has been implicated in the perpetuation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS), we investigated the association between two genetic variants (rs3804099 and rs3804100) of TLR2 and sporadic PD in Han Chinese population. 395 Han Chinese sporadic PD patients and 413 healthy age and gender-matched controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728597/interaction-of-direct-and-social-genetic-effects-with-feeding-regime-in-growing-rabbits
#8
Miriam Piles, Ingrid David, Josep Ramon, Laurianne Canario, Oriol Rafel, Mariam Pascual, Mohamed Ragab, Juan P Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Most rabbit production farms apply feed restriction at fattening because of its protective effect against digestive diseases that affect growing rabbits. However, it leads to competitive behaviour between cage mates, which is not observed when animals are fed ad libitum. Our aim was to estimate the contribution of direct ([Formula: see text]) and social ([Formula: see text]) genetic effects (also known as indirect genetic effects) to total heritable variance of average daily gain ([Formula: see text]) in rabbits on different feeding regimens (FR), and the magnitude of the interaction between genotype and FR (G × FR)...
July 20, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728389/influence-of-substituting-steam-flaked-corn-for-dry-rolled-corn-on-feedlot-cattle-growth-performance-when-cattle-are-allowed-either-ad-libitum-or-restricted-access-to-the-finishing-diet
#9
Víctor Manuel González-Vizcarra, Alejandro Plascencia, Daniel Ramos-Aviña, Richard Avery Zinn
Objective: The influence of substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) for dry rolled corn (DRC) on feedlot cattle growth performance and dietary net energy when cattle are allowed either ad libitum or 2-h restricted access to the finishing diet was evaluated. Methods: Treatment effects were tested using 96 crossbred steers (251 ±2 kg) during the initial 56 d of the finishing phase. Cattle were blocked by weight and randomly assigned within blocks to 16 pens (4 pens/treatment)...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727073/technical-note-valuation-of-an-enteric-methane-emissions-measurement-system-for-cattle
#10
E M Andreini, M S Calvo-Lorenzo, C J Richards, J E White, S E Place
Through the process of enteric fermentation, cattle produce methane (CH), a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Growing public concern about climate change has increased the need for accurate methods of measuring CH emissions from cattle directly to improve emission inventories and evaluate emissions mitigation techniques. The present study evaluated a ventilated head box system capable of measuring CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions, and oxygen (O) consumption from cattle. Six Holstein heifers were used to measure CH and CO emissions and O consumption from 2 ad libitum intake measurement periods (ADAPT and ADLIB) and 1 measurement period (RESTRICT) with intake restricted to 2% of BW on a DM basis...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725378/ecological-role-of-vertebrate-scavengers-in-urban-ecosystems-in-the-uk
#11
Richard Inger, Daniel T C Cox, Esra Per, Briony A Norton, Kevin J Gaston
Recent research has demonstrated how scavenging, the act of consuming dead animals, plays a key role in ecosystem structure, functioning, and stability. A growing number of studies suggest that vertebrate scavengers also provide key ecosystem services, the benefits humans gain from the natural world, particularly in the removal of carcasses from the environment. An increasing proportion of the human population is now residing in cities and towns, many of which, despite being highly altered environments, contain significant wildlife populations, and so animal carcasses...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719321/association-of-interferon-%C3%AE-receptor-1-gene-polymorphism-with-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-infection-among-iranian-patients-with-pulmonary-disease
#12
Poopak Farnia, Jalaledin Ghanavi, Shima Saif, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant pulmonary infections in humans. Researchers have reported an association between interferon-gamma receptor-1 (IFN-γR1 or IFNGR1) deficiency and susceptibility to NTM, but the relevance of polymorphism within these genes is not yet clear. In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), T to C, at position-56 in NTM patients with pulmonary disease was investigated. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium isolates was performed with hsp65 genes using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715533/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ankyloglossia-in-newborns-and-infants-a-review
#13
Jonathan Walsh, David Tunkel
Importance: The influence of tongue tie, or ankyloglossia, on breastfeeding is the subject of growing debate. Restriction of tongue mobility from the frenulum varies greatly among newborns and infants (hereinafter referred to as infants). Controversies about whether an infant has ankyloglossia and which infants need treatment are evident with wide variations in medical practice and a lack of high-quality clinical studies that provide guidance. Observations: Diagnosis and management of ankyloglossia in infants can be a source of confusion and frustration for clinicians and families...
July 13, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714405/emerging-targets-to-relieve-fat-stress-induced-liver-diseases-udca-tocotrienol-%C3%AF-3-pufas-and-igy-targeted-npc1l1-cholesterol-transporter
#14
Ji-Young Cha, Jong-Min Park, Ho-Jae Lee, Jin-Sik Bae, Young-Min Han, Byung-Chul Oh, Kwang Hyun Ko, Ki-Baik Hahm
Fat stress-induced liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome initiated by excess fat accumulation and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, a precursor lesion progressing to more aggressive liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the incidence of these fat stress-induced liver diseases is rapidly increasing worldwide in parallel with the growing epidemics of obesity and metabolic diseases, its exact pathogenesis is not well defined...
July 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711259/effect-of-dairy-product-environment-on-the-growth-of-bacillus-cereus
#15
E Tirloni, E Ghelardi, F Celandroni, C Bernardi, S Stella
pH is one of the most important parameters to manage bacterial replication in foodstuffs. In this study, the ability of 2 Bacillus cereus strains, one clinical human isolate (GPe2) and one isolate from a dairy products (D43), were investigated for the in vitro growth at different pH values (from 3.5 to 7.5) at 2 temperatures (15 and 37°C), showing their ability to grow from 5.5 to 7.5 and from 5.0 to 7.5, respectively. The ability of spores of these 2 microorganisms to germinate in different typologies of dairy products (unflavored yogurt, Taleggio cheese, mascarpone cheese, and raw and pasteurized milk) was also investigated by inoculating the spores and maintaining the products at 15°C...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710918/intolerance-of-uncertainty-in-eating-disorders-an-update-on-the-field
#16
REVIEW
Alice Kesby, Sarah Maguire, Rachel Brownlow, Jessica R Grisham
Pathological fear and anxiety regarding food, eating, weight and body shape are at the core of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. To manage anxiety, patients develop complicated repertoires of ritualistic and repetitive behaviours, which can lead to total functional impairment. Yet the cognitive processes underlying anxiety, fear, and anxiety-driven behaviours in EDs remain poorly understood. Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is defined as a tendency to react negatively on an emotional, cognitive, and behavioural level to uncertain situations and events...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710591/effect-of-dietary-phytase-supplementation-on-bone-and-hyaline-cartilage-development-of-broilers-fed-with-organically-complexed-copper-in-a-cu-deficient-diet
#17
Siemowit Muszyński, Ewa Tomaszewska, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Piotr Dobrowolski, Agnieszka Tomczyk
Tibial mechanical, chemical, and histomorphometrical traits were investigated for growing male Ross 308 broiler chickens fed diets that had copper (Cu) from organic source at a lowered level of 25% of the daily requirement (4 mg kg(-1) of a premix) with or without phytase. Dietary treatments were control non-copper, non-phytase group (0 Suppl); 4 mg kg(-1) Cu non-phytase group (25%Cu); and 4 mg kg(-1) Cu + 500 FTU kg(-1) phytase group (25%Cu + phyt). The results show that birds fed with the addition of phytase exhibited improved weight gain and final body weight and had increased serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin concentrations...
July 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706919/microbiome-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
REVIEW
Eduard Monsó
The introduction of culture-independent techniques for the microbiological analysis of respiratory samples has confirmed that the respiratory system hosts a large number of microorganisms, which include a wide range of bacteria. The regular exposure to tobacco smoke changes the microbiome in healthy smokers, first in the oropharynx, increasing the presence of a restricted number of genera which attain high relative abundance, a pattern that may be considered as dysbiosis. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), microbiome analyses of sputum samples have demonstrated an important decline in bacterial diversity, with a change to a restricted flora with an overrepresentation of the Proteobacteria phylum, which include most of the bacteria commonly considered as potentially pathogenic microorganisms, paralleled by a decline in the relative abundance of microorganisms part of the Firmicutes phylum...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703005/hierarchical-nio-cube-nitrogen-doped-reduced-graphene-oxide-composite-with-enhanced-h2s-sensing-properties-at-low-temperature
#19
Ming Yang, Xian-Fa Zhang, Xiaoli Cheng, Ying-Ming Xu, Shan Gao, Hui Zhao, Li-Hua Huo
Novel hierarchical NiO cube (hc-NiO)/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) composite is synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and a post-calcination treatment without any templates and surfactants addition. The NiO cubes assembled by abundant nanoparticles in-situ grow on the surface of N-rGO layers. The combination of hc-NiO and N-rGO results in enhanced sensing properties with the contributions of the N-rGO providing high specific surface area and more efficient active sites for the adsorption of H2S molecules and the hierarchically structured NiO cubes providing high sensitivity and distinctive selectivity to H2S gas...
July 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702945/recognising-european-cancer-nursing-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-evidence-of-effectiveness-and-value-of-cancer-nursing
#20
Pauline Campbell, Claire Torrens, Daniel Kelly, Andreas Charalambous, Nuria Domenech-Climent, Iveta Nohavova, Ulrika Östlund, Elisabeth Patiraki, David Salisbury, Lena Sharp, Theresa Wiseman, Wendy Oldenmenger, Mary Wells
AIM: To identify, appraise and synthesise the available evidence relating to the value and impact of cancer nursing on patient experience and outcomes. BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of literature that recognises the importance and contribution of cancer nurses, however a comprehensive review examining how cancer nurses have an impact on care quality, patient outcomes and overall experience of cancer, as well as cost of services across the entire cancer spectrum is lacking...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
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