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Grow restriction

Diamantino C da Silva, Ginestra Bianconi, Rui A da Costa, Sergey N Dorogovtsev, José F F Mendes
We study complex networks formed by triangulations and higher-dimensional simplicial complexes representing closed evolving manifolds. In particular, for triangulations, the set of possible transformations of these networks is restricted by the condition that at each step, all the faces must be triangles. Stochastic application of these operations leads to random networks with different architectures. We perform extensive numerical simulations and explore the geometries of growing and equilibrium complex networks generated by these transformations and their local structural properties...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Arnab Majumdar, Anil Barla, Munish Kumar Upadhyay, Dibyarpita Ghosh, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, Sudhakar Srivastava, Sutapa Bose
Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), imparts deficiency of soluble arsenic and other toxic metal (loid)s through rhizofiltration and phytoaccumulation. Without proper management strategy, this phytoremediation of metal (loid)s might fail and get reverted back to the environment, contaminating the nearby water bodies. This study, focused on bio-conversion of phytoremediating hyacinths, spiked with 100 times and greater arsenic, lead and cadmium concentrations than the average water contamination, ranging in 58...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Alexey Pustovarenko, Maarten G Goesten, Sumit Sachdeva, Meixia Shan, Zakariae Amghouz, Youssef Belmabkhout, Alla Dikhtiarenko, Tania Rodenas, Damla Keskin, Ilja K Voets, Bert M Weckhuysen, Mohamed Eddaoudi, Louis C P M de Smet, Ernst J R Sudhölter, Freek Kapteijn, Beatriz Seoane, Jorge Gascon
During the last decade, the synthesis and application of metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets has received growing interest, showing unique performances for different technological applications. Despite the potential of this type of nanolamellar materials, the synthetic routes developed so far are restricted to MOFs possessing layered structures, limiting further development in this field. Here, a bottom-up surfactant-assisted synthetic approach is presented for the fabrication of nanosheets of various nonlayered MOFs, broadening the scope of MOF nanosheets application...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Hefei Wen, Jason M Hockenberry, Benjamin G Druss
Marijuana liberalization policies are gaining momentum in the USA, coupled with limited federal interference and growing dispensary industry. This evolving regulatory landscape underscores the importance of understanding the attitudinal/perceptual pathways from marijuana policy to marijuana use behavior, especially for adolescents and young adults. Our study uses the restricted-access National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2004-2012 data and a difference-in-differences design to compare the pre-policy, post-policy changes in marijuana-related attitude/perception between adolescents and young adults from ten states that implemented medical marijuana laws during the study period and those from the remaining states...
May 16, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Siobhan K Yilmaz, Brady P Horn, Chris Fore, Caroline A Bonham
Introduction In this paper the economic costs associated with a growing, multi-state telepsychiatry intervention serving rural American Indian/Alaska Native populations were compared to costs of travelling to provide/receive in-person treatment. Methods Telepsychiatry costs were calculated using administrative, information-technology, equipment and technology components, and were compared to travel cost models. Both a patient travel and a psychiatrist travel model were estimated utilising ArcGIS software and unit costs gathered from literature and government sources...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Zhihao Wang, Jianming Liu, Lin Chen, An-Ping Zeng, Christian Solem, Peter Ruhdal Jensen
Evolution, i.e. the change in heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations, has created the diversity of life that exists today. In this study we have harnessed evolution to create faster growing mutants of Corynebacterium glutamicum, i.e. to debottleneck growth rate of this highly important industrial workhorse. After approximately 1500 generations of Adaptive Laboratory Evolution (ALE) in defined minimal medium with glucose, we obtained faster growing mutants with specific growth rate as high as 0...
May 9, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Chao Zhang, Maryam Rabiee, Erfan Sayyari, Siavash Mirarab
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary histories can be discordant across the genome, and such discordances need to be considered in reconstructing the species phylogeny. ASTRAL is one of the leading methods for inferring species trees from gene trees while accounting for gene tree discordance. ASTRAL uses dynamic programming to search for the tree that shares the maximum number of quartet topologies with input gene trees, restricting itself to a predefined set of bipartitions. RESULTS: We introduce ASTRAL-III, which substantially improves the running time of ASTRAL-II and guarantees polynomial running time as a function of both the number of species (n) and the number of genes (k)...
May 8, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
M C Gjessing, D H Christensen, F Manji, S Mohammad, P E Petersen, B Saure, C Skjengen, S C Weli, O B Dale
Gill diseases cause serious losses in farming of Atlantic salmon and the number of agents involved increases. Salmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) and the gill disease in causes where SGPV apparently was the only disease-causing agent were initially characterized. Recently, it was further shown that SGPV can be a common denominator in widely different multifactorial gill diseases. Here, we present the challenge of diagnosing gill disease with SGPV in salmon fry of 0,3-5 grams. Apoptosis of gill lamellar epithelial cells and hemophagocytosis was also observed in fry similar to findings in smolts and grow-out fish...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Evan Mercier, Marina V Rodnina
Protein folding begins co-translationally within the restricted space of the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome. We have already shown that the N-terminal alpha-helical domain of the universally conserved N5-glutamine methyltransferase HemK compacts within the exit tunnel and rearranges into the native fold upon emerging from the ribosome. However, the exact folding pathway of the domain remained unclear. Here we analyzed the rapid kinetics of translation and folding monitored by FRET and PET using global fitting to a model for synthesis of the 112 amino acid-long HemK fragment...
May 9, 2018: Biochemistry
Georgios P Skandalakis, Christos Koutsarnakis, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Panagiotis Skandalakis, Elizabeth O Johnson, George Stranjalis
BACKGROUND: The habenula is a small, mostly underrated structure in the pineal region. Multidisciplinary findings demonstrate an underlying complex connectivity of the habenula with the rest of the brain, subserving its major role in normal behavior and the pathophysiology of depression. These findings suggest the potential application of "habenular psychosurgery" in the treatment of mental disorders. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The remission of two patients with treatment-resistant major depression treated with deep brain stimulation of the habenula supported the hypothesis that the habenula is an effective target for deep brain stimulation and initiated a surge of basic science research...
May 5, 2018: Brain Research
Luke P Robertson, Casey R Hall, Paul I Forster, Anthony R Carroll
The genus Flindersia (Rutaceae) comprises 17 species of mostly Australian endemic trees. Although most species are restricted to rainforests, four have evolved to grow in semi-arid and arid environments. In this study, the leaf alkaloid diversity of rainforest and semi-arid/arid zone adapted Australian Flindersia were compared by LC/MS-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Contrary to expectations, Flindersia alkaloid diversity was strongly correlated with environmental aridity, where species predominating in drier regions produced more alkaloids than their wet rainforest congenerics...
May 4, 2018: Phytochemistry
Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Andrea Di Francesco, Bethany A Carboneau, Sophia R Levan, Kevin J Pearson, Nathan L Price, Theresa M Ward, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Evi M Mercken
Caloric restriction (CR) is the most potent nonpharmacological intervention known to both protect against carcinogenesis and delay aging in laboratory animals. There is a growing number of anticarcinogens and CR mimetics that activate NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). We have previously shown that NQO1, an antioxidant enzyme that acts as an energy sensor through modulation of intracellular redox and metabolic state, is upregulated by CR. Here, we used NQO1-knockout (KO) mice to investigate the role of NQO1 in both the aging process and tumor susceptibility, specifically in the context of CR...
May 4, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Elizabeth B Ruzicka, Katherine E Darling, Amy J Fahrenkamp, Amy F Sato
Little is known about what factors influence a caregiver to use controlling feeding practices with adolescents. The present study examines potential predictors (e.g., parent and child eating, parent and child weight, and the home environment) of the use of controlling feeding practices among adolescents, an age group that has not received much attention. Parents (N = 54, M age = 43.63 years, SD = 6.42; 94.4% female) of adolescents ages 12-17 (N = 54, M age = 13.94 years, SD = 1.75; 43...
May 2, 2018: Appetite
Madeline H Knott, Sarah E Haskell, Payton E Strawser, Olivia M Rice, Natalie T Bonthius, Vani C Movva, Benjamin E Reinking, Robert D Roghair
OBJECTIVES: Prematurity is associated with reduced cardiac dimensions and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While prematurity is typically associated with ex utero neonatal growth restriction (GR), the independent effect of neonatal GR on cardiac development has not been established. We tested the hypothesis that isolated neonatal GR decreases cardiomyocyte growth and proliferation, leading to long-term alterations in cardiac morphology. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fostered in litters ranging in size from 6 to 12 pups to accentuate normal variation in neonatal growth...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Adam M Saffer
Pectins are complex cell wall polysaccharides important for many aspects of plant development. Recent studies have discovered extensive physical interactions between pectins and other cell wall components, implicating pectins in new molecular functions. Pectins are often localized in spatially restricted patterns, and some of these non-uniform pectin distributions contribute to multiple aspects of plant development, including the morphogenesis of cells and organs. Furthermore, a growing number of mutants affecting cell wall composition have begun to reveal the distinct contributions of different pectins to plant development...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Min Tang, Xi Ning Zhao, Xiao Dong Gao, Chao Zhang, Pu Te Wu
Soil water availability is a key factor restricting the ecological construction and sustainable land use in the loess hilly region. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to understand the soil moisture status of different land use types for the vegetation restoration and the effective utilization of land resources in this area. In this study, EC-5 soil moisture sensors were used to continuously monitor the soil moisture content in the 0-160 cm soil profile in the slope cropland, terraced fields, jujube orchard, and grassland during the growing season (from May to October) in the Yuanzegou catchment on the Loess Plateau, to investigate soil moisture dynamics in these four typical land use types...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Allison B Frederick, Alison M Zinsli, Grace Carlock, Karen Conneely, Judith L Fridovich-Keil
Classic galactosemia (CG) is an inherited metabolic disorder that affects about 1 in 50,000 live births in the United States and many other countries. With the benefit of early detection by newborn screening and rapid dietary restriction of galactose, generally achieved by removing dairy from the diet, most affected infants are spared the acute and potentially lethal symptoms of disease. Despite early detection and life-long dietary intervention, however, most patients grow to experience a constellation of long-term complications that include premature ovarian insufficiency in the vast majority of girls and young women...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Richard K Gast, Jean Guard, Rupa Guraya, Aude Locatelli
Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent the multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis to high levels during storage is an important practice for reducing the risk of egg-transmitted human illness. The efficacy of egg refrigeration for achieving this goal depends on the interaction among the location of contamination, the ability of contaminant strains to survive or multiply, and the rate at which growth-restricting temperatures are attained. The present study assessed the significance of several characterized genetic and phenotypic properties for the capabilities of 10 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates to multiply rapidly in egg yolk and survive for several days in egg albumen during unrefrigerated (25°C) storage...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Richard C Pinnell, Anne Pereira de Vasconcelos, Jean C Cassel, Ulrich G Hofmann
Pre-clinical deep-brain stimulation (DBS) research has observed a growing interest in the use of portable stimulation devices that can be carried by animals. Not only can such devices overcome many issues inherent with a cable tether, such as twisting or snagging, they can also be utilized in a greater variety of arenas, including enclosed or large mazes. However, these devices are not inherently designed for water-maze environments, and their use has been restricted to individually-housed rats in order to avoid damage from various social activities such as grooming, playing, or fighting...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Julia Moreira Pescarini, Vera Simonsen, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Laura C Rodrigues, Rosangela S Oliveira, Eliseu Alves Waldman, Rein Houben
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of growing migration on the pattern of tuberculosis (TB) transmission in middle-income countries. We estimated TB recent transmission and its associated factors and investigated the presence of cross-transmission between South American migrants and Brazilians. METHODS: We studied a convenient sample of cases of people with pulmonary TB in a central area of São Paulo, Brazil, diagnosed between 2013 and 2014. Cases with similar restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) patterns of their Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates were grouped in clusters (recent transmission)...
April 30, 2018: BMC Medicine
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