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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743164/decisions-to-attend-and-drink-at-party-events-the-effects-of-incentives-and-disincentives-and-lifetime-alcohol-and-antisocial-problems
#1
Peter R Finn, Kyle Gerst, Allison Lake, Tim Bogg
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are associated with patterns of impulsive/risky decision making on behavioral economic decision tasks, but little is known about the factors affecting drinking-related decisions. METHODS: The effects of incentives and disincentives to attend and drink at hypothetical alcohol-related party events as a function of lifetime (LT) alcohol and antisocial problems were examined in a sample of 434 young adults who varied widely in LT alcohol and antisocial problems...
July 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742414/neural-correlates-of-depressive-symptoms-in-smokers-a-systematic-review-of-imaging-studies
#2
Michele de Oliveira Gonzalez, Anna E Goudriaan, Cíntia de Azevedo-Marques Périco, Marcela Waisman Campos, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Dinesh Bhugra, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
This review aims to summarize neuroimaging studies in order to better understand the neural correlates of depressive symptoms in tobacco smokers. Using the keywords "depressive OR depression" AND "tobacco OR nicotine OR smok(*) OR cigarette" AND "neuroimage OR magnetic resonance OR smri OR structural magnetic resonance OR fmri OR functional magnetic resonance OR pet OR positron emission tomography", literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases. The first and the last author read the abstracts of all the studies found in the search (n = 179)...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741981/functional-smiles-tools-for-love-sympathy-and-war
#3
Magdalena Rychlowska, Rachael E Jack, Oliver G B Garrod, Philippe G Schyns, Jared D Martin, Paula M Niedenthal
A smile is the most frequent facial expression, but not all smiles are equal. A social-functional account holds that smiles of reward, affiliation, and dominance serve basic social functions, including rewarding behavior, bonding socially, and negotiating hierarchy. Here, we characterize the facial-expression patterns associated with these three types of smiles. Specifically, we modeled the facial expressions using a data-driven approach and showed that reward smiles are symmetrical and accompanied by eyebrow raising, affiliative smiles involve lip pressing, and dominance smiles are asymmetrical and contain nose wrinkling and upper-lip raising...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741741/addiction-related-interactions-of-pregabalin-with-morphine-in-mice-and-humans-reinforcing-and-inhibiting-effects
#4
Elena Vashchinkina, Ossi Piippo, Olga Vekovischeva, Evgeny Krupitsky, Ruslan Ilyuk, Nikholay Neznanov, Kirill Kazankov, Igor Zaplatkin, Esa R Korpi
The gabapentinoid pregabalin is a rapid-acting anxiolytic and analgesic, possibly suitable in supervised opioid detoxification. However, clinicians have been cautious in using it because of its unknown addictive risk and rising number of mortalities after pregabalin self-medication in opioid abusers. Here, we studied interactions of pregabalin and morphine on reward functions of the dopamine system in mice and the efficacy of pregabalin on withdrawal in opioid addicts. After the treatment of mice with pregabalin and morphine, we used electrophysiology to study neuroplasticity in midbrain slices, self-administration and conditioned place preference tests to investigate the rewarding potential of pregabalin and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal to evaluate opioid withdrawal symptoms...
July 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741627/chronic-exposure-to-methamphetamine-disrupts-reinforcement-based-decision-making-in-rats
#5
Stephanie M Groman, Katherine M Rich, Nathaniel J Smith, Daeyeol Lee, Jane R Taylor
The persistent use of psychostimulant drugs, despite the detrimental outcomes associated with continued drug use, may be due to disruptions in reinforcement-learning processes that enable behavior to remain flexible and goal-directed in dynamic environments. To identify the reinforcement-learning processes that are affected by chronic exposure to the psychostimulant methamphetamine (MA), the current study sought to use computational and biochemical analyses to characterize decision-making processes, assessed by probabilistic reversal learning, in rats before and after they were exposed to an escalating dose regimen of MA (or saline control)...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741623/effects-of-suvorexant-a-dual-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-on-impulsive-behavior-associated-with-cocaine
#6
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, Mia N Watson, Krista L Connelly, Eugen Brailoiu, Yanan Zhang, John W Muschamp
Hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) peptides mediate arousal, attention, and reward processing. Fibers containing orexins project to brain structures that govern motivated behavior, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders, are characterized by deficits in impulse control, however the relationship between orexin and impulsive behavior is incompletely characterized. The effects of systemic or centrally administered orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists on measures of impulsive-like behavior in rats were evaluated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and delay discounting procedures...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741081/capuchin-monkeys-use-of-human-and-conspecific-cues-to-solve-a-hidden-object-choice-task
#7
Jennifer L Essler, Lindsay P Schwartz, Mattea S Rossettie, Peter G Judge
Learning by watching others can provide valuable information with adaptive consequences, such as identifying the presence of a predator or locating a food source. The extent to which nonhuman animals can gain information by reading the cues of others is often tested by evaluating responses to human gestures, such as a point, and less often evaluated by examining responses to conspecific cues. We tested whether ten brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus [Sapajus] apella) were able to use cues from monkeys and a pointing cue from a human to obtain hidden rewards...
July 24, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740816/probability-and-magnitude-evaluation-in-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Matthew A Albrecht, James A Waltz, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
Alterations in reinforcement learning and decision making in schizophrenia have been linked with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction, a region critical for weighing reward magnitude in the calculation of expected value (EV). However, much of this work has used complex tasks that require combined learning and EV calculation. Here we used a simple "Roulette" task that examined the calculation of EV directly through a combination of text and/or pictorial representation of reward probability and magnitude. Forty-four people with schizophrenia and 30 controls were recruited...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740616/unlocking-the-potential-of-established-products-toward-new-incentives-rewarding-innovation-in-europe
#9
Gabrielle Nayroles, Sandrine Frybourg, Sylvie Gabriel, Åsa Kornfeld, Fernando Antoñanzas-Villar, Jaime Espín, Claudio Jommi, Nello Martini, Gérard de Pouvourville, Keith Tolley, Jürgen Wasem, Mondher Toumi
Background: Many established products (EPs - marketed for eight years or more) are widely used off-label despite little evidence on benefit-risk ratio. This exposes patients to risks related to safety and lack of efficacy, and healthcare providers to liability. Introducing new indications for EPs may represent a high societal value; however, manufacturers rarely invest in R&D for EPs. The objective of this research was to describe incentives and disincentives for developing new indications for EPs in Europe and to investigate consequences of current policies...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740424/risk-and-protective-factors-in-the-clinical-rehabilitation-of-chronic-back-pain
#10
Pia-Maria Wippert, Michael Fliesser, Matthias Krause
OBJECTIVES: Chronic back pain (CBP) can lead to disability and burden. In addition to its medical causes, its development is influenced by psychosocial risk factors, the so-called flag factors, which are categorized and integrated into many treatment guidelines. Currently, most studies investigate single flag factors, which limit the estimation of individual factor significance in the development of chronic pain. Furthermore, factors concerning patients' lifestyle, biography and treatment history are often neglected...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739583/tonic-or-phasic-stimulation-of-dopaminergic-projections-to-prefrontal-cortex-causes-mice-to-maintain-or-deviate-from-previously-learned-behavioral-strategies
#11
Ian T Ellwood, Tosha Patel, Varun Wadia, Anthony T Lee, Alayna T Liptak, Kevin J Bender, Vikaas S Sohal
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) encode reward prediction errors and can drive reinforcement learning through their projections to striatum, but much less is known about their projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we studied these projections, and observed phasic VTA-PFC fiber photometry signals following the delivery of rewards. Next, we studied how optogenetic stimulation of these projections affects behavior, using conditioned place preference (CPP), and a task in which mice learn associations between cues and food rewards, then use those associations to make choices...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739524/social-instability-stress-in-adolescent-male-rats-reduces-social-interaction-and-social-recognition-performance-and-increases-oxytocin-receptor-binding
#12
Travis E Hodges, Jennet L Baumbach, Marina L Marcolin, Remco Bredewold, Alexa H Veenema, Cheryl M McCormick
Social experiences in adolescence are essential for displaying context-appropriate social behaviours in adulthood. We previously found that adult male rats that underwent social instability stress (SS) in adolescence had reduced social interactions with unfamiliar peers compared with non-stressed controls (CTL). Here we determined whether SS altered social recognition and social reward and brain oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in adolescence. We confirmed that SS rats spent less time interacting with unfamiliar peers than did CTL rats (p = 0...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739295/dispositional-mindfulness-and-reward-motivated-eating-the-role-of-emotion-regulation-and-mental-habit
#13
Naomi R Fisher, Bethan R Mead, Paul Lattimore, Peter Malinowski
Evidence regarding the effectiveness of mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) for eating disorders, weight management and food craving is emerging and further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of MBIs in these domains. The current study was designed to establish the role of specific mechanisms underlying the putative relationship between mindfulness and reward motivated eating. We predicted that mindfulness would be negatively related to features of reward motivated eating and that this association would be mediated by emotion regulation and habitual negative self-thinking...
July 21, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739098/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-energy-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Wei Li, Denis Richard
Bariatric surgery represents the most efficient therapy for severe obesity. It reduces the size of fat stores or the amount of body fat gain. The bariatric surgery procedures currently used include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, which are the most commonly performed procedures. Other procedures are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and biliopancreatic diversion. The latter represents the most effective surgery for treatment of severe obesity as well as type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery reduces energy intake by restricting the size of the stomach reservoir and causing malabsorption, as in the case of biliopancreatic diversion...
August 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738207/translocation-of-heavy-metals-from-soils-into-floral-organs-and-rewards-of-cucurbita-pepo-implications-for-plant-reproductive-fitness
#15
Erna Xun, Yanwen Zhang, Jimin Zhao, Jixun Guo
Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738152/natural-products-and-their-mimics-as-targets-of-opportunity-for-discovery
#16
Stephen F Martin
Diverse structural types of natural products and their mimics have served as targets of opportunity in our laboratory to inspire the discovery and development of new methods and strategies to assemble polyfunctional and polycyclic molecular architectures. Furthermore, our efforts toward identifying novel compounds having useful biological properties led to the creation of new targets, many of which posed synthetic challenges that required the invention of new methodology. In this Perspective, selected examples of how we have exploited a diverse range of natural products and their mimics to create, explore, and solve a variety of problems in chemistry and biology will be discussed...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737419/behavioral-activation-as-a-common-mechanism-of-change-across-different-orientations-and-disorders
#17
Giancarlo Dimaggio, Golan Shahar
Behavioral activation is an effective treatment for depression, based on targeting deprivation of positive rewards. It becomes more and more evident that many forms of mental disorders and psychological suffering involve reduction of goal-driven and pleasant activities. This reduction leaves negative mental states free to take the center of consciousness, without being counterbalanced by positive feelings, memories, and experiences of agency, self-efficacy, competence, relaxation, energy, and satisfaction. Reduced activity can be found in disorders ranging from chronic pain to personality disorders and schizophrenia...
July 24, 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736755/risky-decision-making-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-an-exploratory-study
#18
Rachel K Jonas, EunJi Roh, Caroline A Montojo, Laura A Pacheco, Tena Rosser, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic disorder affecting cognitive function. About one third of children with NF1 have attentional disorders, and the cognitive phenotype is characterized by impairment in prefrontally-mediated functions. Mouse models of NF1 show irregularities in GABA release and striatal dopamine metabolism. We hypothesized that youth with NF1 would show abnormal behavior and neural activity on a task of risk-taking reliant on prefrontal-striatal circuits...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736624/lyme-and-dopaminergic-function-hypothesizing-reduced-reward-deficiency-symptomatology-by-regulating-dopamine-transmission
#19
Kenneth Blum, Edward J Modestino, Marcelo Febo, Bruce Steinberg, Thomas McLaughlin, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The principal vector of Lyme disease in the United States is Ixodes scapularis: black legged or deer ticks. There is increased evidence that those infected may be plagued by anxiety or depression as well. Researchers have identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks, which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. It is hypothesized that protracted Lyme disease sequelae may be due to impairment of dopaminergic function of the brain reward circuitry. The subsequent recombinant proteins exhibited sulfotransferase function against two neurotransmitters: dopamine and octopamine...
May 2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736489/challenges-to-promoting-health-for-amateur-athletes-through-anti-doping-policy
#20
April Henning
Anti-doping regulations are intended, at least in part, to promote the health of athletes. While most anti-doping efforts target elite and professional competitors, there have been recent moves by sport governing bodies to expand anti-doping testing to include amateur athletes. Drawing on previous critiques of anti-doping policies and illustrating cases, this article outlines five of the challenges to health promotion of applying the current detect and ban model to the amateur level of sport. I argue that the current approach is not effective and, in some ways, may undermine the goal of health promotion at the amateur level...
2017: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
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