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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936242/performance-in-object-choice-aesop-s-fable-tasks-are-influenced-by-object-biases-in-new-caledonian-crows-but-not-in-human-children
#1
Rachael Miller, Sarah A Jelbert, Alex H Taylor, Lucy G Cheke, Russell D Gray, Elsa Loissel, Nicola S Clayton
The ability to reason about causality underlies key aspects of human cognition, but the extent to which non-humans understand causality is still largely unknown. The Aesop's Fable paradigm, where objects are inserted into water-filled tubes to obtain out-of-reach rewards, has been used to test casual reasoning in birds and children. However, success on these tasks may be influenced by other factors, specifically, object preferences present prior to testing or arising during pre-test stone-dropping training...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936186/maternal-separation-impairs-cocaine-induced-behavioural-sensitization-in-adolescent-mice
#2
Irene Gracia-Rubio, Olga Valverde, Elena Martinez-Laorden, Maria Moscoso-Castro, M Victoria Milanés, M Luisa Laorden
Adverse early-life conditions induce persistent disturbances that give rise to negative emotional states. Therefore, early life stress confers increased vulnerability to substance use disorders, mainly during adolescence as the brain is still developing. In this study, we investigated the consequences of maternal separation, a model of maternal neglect, on the psychotropic effects of cocaine and the neuroplasticity of the dopaminergic system. Our results show that mice exposed to maternal separation displayed attenuated behavioural sensitization, while no changes were found in the rewarding effects of cocaine in the conditioned place preference paradigm and in the reinforcing effects of cocaine in the self-administration paradigm...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935729/abnormal-neural-responses-to-feedback-in-depressed-adolescents
#3
Christian A Webb, Randy P Auerbach, Erin Bondy, Colin H Stanton, Dan Foti, Diego A Pizzagalli
Depression rates surge in adolescence, particularly among females. Recent findings suggest that depressed adolescents are characterized by hypersensitivity to negative outcomes and blunted responsiveness to rewards. However, our understanding of the pathophysiology and time course of these abnormalities remains limited. Due to their high temporal resolution, event-related potentials (ERPs) provide an ideal probe to investigate these processes. In the present study, healthy (n = 25) and depressed (n = 26) female adolescents (13-18 years) completed a gambling task during 128-channel ERP recording...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933672/single-neuron-activity-and-theta-modulation-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-in-a-visuospatial-attention-task
#4
Fang-Chi Yang, T K Jacobson, R D Burwell
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in directing and maintaining visual attention to locations in space. We hypothesized that the PPC also engages other cognitive processes in the transformation of behaviorally relevant visual inputs into appropriate actions, for example, monitoring of multiple locations, selection of responses to locations in space, and monitoring the outcome of response selections. We recorded single cells and local field potentials in the rat PPC during performance on a novel visuospatial attention (VSA) task that requires visually monitoring locations in space in order to make appropriate stimulus-guided locomotor responses...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933366/deficits-in-autonomic-indices-of-emotion-regulation-and-reward-processing-associated-with-prescription-opioid-use-and-misuse
#5
Eric L Garland, Craig J Bryan, Yoshio Nakamura, Brett Froeliger, Matthew O Howard
RATIONALE: Prescription opioid misuse and high-dose opioid use may result in allostatic dysregulation of hedonic brain circuitry, leading to reduced emotion regulation capacity. In particular, opioid misuse may blunt the ability to experience and upregulate positive affect from natural rewards. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between opioid use/misuse and autonomic indices of emotion regulation capability in a sample of chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioid pharmacotherapy...
December 8, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933013/on-elementary-affective-decisions-to-like-or-not-to-like-that-is-the-question
#6
Arthur Jacobs, Markus J Hofmann, Annette Kinder
Perhaps the most ubiquitous and basic affective decision of daily life is deciding whether we like or dislike something/somebody, or, in terms of psychological emotion theories, whether the object/subject has positive or negative valence. Indeed, people constantly make such liking decisions within a glimpse and, importantly, often without expecting any obvious benefit or knowing the exact reasons for their judgment. In this paper, we review research on such elementary affective decisions (EADs) that entail no direct overt reward with a special focus on Neurocognitive Poetics and discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of EADs to verbal materials with differing degrees of complexity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931777/effects-of-maternal-separation-on-nicotine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-subsequent-learning-and-memory-in-adolescent-female-rats
#7
Fatemeh Delavari, Nouzar Nakhaee, Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Saeid Esmaeili Mahani, Vahid Sheibani
Adverse early life experiences can potentially increase risk for drug abuse later in life. However, little research has been conducted studying the effects of maternal separation (MS), an experimental model for early life stress, on the rewarding effects of nicotine. Cognitive function may be affected by MS. So, we also investigated whether nicotine administration affect spatial learning and memory in MS adolescent female rats. Rat pups were subjected to daily MS for 15min (MS15) or 180min (MS180) during the first 2 weeks of life or reared under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931744/learning-from-one-s-mistakes-a-dual-role-for-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-in-the-encoding-and-expression-of-punished-reward-seeking
#8
Peter J Vento, Nathan W Burnham, Courtney S Rowley, Thomas C Jhou
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders such as addiction and mania are marked by persistent reward seeking despite highly negative or aversive outcomes, but the neural mechanisms underlying this aberrant decision making are unknown. The recently identified rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) encodes a wide variety of aversive stimuli and sends robust inhibitory projections to midbrain dopamine neurons, leading to the hypothesis that the RMTg provides a brake to reward signaling in response to aversive costs...
October 21, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930906/an-elegant-circuit-for-balancing-risk-and-reward
#9
Zhaoyu Li, Adam J Iliff, X Z Shawn Xu
Animals constantly encounter conflicting cues in natural environments. To survive and thrive, they must make appropriate behavioral decisions. In this issue, Ghosh et al. (2016) identified a neural circuit underlying multisensory threat-reward decision making using an elegant C. elegans model.
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930870/temperament-and-character-traits-in-patients-with-tinnitus-a-prospective-case-series-with-comparisons
#10
Jae Ho Chung, Hayoung Byun, Seung Hwan Lee, Chul Won Park, Eun Young Jang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the personality traits of temperament and character in patients with tinnitus, and to identify differences in these traits associated with the severity of tinnitus. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with comparisons. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: From January to December 2014, one hundred-and-thirty-four adult patients with chronic subjective tinnitus completed psychoacoustic measurements of tinnitus and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930724/efficient-avoidance-of-the-penalty-zone-in-human-eye-movements
#11
Markku Kilpeläinen, Jan Theeuwes
People use eye movements extremely effectively to find objects of interest in a cluttered visual scene. Distracting, task-irrelevant attention capturing regions in the visual field should be avoided as they jeopardize the efficiency of search. In the current study, we used eye tracking to determine whether people are able to avoid making saccades to a predetermined visual area associated with a financial penalty, while making fast and accurate saccades towards stimuli placed near the penalty area. We found that in comparison to the same task without a penalty area, the introduction of a penalty area immediately affected eye movement behaviour: the proportion of saccades to the penalty area was immediately reduced...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929349/effects-of-paclitaxel-on-mechanical-sensitivity-and-morphine-reward-in-male-and-female-c57bl6-mice
#12
Harshini Neelakantan, Sara Jane Ward, Ellen Ann Walker
This study evaluated the hypothesis that a paclitaxel treatment regimen sufficient to produce mechanical allodynia would alter sensitivities of male and female mice to the conditioned rewarding and reinforcing effects of morphine. Saline or paclitaxel were administered on Days 1, 3, 5, and 7 in male and female C57Bl/6 mice to induce morphine-reversible mechanical allodynia as measured by the Von Frey filament test. Paclitaxel treatment did not change sensitivity to morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) relative to saline treatment in either male or female mice...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929344/can-repetitive-mental-simulation-of-smoking-engender-habituation
#13
Janet Audrain-McGovern, Andrew A Strasser, E Paul Wileyto
Smoking cue exposure sensitizes smokers to cigarettes (i.e., increases cravings). Research examining the overlap between perception and mental imagery suggests that mentally simulating smoking a cigarette in a manner analogous to actually smoking should lead to habituation or a decrease in a smoker's motivation to smoke. The authors sought to determine whether repetitive mental simulation of smoking can engender habituation thereby reducing smoking cue-induced craving and shifts in mood, latency to smoke, and the hedonic response to smoking...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928724/rats-in-a-levered-t-maze-task-show-evidence-of-time-place-discriminations-in-two-different-measures
#14
Scott H Deibel, Andrew B Lehr, Chelsea Maloney, Matthew L Ingram, Leanna M Lewis, Anne-Marie P Chaulk, Pam D Chaulk, Darlene M Skinner, Christina M Thorpe
It is difficult for rats to learn to go to an arm of a T-maze to receive food that is dependent on the time of day, unless the amount of food in each daily session is different. In the same task, rats show evidence of time-place discriminations if they are required to press levers in the arms of the T-maze, but learning is only evident when the first lever press is considered, and not the first arm visited. These data suggest that rats struggle to use time as a discriminative stimulus unless the rewards/events differ in some dimension, or unless the goal locations can be visited prior to making a response...
December 7, 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927978/community-families-a-qualitative-study-of-families-who-volunteer-to-support-persons-with-severe-mental-illness
#15
Lotte Groth Jensen, Stina Lou, Jørgen Aagaard, Ulla Væggemose
BACKGROUND: Social interventions targeted at people with severe mental illness (SMI) often include volunteers. Volunteers' perspectives are important for these interventions to work. This article investigates the experiences of volunteer families who befriend a person with SMI. MATERIAL: Qualitative interviews with members of volunteer families. DISCUSSION: The families were motivated by helping a vulnerable person and by engaging in a rewarding relationship...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927964/frontal-striatal-and-medial-temporal-sensitivity-to-value-distinguishes-risk-taking-from-risk-aversive-older-adults-during-decision-making
#16
Joshua O S Goh, Yu-Shiang Su, Yong-Jheng Tang, Anna C McCarrey, Alexander Tereshchenko, Wendy Elkins, Susan M Resnick
: Aging compromises the frontal, striatal, and medial temporal areas of the reward system, impeding accurate value representation and feedback processing critical for decision making. However, substantial variability characterizes age-related effects on the brain so that some older individuals evince clear neurocognitive declines whereas others are spared. Moreover, the functional correlates of normative individual differences in older-adult value-based decision making remain unclear...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926453/quantifying-motivation-with-effort-based-decision-making-paradigms-in-health-and-disease
#17
T T-J Chong, V Bonnelle, M Husain
Motivation can be characterized as a series of cost-benefit valuations, in which we weigh the amount of effort we are willing to expend (the cost of an action) in return for particular rewards (its benefits). Human motivation has traditionally been measured with self-report and questionnaire-based tools, but an inherent limitation of these methods is that they are unable to provide a mechanistic explanation of the processes underlying motivated behavior. A major goal of current research is to quantify motivation objectively with effort-based decision-making paradigms, by drawing on a rich literature from nonhuman animals...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926452/control-feedback-as-the-motivational-force-behind-habitual-behavior
#18
O Nafcha, E T Higgins, B Eitam
Motivated behavior is considered to be a product of integration of a behavior's subjective benefits and costs. As such, it is unclear what motivates "habitual behavior" which occurs, by definition, after the outcome's value has diminished. One possible answer is that habitual behavior continues to be selected due to its "intrinsic" worth. Such an explanation, however, highlights the need to specify the motivational system for which the behavior has intrinsic worth. Another key question is how does an activity attain such intrinsically rewarding properties...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926450/changing-health-behavior-motivation-from-i-must-to-i-want
#19
S Knecht, P Kenning
In the past, medicine was dominated by acute diseases. Since treatments were unknown to patients they followed their medical doctors´ directives-at least for the duration of the disease. Behavior was thus largely motivated by avoiding expected costs associated with alternative behaviors (I-must). The health challenges prevailing today are chronic conditions resulting from the way we chose to live. Traditional directive communication has not been successful in eliciting and maintaining appropriate lifestyle changes...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926449/the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-apathy
#20
T T-J Chong, M Husain
Disorders of diminished motivation, such as apathy, are common and prevalent across a wide range of medical conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, stroke, depression, and schizophrenia. Such disorders have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life, yet their management lacks consensus and remains unsatisfactory. Here, we review laboratory and clinical evidence for the use of dopaminergic therapies in the treatment of apathy. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter that regulates motivated decision making in humans and other species...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
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