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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108745/leukocyte-esterase-as-a-biomarker-in-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#1
Chi Wang, Rui Li, Qi Wang, Jinyan Duan, Chengbin Wang
BACKGROUND Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has been one of the most rewarding interventions for treating patients suffering from joint disorders. However, periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication that frequently accompanies TJA. Our study aimed to investigate the application of the leukocyte esterase (LE) strip in the diagnosis of PJI. MATERIAL AND METHODS From October 2014 to July 2015, 72 patients who had undergone joint puncture after arthroplasty in our hospital were enrolled in this trial...
January 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108676/can-work-make-you-mentally-ill-a-systematic-meta-review-of-work-related-risk-factors-for-common-mental-health-problems
#2
REVIEW
Samuel B Harvey, Matthew Modini, Sadhbh Joyce, Josie S Milligan-Saville, Leona Tan, Arnstein Mykletun, Richard A Bryant, Helen Christensen, Philip B Mitchell
It has been suggested that certain types of work may increase the risk of common mental disorders, but the exact nature of the relationship has been contentious. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first comprehensive systematic meta-review of the evidence linking work to the development of common mental health problems, specifically depression, anxiety and/or work-related stress and to consider how the risk factors identified may relate to each other. MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration and grey literature databases were systematically searched for review articles that examined work-based risk factors for common mental health problems...
January 20, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108358/neurochemical-and-metabolic-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-alcohol-in-the-human-brain-studies-with-positron-emission-tomography
#3
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Ruben Baler
The use of Positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of acute and chronic alcohol on the human brain has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's rewarding effects, the neuroadaptations from chronic exposure that contribute to tolerance and withdrawal, and the changes in fronto-striatal circuits that lead to loss of control and enhanced motivation to drink that characterize alcohol use disorders (AUD). These include studies showing that alcohol's reinforcing effects may result not only from its enhancement of dopaminergic, GABAergic and opioid signaling but also from its caloric properties...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108344/reward-sensitivity-and-body-weight-the-intervening-role-of-food-responsive-behavior-and-external-eating
#4
Laura Vandeweghe, Sandra Verbeken, Leentje Vervoort, Ellen Moens, Caroline Braet
BACKGROUND: During the last three decades, the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased worldwide. It is well established that different child-related factors such as food approach behaviors (i.e. eating behaviors that imply movements towards food) contribute to the development of overweight. However, research is lacking on the underlying mechanisms leading to food approach behaviors, which in turn lead to overweight. SUBJECT/METHODS: Via parent-report questionnaires, we investigated the relation between the personality trait reward sensitivity and body weight in a convenience sample of 211 children aged 2...
January 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108321/virtual-reality-conditioned-place-preference-using-monetary-reward
#5
Emma Childs, Robert S Astur, Harriet de Wit
Computerized tasks based on conditioned place preference (CPP) methodology offer the opportunity to study learning mechanisms involved in conditioned reward in humans. In this study, we examined acquisition and extinction of a CPP for virtual environments associated with monetary reward ($). Healthy men and women (N=57) completed a computerized CPP task in which they controlled an avatar within a virtual environment. On day 1, subjects completed 6 conditioning trials in which one room was paired with high $ and another with low $...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108010/from-avoidance-to-approach-the-influence-of-threat-of-shock-on-reward-based-decision-making
#6
Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers, Andre Pittig
Potential threat can prime defensive responding and avoidance behavior, which may result in the loss of rewards. When aversive consequences do not occur, avoidance should, thus, be quickly overcome in healthy individuals. This study examined the impact of threat anticipation on reward-based decisions. Sixty-five participants completed a decision-making task in which they had to choose between high- and low-reward options. To model an approach-avoidance conflict, the high-reward option was contingent with a threat-of-shock cue; the low-reward option was contingent with a safety cue...
January 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107798/introduction-attention-plasticity
#7
Joseph B Hopfinger
Mechanisms of attention are a prime target for investigating the plasticity of the adult brain, as these core mechanisms act at the intersection of top-down and bottom-up processing, and the wide variety of methods used in attention research can be utilized to elucidate the mechanisms of plasticity. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents three new empirical papers and a discussion paper with peer commentaries. In the first article, Voelker, Sheese and colleagues investigate the influence of genetic variation on the effectiveness of attention training...
January 20, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107783/lorcaserin-suppresses-oxycodone-self-administration-and-relapse-vulnerability-in-rats
#8
Harshini Neelakantan, Erica D Holliday, Robert G Fox, Sonja J Stutz, Sandra D Comer, Margaret Haney, Noelle C Anastasio, Frederick Gerard Moeller, Kathryn A Cunningham
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major public health problem. High relapse rates and poor treatment retention continue to pose major challenges in OUD treatment. Of the abused opioids, oxycodone is well described to maintain self-administration and evoke the durable conditioned responses ("cue reactivity") that result from pairing of opioid-related stimuli (e.g., paraphernalia) with repeated abuse. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, particularly through the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR), regulates psychostimulant reward and cue reactivity, and in the present experiments, we investigated the hypothesis that the selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin, which is FDA-approved for the treatment of obesity, will suppress oxycodone self-administration and oxycodone-associated cue reactivity in rats...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107293/the-age-of-value-navigating-the-transition-from-volume-to-value
#9
Renée M Glanzman
The healthcare industry has historically rewarded providers on the basis of the volume of services rendered, rather than the value of those services. Through the commitment of the Department of Health and Human Services, new programs and legislation have been created to tie provider payment based on the achievement of the Triple Aim: improve the patient experience, reduce cost, and improve overall health. As a result, new programs and legislation have emerged, resulting in the need for cultural shifts, new skills, and new technology for health systems, providers, and patients...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107174/biological-bases-of-human-musicality
#10
Carla Perrone-Capano, Floriana Volpicelli, Umberto di Porzio
Music is a universal language, present in all human societies. It pervades the lives of most human beings and can recall memories and feelings of the past, can exert positive effects on our mood, can be strongly evocative and ignite intense emotions, and can establish or strengthen social bonds. In this review, we summarize the research and recent progress on the origins and neural substrates of human musicality as well as the changes in brain plasticity elicited by listening or performing music. Indeed, music improves performance in a number of cognitive tasks and may have beneficial effects on diseased brains...
January 20, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106934/neuroimaging-the-neural-correlates-of-increased-risk-for-substance-use-disorders-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review
#11
Vitria Adisetiyo, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are nearly three times more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUD) than their typically developing peers. Our objective was to review the existing neuroimaging research on high-risk ADHD (ie, ADHD with disruptive behavior disorders, familial SUD and/or early substance use), focusing on impulsivity as one possible mechanism underlying SUD risk. METHODS: A PubMed literature search was conducted using combinations of the keywords "ADHD," "substance use," "substance use disorder," "SUD," "addiction," "dependence," "abuse," "risk," "brain" "MRI," "imaging" and "neuroimaging...
January 20, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106849/a-reinforcement-learning-model-equipped-with-sensors-for-generating-perception-patterns-implementation-of-a-simulated-air-navigation-system-using-ads-b-automatic-dependent-surveillance-broadcast-technology
#12
Santiago Álvarez de Toledo, Aurea Anguera, José M Barreiro, Juan A Lara, David Lizcano
Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model...
January 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106670/reward-motivation-and-emotion-of-pain-and-its-relief
#13
Frank Porreca, Edita Navratilova
The experience of pain depends on interpretation of context and past experience that guide the choice of an immediate behavioral response and influence future decisions of actions to avoid harm. The aversive qualities of pain underlie its physiological role in learning and motivation. In this review, we highlight findings from human and animal investigations that suggest that both pain, and the relief of pain, are complex emotions that are comprised of feelings and their motivational consequences. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding...
January 12, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105895/prefrontal-cortex-dysfunction-in-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-contributes-to-executive-function-impairments-in-rats-potential-contribution-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Patrícia Maidana Miguel, Bruna Ferrary Deniz, Iohanna Deckmann, Heloísa Deola Confortim, Ramiro Diaz, Daniela Pereira Laureano, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira, Lenir Orlandi Pereira
OBJECTIVES: The attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compromises the quality of life of individuals including adaptation to the social environment. ADHD aetiology includes perinatal conditions such as hypoxic-ischaemic events; preclinical studies have demonstrated attentional deficits and impulsive-hyperactive outcomes after neonatal hypoxic and/or ischaemic intervention, but data are missing to understand this relationship. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate executive function (EF) and impulsivity, and tissue integrity and dopaminergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats submitted to hypoxia-ischaemia (HI)...
January 20, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105761/walking-sustainability-and-health-findings-from-a-study-of-a-walking-for-health-group
#15
Gordon Grant, Kasia Machaczek, Nick Pollard, Peter Allmark
Not only is it tacitly understood that walking is good for health and well-being but there is also now robust evidence to support this link. There is also growing evidence that regular short walks can be a protective factor for a range of long-term health conditions. Walking in the countryside can bring additional benefits, but access to the countryside brings complexities, especially for people with poorer material resources and from different ethnic communities. Reasons for people taking up walking as a physical activity are reasonably well understood, but factors linked to sustained walking, and therefore sustained benefit, are not...
January 20, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105707/binge-drinking-differentially-affects-cortical-and-subcortical-microstructure
#16
Laurel S Morris, Nicholas G Dowell, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison, Valerie Voon
Young adult binge drinkers represent a model for endophenotypic risk factors for alcohol misuse and early exposure to repeated binge cycles. Chronic or harmful alcohol use leads to neurochemical, structural and morphological neuroplastic changes, particularly in regions associated with reward processing and motivation. We investigated neural microstructure in 28 binge drinkers compared with 38 matched healthy controls. We used a recently developed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis, which uses three-compartment modelling (of intracellular, extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid) to determine brain tissue microstructure features including neurite density and orientation dispersion index (ODI)...
January 20, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104571/non-violent-threats-and-promises-among-closed-market-drug-dealers
#17
Timothy Dickinson
BACKGROUND: An unintended consequence of drug prohibitions is that they often fail to absolutely deter potential drug dealers and users and instead restrictively deter them. One way in which dealers sometimes alter their behaviour in response to these prohibitions is by using violent forms of social control to prevent their customers from committing careless behaviour or from becoming police informants. Many dealers, however, are reluctant to use violent forms of social control for various reasons...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103715/irritability-in-youths-a-translational-model
#18
Melissa A Brotman, Katharina Kircanski, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
Although irritability is among the most common reasons that children and adolescents are brought for psychiatric care, there are few effective treatments. Developmentally sensitive pathophysiological models are needed to guide treatment development. In this review, the authors present a mechanistic model of irritability that integrates clinical and translational neuroscience research. Two complementary conceptualizations of pathological irritability are proposed: 1) aberrant emotional and behavioral responding to frustrative nonreward, mediated by reward-system dysfunction; and 2) aberrant approach responding to threat, mediated by threat-system dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103714/gaze-contingent-music-reward-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Amit Lazarov, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
OBJECTIVE: Patients with social anxiety disorder exhibit increased attentional dwelling on social threats, providing a viable target for therapeutics. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a novel gaze-contingent music reward therapy for social anxiety disorder designed to reduce attention dwelling on threats. METHOD: Forty patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to eight sessions of either gaze-contingent music reward therapy, designed to divert patients' gaze toward neutral stimuli rather than threat stimuli, or to a control condition...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103483/dynamic-interaction-between-reinforcement-learning-and-attention-in-multidimensional-environments
#20
Yuan Chang Leong, Angela Radulescu, Reka Daniel, Vivian DeWoskin, Yael Niv
Little is known about the relationship between attention and learning during decision making. Using eye tracking and multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data, we measured participants' dimensional attention as they performed a trial-and-error learning task in which only one of three stimulus dimensions was relevant for reward at any given time. Analysis of participants' choices revealed that attention biased both value computation during choice and value update during learning. Value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and prediction errors in the striatum were similarly biased by attention...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
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