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Klaus Lunau, Lina An, Miriam Donda, Michele Hohmann, Leonie Sermon, Vanessa Stegmanns
Flower visiting Eristalis hoverflies feed on nectar and pollen and are known to rely on innate colour preferences. In addition to a preference for visiting yellow flowers, the flies possess an innate proboscis reflex elicited by chemical as well as yellow colour stimuli. In this study we show that the flies' proboscis reflex is only triggered by yellow colour stimuli and not altered by conditioning to other colours. Neither in absolute nor in differential conditioning experiments the flies learned to associate other colours than yellow with reward...
2018: PloS One
Sanjay Maity, Suman Sar, Prasanta Ghorai
An enantioselective synthesis of Rauhut-Currier (RC) adducts from 3-aryl cyclohexenone with a tethered enone moiety at the ortho-position on the aryl group is accomplished. This method provides a wide range of valuable synthetic building blocks having a unique [6-5-6] all-carbon-fused tricyclic skeleton. A primary amine-containing thiourea, a bifunctional organocatalyst, was found to be an efficient catalyst for this transformation. The primary amine counterpart of the catalyst possibly activates the aliphatic enone via dienamine formation (HOMO activation), whereas the thiourea counterpart activates the tethered enone (LUMO activation)...
March 20, 2018: Organic Letters
Patty Leijten, G J Melendez-Torres, Frances Gardner, Jolien van Aar, Susanne Schulz, Geertjan Overbeek
Parenting programs for reducing disruptive child behavior are built on two main perspectives: relationship enhancement (i.e., unconditional sensitivity diminishes disruptiveness) and behavior management (i.e., conditional rewards diminish disruptiveness). Two meta-analyses (156 and 41 RCTs; Ntotal  = 15,768; Mchildage  = 1-11 years) tested the theoretical model that integrating relationship enhancement with behavior management is superior to behavior management alone. The integrative approach showed no overall superiority...
March 20, 2018: Child Development
Boris Cheval, Rémi Radel, Jason L Neva, Lara A Boyd, Stephan P Swinnen, David Sander, Matthieu P Boisgontier
BACKGROUND: In a time of physical inactivity pandemic, attempts to better understand the factors underlying the regulation of exercise behavior are important. The dominant neurobiological approach to exercise behavior considers physical activity to be a reward; however, negative affective responses during exercise challenge this idea. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to systematically review studies testing the automatic reactions triggered by stimuli associated with different types of exercise behavior (e...
March 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
James J Li
Atypical reward processing, including abnormal reward responsivity and sensitivity to punishment, has long been implicated in the etiology of ADHD. However, little is known about how these facets of behavior interact with positive (e.g., warmth, praise) and negative (e.g., hostility, harsh discipline) parenting behavior in the early expression of ADHD symptoms in young children. Understanding the interplay between children's reward processing and parenting may be crucial for identifying specific treatment targets in psychosocial interventions for ADHD, especially given that not all children benefit from contingency-based treatments (e...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Luis Puente Maestú, Javier de Miguel Diez, Daniel López Padilla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Lisanne M Jenkins, Kristy A Skerrett, Sophie R DelDonno, Víctor G Patrón, Kortni K Meyers, Scott Peltier, Jon-Kar Zubieta, Scott A Langenecker, Monica N Starkman
We investigated the ability of preferred classical music to activate the nucleus accumbens in patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD). Twelve males with MDD and 10 never mentally ill male healthy controls (HC) completed measures of anhedonia and depression severity, and listened to 90-second segments of preferred classical music during fMRI. Compared to HCs, individuals with MDD showed less activation of the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Individuals with MDD showed attenuation of the left NAcc response in later compared to earlier parts of the experiment, supporting theories that MDD involves an inability to sustain reward network activation...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Sina Faton, Jean-Pol Tassin, Flore Duranton, Didier Bagnol, Anne-Dominique Lajoix
Central serotonin systems have long been associated with the control of feeding behavior and the modulation of behavioral effects of psychostimulants. 5-HT2C receptors are present in hypothalamic centers such as the arcuate nucleus (ARC), controlling homeostatic regulation of food intake, as well as in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a region involved in motivation aspects in multiple behaviors, including feeding. In the present study, we investigated whether the 5-HT2C receptors control amphetamine-evoked locomotor activity and regulate food consumption...
March 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Rebecca L Barlow, Martin Gorges, Alfie Wearn, Heiko G Niessen, Jan Kassubek, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Background: Low dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) shell is associated with highly-impulsive behavior in rats, as measured by premature responses in a cued attentional task. However, it is unclear whether dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb is equally linked to intolerance for delayed rewards, a related form of impulsivity. Methods: We investigated the relationship between D2/3 receptor availability in the NAcb and impulsivity in a delay-discounting task (DDT) where animals must choose between immediate small-magnitude rewards and delayed larger-magnitude rewards...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Vanessa Bates, Ashim Maharjan, Jessica Millar, David K Bilkey, Ryan D Ward
Maternal immune activation (MIA) during gestation is a significant risk factor for development of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental diseases. In animal models of this risk factor, MIA during pregnancy can produce offspring that recapitulate certain aspects of the behavioral and neurophysiological impairments seen in schizophrenia. Here, the authors tested the effect of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)-induced MIA in a task that explicitly assays the interaction between motivation and cognition...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Nina Rouhani, Kenneth A Norman, Yael Niv
Reward-prediction errors track the extent to which rewards deviate from expectations, and aid in learning. How do such errors in prediction interact with memory for the rewarding episode? Existing findings point to both cooperative and competitive interactions between learning and memory mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether learning about rewards in a high-risk context, with frequent, large prediction errors, would give rise to higher fidelity memory traces for rewarding events than learning in a low-risk context...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Daniel Ramirez-Gordillo, Ming Ma, Diego Restrepo
Neuromodulators such as noradrenaline appear to play a crucial role in learning and memory. The goal of this study was to determine the role of norepinephrine in representation of odorant identity and value by olfactory bulb oscillations in an olfactory learning task. We wanted to determine whether the different bandwidths of olfactory bulb oscillations encode information involved in associating the odor with the value, and whether norepinephrine is involved in modulating this association. To this end mice expressing halorhodopsin under the dopamine-beta-hydrolase (DBH) promoter received an optetrode implant targeted to the olfactory bulb...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Elliot T Berkman
The ways that people set, pursue, and eventually succeed or fail in accomplishing their goals are central issues for consulting psychology. Goals and behavior change have long been the subject of empirical investigation in psychology, and have been adopted with enthusiasm by the cognitive and social neurosciences in the last few decades. Though relatively new, neuroscientific discoveries have substantially furthered the scientific understanding of goals and behavior change. This article reviews the emerging brain science on goals and behavior change, with particular emphasis on its relevance to consulting psychology...
March 2018: Consulting Psychology Journal
Cameron D Hassall, Patrick C Connor, Thomas P Trappenberg, John J McDonald, Olave E Krigolson
The visual environment is filled with complex, multi-dimensional objects that vary in their value to an observer's current goals. When faced with multi-dimensional stimuli, humans may rely on biases to learn to select those objects that are most valuable to the task at hand. Here, we show that decision making in a complex task is guided by the sparsity bias: the focusing of attention on a subset of available features. Participants completed a gambling task in which they selected complex stimuli that varied randomly along three dimensions: shape, color, and texture...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Danielle Gulick, Joshua J Gamsby
Although potent effects of psychoactive drugs on circadian rhythms were first described over 30 years ago, research into the reciprocal relationship between the reward system and the circadian system - and the impact of this relationship on addiction - has only become a focus in the last decade. Nonetheless, great progress has been made in that short time toward understanding how drugs of abuse impact the molecular and physiological circadian clocks, as well as how disruption of normal circadian rhythm biology may contribute to addiction and ameliorate the efficacy of treatments for addiction...
March 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Bradley M Appelhans, Simone A French, Tamara Olinger, Michael Bogucki, Imke Janssen, Elizabeth F Avery-Mamer, Lisa M Powell
Delay discounting, the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is theorized to promote consumption of immediately rewarding but unhealthy foods at the expense of long-term weight maintenance and nutritional health. An untested implication of delay discounting models of decision-making is that selectively delaying access to less healthy foods may promote selection of healthier (immediately available) alternatives, even if they may be less desirable. The current study tested this hypothesis by measuring healthy versus regular vending machine snack purchasing before and during the implementation of a 25-s time delay on the delivery of regular snacks...
March 15, 2018: Appetite
Dexter R F Irvine
Perceptual learning, improvement in discriminative ability as a consequence of training, is one of the forms of sensory system plasticity that has driven profound changes in our conceptualization of sensory cortical function. Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of auditory perceptual learning have indicated that the characteristics of the learning, and by implication the nature of the underlying neural changes, are highly task specific. Some studies in animals have indicated that recruitment of neurons to the population responding to the training stimuli, and hence an increase in the so-called cortical "area of representation" of those stimuli, is the substrate of improved performance, but such changes have not been observed in other studies...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
Guro E Løseth, Marie Eikemo, Peder Isager, Jostein Holmgren, Bruno Laeng, Vigdis Vindenes, Trine Hjørnevik, Siri Leknes
The μ-opioid system modulates responses to pain and psychosocial stress and mediates non-social and social reward. In humans, the μ-opioid agonist morphine can increase overt attention to the eye-region and visual exploration of faces with neutral expressions. However, little is known about how the human μ-opioid system influences sensitivity to and appraisal of subtle and explicit cues of social threats and reward. Here, we examined the effects of selective μ-opioid stimulation on perception of anger and happiness in faces with explicit, neutral or implicit emotion expressions...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Chicora F Oliver, Steven J Simmons, Sunil U Nayak, Garry R Smith, Allen B Reitz, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about how chemokine systems influence the behavioral effects of designer cathinones and psychostimulants. The chemokine CXCL12 and its principal receptor target, CXCR4, are of particular interest because CXCR4 activation enhances mesolimbic dopamine output that facilitates psychostimulant reward, reinforcement, and locomotor activation. Repeated cocaine enhances CXCL12 gene expression in the midbrain and produces conditioned place preference (CPP) that is inhibited by a CXCR4 antagonist...
March 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Marilena Aiello, Elisabetta Ambron, Roberta Situlin, Francesco Foroni, Gianni Biolo, Raffaella I Rumiati
Impulsivity, conceptualized as impulsive personality trait, poor inhibitory control and enhanced reward sensitivity, has been strongly linked to obesity. In particular, a disequilibrium between cognitive control and reward sensitivity has been observed in obese individuals in both behavioural and imaging studies. While this issue has been widely investigated in children and adults, it has received little attention in older adults. Here, obese and non-obese participants aged between 40 and 70 years completed the Barratt Impulsiveness scale (assessing motor, non-planning and attentional impulsiveness), a Go/no-go task with foods and non-foods (assessing inhibitory control) and a reward sensitivity battery with high and low caloric foods (assessing liking, wanting, tastiness and frequency of consumption)...
March 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
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