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antibiotic replacement

Reza Yazdani, Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most common primary antibody deficiency. Although more patients with SIgAD are asymptomatic, selected patients suffer from different clinical complications such as pulmonary infections, allergies, autoimmune diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and malignancy. Pathogenesis of SIgAD is still unknown, however, a defective terminal differentiation of B-cells and defect in switching to IgA-producing plasma cells are presumed to be responsible. Furthermore, some cytogenic defects and monogenic mutations are associated with SIgAD...
October 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Yushu Yin, Georgia Papavasiliou, Olga Y Zaborina, John C Alverdy, Fouad Teymour
The human gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of colonization of multidrug resistant pathogens and the major source of life-threatening complications in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Eradication measures using antibiotics carry further risk of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment can adversely shift the intestinal microbiome toward domination by resistant pathogens. Therefore, approaches directed to prevent replacement of health promoting microbiota with resistant pathogens should be developed...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Michael G Ficklin, Michael P Kowaleski, Kevin A R Kunkel, Jonathan T Suber
A two-year-old, 44 kg dog with a right Helica cementless total hip replacement (THR) was radiographically diagnosed with implant loosening eight months after the index total hip replacement procedure. Subsequent synoviocentesis and synovial fluid culture revealed a methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp infection of the right THR. A one-stage revision using a hybrid BFX cementless acetabular cup and CFX cemented femoral stem was performed. Vancomycin and micro-silver antimicrobial powder impregnated cement were used in the revision...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
(no author information available yet)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common Gram-negative bacterium associated with nosocomial and life-threatening chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. This pathogen is well-known for its ability to attach to surfaces of indwelling medical devices to form biofilms, which consist of a regular array of extracellular polymers. Tenaciously bound to the surface of devices and inherently resilient to antibiotic treatment, P. aeruginosa poses a serious threat in clinical medicine and contributes to the persistence of chronic infections...
October 19, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Paul J Planet, Apurva Narechania, Liang Chen, Barun Mathema, Sam Boundy, Gordon Archer, Barry Kreiswirth
A deluge of whole-genome sequencing has begun to give insights into the patterns and processes of microbial evolution, but genome sequences have accrued in a haphazard manner, with biased sampling of natural variation that is driven largely by medical and epidemiological priorities. For instance, there is a strong bias for sequencing epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over sensitive isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus: MSSA). As more diverse genomes are sequenced the emerging picture is of a highly subdivided species with a handful of relatively clonal groups (complexes) that, at any given moment, dominate in particular geographical regions...
October 14, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Sara C Keller, Sara E Cosgrove, Yvonne Higgins, Damani A Piggott, Greg Osgood, Paul G Auwaerter
Background.  The use of suppressive antibiotics in treatment of orthopedic hardware infections (OHIs), including spinal hardware infections, prosthetic joint infections, and infections of internal fixation devices, is controversial. Methods.  Over a 4-year period at 2 academic medical centers, patients with OHI who were treated with debridement and retention of hardware components, with single-stage exchange, or without surgery were studied to determine whether use of oral antibiotics for at least 6 months after diagnosis impacts successful treatment of the infection at 1 year after diagnosis...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Rasmus Gregersen, Laura Quitzau Mortensen, Jakob Burcharth, Hans-Christian Pommergaard, Jacob Rosenberg
PURPOSE: This study aimed to systematically review the literature and present the evidence on outcomes after treatment for acute diverticulitis with abscess formation. Secondly, the paper aimed to compare different treatment options. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched. Two authors screened the records independently, initially on title and abstract and subsequently on full-text basis. Articles describing patients treated acutely for Hinchey Ib and II were included...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Paola Nóbrega Souza, Erique José Peixoto de Miranda, Ronaldo Cruz, Daniel Neves Forte
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of patients with HIV/AIDS and to compare the therapeutic interventions and end-of-life care before and after evaluation by the palliative care team. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to the intensive care unit of the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas who were evaluated by a palliative care team between January 2006 and December 2012. RESULTS: Of the 109 patients evaluated, 89% acquired opportunistic infections, 70% had CD4 counts lower than 100 cells/mm3, and only 19% adhered to treatment...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Jilong Wang, Suthamat Niyompanich, Yi-Shu Tai, Jingyu Wang, Wenqin Bai, Prithviraj Mahida, Tuo Gao, Kechun Zhang
: Chromosomal integration of heterologous metabolic pathways is optimal for industrially relevant fermentation, as plasmid-based fermentation causes extra metabolic burden and genetic instabilities. In this work, chromosomal integration was adapted for the production of mevalonate which can be readily converted into β-methyl-δ-valerolactone, a monomer for the production of mechanically tunable polyesters. The mevalonate pathway driven by a constitutive promoter was integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli to replace the native fermentation gene adhE or ldhA The engineered strains (CMEV-1 and CMEV-2) did not require inducer or antibiotic, and showed slightly higher maximal productivities (0...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ilya A Osterman, Ekaterina S Komarova, Dmitry I Shiryaev, Ilya A Korniltsev, Irina M Khven, Dmitry A Lukyanov, Vadim N Tashlitsky, Marina V Serebryakova, Olga V Efremenkova, Yan A Ivanenkov, Alexey A Bogdanov, Petr V Sergiev, Olga A Dontsova
In order to accelerate drug discovery, a simple, reliable and cost-effective system for high-throughput identification of a potential antibiotic mechanism of action is required. To facilitate such screening of new antibiotics, we created a double reporter system for not only antimicrobial activity detection, but also for simultaneous sorting of potential antimicrobials into those that cause ribosome stalling, and others that induce SOS response due to DNA damage. In this reporter system the red fluorescent protein gene rfp was placed under the control of the SOS-inducible sulA promoter...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yooyoung Chong, Sung Joon Han, Youn Ju Rhee, Shin Kwang Kang, Jae Hyeon Yu, Myung Hoon Na
A 50-year-old female patient with visual disturbances was referred for further evaluation of a heart murmur. Fundoscopy revealed a Roth spot in both eyes. A physical examination showed peripheral signs of infective endocarditis, including Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, and splinter hemorrhages. Our preoperative diagnosis was subacute bacterial endocarditis with severe aortic regurgitation. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks postoperatively...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
M Daniel Hatch, Stephen D Daniels, Kimberly M Glerum, Laurence D Higgins
BACKGROUND: Increasing methicillin resistance and recognition of Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of infection in shoulder arthroplasty has led to the adoption of local vancomycin powder application as a more effective method to prevent expensive periprosthetic infections. However, no study has analyzed the cost effectiveness of vancomycin powder for preventing infection after shoulder replacement. METHODS: Cost data for infection-related care of 16 patients treated for deep periprosthetic shoulder infection was collected from our institution for the break-even analysis...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Maxime Barbier, Thierry Wirth
With the advent of next-generation sequencing technology, the genotyping of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains went through a major breakup that dramatically improved the field of molecular epidemiology but also revolutionized our deep understanding of the M. tuberculosis complex evolutionary history. The intricate paths of the pathogen and its human host are reflected by a common geographical origin in Africa and strong biogeographical associations that largely reflect the past migration waves out of Africa...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Barbara Biondi, Bruno Casciaro, Antonio Di Grazia, Floriana Cappiello, Vincenzo Luca, Marco Crisma, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a key role in the defence mechanism of living organisms against microbial pathogens, displaying both bactericidal and immunomodulatory properties. They are considered as a promising alternative to the conventional antibiotics towards which bacteria are becoming highly resistant. Recently, a derivative of the frog skin AMP esculentin-1a, esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 [Esc(1-21)], showed a strong and fast membranolytic activity against Gram-negative bacteria but with a lower efficacy against Gram-positive ones...
October 11, 2016: Amino Acids
John Vorrasi, Geoffrey Zinberg
Parotitis is a common occurrence in the immunocompromised, dehydrated, and malnourished patient as a result of dysfunctional ductal and parotid cells. Inflammation can be acute or chronic based on clinical history, and it can be suppurative based on the presence of micro or macro abscess formation within the substance of the gland. This report presents a case of concomitant condylar osteomyelitis and chronic suppurative parotitis in the setting of previous methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus foot infection...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Marija Kocic, Slavisa M Djuricic, Maja Djordjevic, Djordje Savic, Bozica Kecman, Adrijan Sarajlija
Almost any anatomical compartment may be involved in Gaucher disease (GD). Abdominal lymphadenopathy occurred during enzyme replacement therapy in more than a dozen children with GD so far. A fourteen-year-old boy from Serbia developed clinical signs of acute appendicitis six years after the onset of GD type 3 related abdominal lymphadenopathy. Ultrasound examination showed diffuse thickening of the intestinal wall in the ileocoecal region with periappendicular infiltration. An appendectomy was performed four months after conservative treatment with antibiotics...
September 30, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Sahar M Kheir, Shamsoun Khamis Kafi, Patrik Ryden, Haitham Elbir, Mohammed A Soliman, Shima Ali, Ramy Abulikailik, Khadega Ahamed, Hasan Abu-Aisha
The culture negative peritonitis in Sudan 2010 was 46% exceeding 20% of the recommended ISPD (International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis) guidelines. This study reports an update after applying the standard ISPD protocol. The routine method was replaced by ISPD protocol. The culture negative rate using the ISPD guidelines dropped from 46% in the year 2010, to 39% in the year 2011, to 5% in the 2012 and to zero percent in the year 2013. Bacterial and fungal species represent (86.76%) and (13.23%) of infection and most isolates showed low resistance rate to antibiotics...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Carlo Castellani, Baroukh M Assael
Cystic fibrosis (CF), a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene on chromosome 7, is complex and greatly variable in clinical expression. Airways, pancreas, male genital system, intestine, liver, bone, and kidney are involved. The lack of CFTR or its impaired function causes fat malabsorption and chronic pulmonary infections leading to bronchiectasis and progressive lung damage. Previously considered lethal in infancy and childhood, CF has now attained median survivals of 50 years of age, mainly thanks to the early diagnosis through neonatal screening, recognition of mild forms, and an aggressive therapeutic attitude...
October 5, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Max R Schroeder, David S Stephens
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common commensal and an opportunistic pathogen. Suspected pneumococcal upper respiratory infections and pneumonia are often treated with macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The widespread use of macrolides is associated with increased macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae, and the treatment of pneumococcal infections with macrolides may be associated with clinical failures. In S...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Venessa Eeckhaut, Jun Wang, Alexander Van Parys, Freddy Haesebrouck, Marie Joossens, Gwen Falony, Jeroen Raes, Richard Ducatelle, Filip Van Immerseel
Probiotics which do not result in the development and spread of microbial resistance are among the candidate replacements for antibiotics previously used as growth promotors. In this study the effect of in-feed supplementation of the butyrate producing Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum strain 25-3(T) on performance, intestinal microbiota and prevention of necrotic enteritis (NE), a disease caused by Clostridium perfringens was evaluated in broilers. For the performance study, day old Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated into two treatment groups and fed either a non-supplemented diet or a diet supplemented with 10(9) cfu lyophilized B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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