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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149293/distribution-of-putative-virulence-markers-in-enterococcus-faecium-towards-a-safety-profile-review
#1
Ana R Freitas, Ana P Tedim, Carla Novais, Teresa M Coque, Luísa Peixe
Objectives: The criteria for identification of Enterococcus faecium (Efm) with the ability to cause human infections are currently being debated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Strains that have an MIC of ampicillin of ≤ 2 mg/L and lack IS16/esp/hyl genes should be regarded as safe for use as feed additives in animal nutrition, despite the lack of knowledge about putative virulence marker (PVM) distribution in community Efm. We analysed the distribution of major PVM and ampicillin phenotypes in large Efm collections to investigate further the safety of strains from a public health perspective...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#2
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145111/a-novel-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-like-phytase-from-lactobacillus-fermentum-nkn51-cloning-characterization-and-application-in-mineral-release-for-food-technology-applications
#3
Rekha Sharma, Piyush Kumar, Vandana Kaushal, Rahul Das, Naveen Kumar Navani
A novel protein tyrosine phosphatase like phytase (PTPLP), designated as PhyLf from probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum NKN51 was identified, cloned, expressed and characterized. The recombinant PhyLf showed specific activity of 174.5 U/mg. PhyLf exhibited strict specificity towards phytate and optimum temperature at 60 °C, pH 5.0 and ionic strength of 100 mM. Km and Kcat of PhyLf for phytate were 0.773 mM and 84.31 s(-1), respectively. PhyLf exhibited high resistance against oxidative inactivation...
November 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144540/biosynthetic-energy-cost-of-potentially-highly-expressed-proteins-vary-with-niche-in-selected-actinobacteria
#4
Indrani Sarkar, Louis S Tisa, Maher Gtari, Arnab Sen
Amino acid and protein biosynthesis requires a number of high energy phosphate bonds and includes a dual energy cost for the synthesis of chemical intermediates during the fueling reactions and the conversion of precursor molecules to final products. One popular hypothesis is that the proteins encoded by putative highly expressed genes (hence called PHXPs) generally utilize low energy consuming amino acids to reduce the biosynthetic cost of the essential proteins. In our study, we found that this idea was not supported in the case of actinobacteria...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144022/collagen-a-review-on-its-sources-and-potential-cosmetic-applications
#5
REVIEW
María Isabela Avila Rodríguez, Laura G Rodríguez Barroso, Mirna Lorena Sánchez
Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143690/standardisation-of-the-japanese-diet-for-use-in-animal-experiments
#6
Saeko Sugawara, Yui Mizowaki, Yui Iwagaki, Yu Sakamoto, Kazushi Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
The aim of this study was to develop a purified diet that mimics the characteristics of the Japanese diet using readily available materials with a simpler composition and a focus on quality, with the goal of facilitating performance of studies on the Japanese diet worldwide. The utility of the new diet was examined as a mimic of the standard Japanese diet for use in animal experiments. We examined whether a key characteristic of the Japanese diet of being less likely to cause obesity could be reproduced. The mimic diet had a balance of protein, fat and carbohydrate based on the 1975 Japanese diet, which is the least likely to cause obesity, and materials chosen with reference to the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS)...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142108/growth-and-size-control-during-development
#7
REVIEW
Jannik Vollmer, Fernando Casares, Dagmar Iber
The size and shape of organs are characteristic for each species. Even when organisms develop to different sizes due to varying environmental conditions, such as nutrition, organ size follows species-specific rules of proportionality to the rest of the body, a phenomenon referred to as allometry. Therefore, for a given environment, organs stop growth at a predictable size set by the species's genotype. How do organs stop growth? How can related species give rise to organs of strikingly different size? No definitive answer has been given to date...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141977/vitamins-associated-with-brain-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-epidemiological-and-experimental-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-knowledge-gaps
#8
REVIEW
Michael Fenech
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk. This narrative review infers information on mechanisms from gene and metabolic defects associated with MCI and AD, and assesses the role of vitamins using recent results from animal and human studies...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141972/epigenetic-regulation-of-centromere-chromatin-stability-by-dietary-and-environmental-factors
#9
REVIEW
Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Rita S Strakovsky, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The centromere is a genomic locus required for the segregation of the chromosomes during cell division. This chromosomal region together with pericentromeres has been found to be susceptible to damage, and thus the perturbation of the centromere could lead to the development of aneuploidic events. Metabolic abnormalities that underlie the generation of cancer include inflammation, oxidative stress, cell cycle deregulation, and numerous others. The micronucleus assay, an early clinical marker of cancer, has been shown to provide a reliable measure of genotoxic damage that may signal cancer initiation...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141191/microbial-lipids-and-added-value-metabolites-production-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-from-pork-lard
#10
Marlene Lopes, Andreia S Gomes, Carla M Silva, Isabel Belo
Yarrowia lipolytica is a suitable microbial platform to convert low-value hydrophobic substrates into microbial oils and other important metabolites. In this work, this yeast species was used to simultaneously synthetize ex novo lipids and produce citric acid and lipase from animal fat (pork lard) adding higher value to the low-cost fatty substrate. The effect of pH, lard concentration, arabic gum concentration and oxygen mass transfer rate (OTR) on lipids accumulation on Y. lipolytica batch cultures was assessed by an experimental design based on Taguchi method...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138321/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-of-labile-iron-accumulation-in-a-murine-model-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection
#11
Allegra T Aron, Marie C Heffern, Zachery R Lonergan, Mark N Vander Wal, Brian R Blank, Benjamin Spangler, Yaofang Zhang, Hyo Min Park, Andreas Stahl, Adam R Renslo, Eric P Skaar, Christopher J Chang
Iron is an essential metal for all organisms, yet disruption of its homeostasis, particularly in labile forms that can contribute to oxidative stress, is connected to diseases ranging from infection to cancer to neurodegeneration. Iron deficiency is also among the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide. To advance studies of iron in healthy and disease states, we now report the synthesis and characterization of iron-caged luciferin-1 (ICL-1), a bioluminescent probe that enables longitudinal monitoring of labile iron pools (LIPs) in living animals...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137685/nutrition-research-in-cognitive-impairment-dementia-with-a-focus-on-soya-and-folate
#12
Eef Hogervorst, Shelina Kassam, Atik Kridawati, Mira Soni, Xu Xin, Xiao Shifu, Tri Budi Rahardjo
Observational studies and treatment trials investigating nutrition and cognitive function, with a focus on folate and soya and dementia, were reviewed. Data suggested that effects of folic acid based interventions may only be shown before cognitive decline is evident and/or if people are folate deficient. In older people in Indonesia, Hawai'i and China, tofu, which can contain high levels of phytoestrogens, was found to increase dementia risk. This association was not mediated by a vegetarian diet, socioeconomic status, formaldehyde, thyroid function, or loss of teeth...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136189/serum-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-treatment-outcomes-among-women-undergoing-assisted-reproduction
#13
Y-H Chiu, A E Karmon, A J Gaskins, M Arvizu, P L Williams, I Souter, B R Rueda, R Hause, J E Chavarro
STUDY QUESTION: Are serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, including omega-3 (ω3-PUFA) and omega-6 (ω6-PUFA), related to ART outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Serum levels of long-chain ω3-PUFA were positively associated with probability of live birth among women undergoing ART. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Intake of ω3-PUFA improves oocyte and embryo quality in animal and human studies. However, a recent cohort study found no relation between circulating ω3-PUFA levels and pregnancy rates after ART...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135918/phospholipids-of-animal-and-marine-origin-structure-function-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#14
REVIEW
Ronan Lordan, Alexandros Tsoupras, Ioannis Zabetakis
In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: (Section 1) presents an overview of the relationship between structures and biological activities (pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory) of several phospholipids with respect to inflammation. (Section 2) and (Section 3) are dedicated to the structures, functions, compositions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources...
November 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133422/nutritional-and-greenhouse-gas-impacts-of-removing-animals-from-us-agriculture
#15
Robin R White, Mary Beth Hall
As a major contributor to agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it has been suggested that reducing animal agriculture or consumption of animal-derived foods may reduce GHGs and enhance food security. Because the total removal of animals provides the extreme boundary to potential mitigation options and requires the fewest assumptions to model, the yearly nutritional and GHG impacts of eliminating animals from US agriculture were quantified. Animal-derived foods currently provide energy (24% of total), protein (48%), essential fatty acids (23-100%), and essential amino acids (34-67%) available for human consumption in the United States...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131337/effect-of-farming-system-on-donkey-milk-composition
#16
Emanuela Valle, Luisa Pozzo, Marzia Giribaldi, Domenico Bergero, Maria Silvia Gennero, Daniela Dezzutto, Amy McLean, Giorgio Borreani, Mauro Coppa, Laura Cavallarin
BACKGROUND: Donkey milk is considered a functional food for sensitive consumers, such as children allergic to cow milk. No information is available regarding the effect of farming systems on the quality of donkey milk. The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the farming system and lactation stage on gross composition, fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids (FA) in donkey milk. RESULTS: Individual milk samples were collected from lactating jennies (n=53) on the six of the largest farms located in North West Italy...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129289/craving-for-the-future-the-brain-as-a-nutritional-prediction-system
#17
REVIEW
Samuel J Walker, Dennis Goldschmidt, Carlos Ribeiro
In the last decades, predictive coding has emerged as an important framework for understanding how the brain processes information. It states that the brain is constantly inferring and predicting sensory data from statistical regularities in its environment. While this framework has been largely applied to sensory processing and motor control, we argue here that it could also serve as framework for a better understanding of how animals regulate nutrient homeostasis. Mechanisms that underlie nutrient homeostasis are commonly described in terms of negative feedback control, which compares current states with a reference point, called setpoint, and counteracts any mismatches...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129238/diet-versus-jaw-bones-lessons-from-experimental-models-and-potential-clinical-implications
#18
REVIEW
Carina Cristina Montalvany-Antonucci, Marina C Zicker, Marina C Oliveira, Soraia Macari, Mila Fernandes M Madeira, Ildeu Andrade, Adaliene Versiani M Ferreira, Tarcilia A Silva
The consumption of different types of diets influences not only body health but the bone remodeling process as well. Nutritional components can directly affect maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone microarchitecture. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge regarding the influence of diets and dietary supplementation on alveolar bone. Accumulating evidence from experimental models suggests that carbohydrate- and fat-rich diets are detrimental for alveolar bone, whereas protective effects are associated with consumption of calcium, ω-3, and bioactive compounds...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127487/towards-a-unified-understanding-of-lithium-action-in-basic-biology-and-its-significance-for-applied-biology
#19
REVIEW
Eric Jakobsson, Orlando Argüello-Miranda, See-Wing Chiu, Zeeshan Fazal, James Kruczek, Santiago Nunez-Corrales, Sagar Pandit, Laura Pritchet
Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126831/characterization-of-the-ovarian-preantral-follicle-populations-and-its-correlation-with-age-and-nutritional-status-in-brazilian-northeastern-donkeys-equus-assinus
#20
K R F Lopes, G L Lima, L G P Bezerra, R A Barreto-Junior, M F Oliveira, A R Silva
This study aimed to characterize the ovarian follicular population and to determine its correlations with the age and nutritional status of donkeys of the Northeastern Brazilian breed. A total of 10 females with a mean age of 5.1±3.2years were submitted to ovariectomy by videolaparoscopy to obtain the ovaries. In the laboratory, the ovaries were sectioned into 6-12 fragments of approximately 7mm in diameter, which were fixed in Carnoy, dehydrated in increasing concentrations of alcohol (85%, 95% and absolute), clarified using xylol and embedded in blocks of histological paraffin...
November 7, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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