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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741666/assessment-of-the-potential-of-the-multi-enzyme-producer-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-us573-as-alternative-feed-additive
#1
Ameny Farhat-Khemakhem, Monia Blibech, Ines Boukhris, Mohamed Makni, Hichem Chouayekh
BACKGROUND: Recently, probiotics have increasingly been used as feed additives in poultry diets as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters fostering resistance development. RESULTS: This study was aimed at assessing the potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens US573 as a direct-fed microbial. The US573 strain was found to be free of harmful enzymatic activities and sensitive to antibiotics. In addition, it showed a good acid and bovine bile tolerance, high adhesion efficacy to chicken enterocytes, and an ability to form biofilms, which may favor its survival and persistence in the animal gastrointestinal tract...
July 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740638/nutritional-physiology-and-ecology-of-wildlife-in-a-changing-world
#2
Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Kathryn S Peiman, David Raubenheimer, Steven J Cooke
Over the last century, humans have modified landscapes, generated pollution and provided opportunities for exotic species to invade areas where they did not evolve. In addition, humans now interact with animals in a growing number of ways (e.g. ecotourism). As a result, the quality (i.e. nutrient composition) and quantity (i.e. food abundance) of dietary items consumed by wildlife have, in many cases, changed. We present representative examples of the extent to which vertebrate foraging behaviour, food availability (quantity and quality) and digestive physiology have been modified due to human-induced environmental changes and human activities...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738909/quantifying-associations-of-the-dietary-share-of-ultra-processed-foods-with-overall-diet-quality-in-first-nations-peoples-in-the-canadian-provinces-of-british-columbia-alberta-manitoba-and-ontario
#3
Malek Batal, Louise Johnson-Down, Jean-Claude Moubarac, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Tonio Sadik, Constantine Tikhonov, Laurie Chan, Noreen Willows
OBJECTIVE: To quantify associations of the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with the overall diet quality of First Nations peoples. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of data from the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study, designed to contribute to knowledge gaps regarding the diet of First Nations peoples living on-reserve, south of the 60th parallel. A multistage sampling of communities was conducted. All foods from 24 h dietary recalls were categorized into NOVA categories and analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of UPF on diet quality...
July 25, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735384/influence-of-feeding-inorganic-vanadium-on-growth-performance-endocrine-variables-and-biomarkers-of-bone-health-in-crossbred-calves
#4
Ravi Prakash Pal, Veena Mani, Deepika Tripathi, Rajesh Kumar, Neelam J Kewalramani
The nutritional essentialities of transition element vanadium (V) as micro-nutrient in farm animals have not yet been established, though in rat model, vanadium as vanadate has been reported to exert insulin-mimetic effect and shown to be needed for proper development of bones. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of V supplementation on growth performance, plasma hormones and bone health status in calves. Twenty-four crossbred calves (body weight 72.83 ± 2.5 kg; age 3-9 months) were blocked in four groups and randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 6) on body weight and age basis...
July 22, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734610/towards-integral-utilization-of-grape-pomace-from-winemaking-process-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Carolina Beres, Gislaine N S Costa, Ignacio Cabezudo, Nina K da Silva-James, Aline S C Teles, Ana P G Cruz, Caroline Mellinger-Silva, Renata V Tonon, Lourdes M C Cabral, Suely P Freitas
Grape is the main fruit crop in several countries. Although many grape-based food products can be found in the market, studies have shown that around 75% of the world grape production is destined for the wine industry. Grape pomace is an abundant by-product from the wine industry, which consists of the remaining skin, seeds and stalks and represents around 25% of total grape weight used in the winemaking process. In countries such as Italy, France and Spain, where wine production is more relevant, the annual grape pomace generation can reach nearly 1200 tonnes per year...
July 19, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734602/fatty-acids-vitamins-and-cholesterol-content-and-sensory-properties-of-cheese-made-with-milk-from-sheep-fed-rapeseed-oilcake
#6
A I Nájera, M A Bustamante, M Albisu, I Valdivielso, G Amores, N Mandaluniz, J Arranz, L J R Barron, M de Renobales
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of rapeseed oilcake used for feeding sheep on the content of fatty acids (FA), tocopherols, retinoids, and cholesterol of milk and cheese, and on the sensory properties of cheese. Indoor animal feeding (in winter) is the highest cost of production for cheesemakers, and the inclusion of locally produced rapeseed oilcake in the concentrate feed formulation can reduce the cost of cheese production, as long as the quality of the cheese is not altered. The experiment was carried out in March (mid lactation) with 72 Latxa sheep from an experimental farm located in the Basque Country (northern Spain)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733239/protein-carbohydrate-regulation-in-helicoverpa-amigera-and-h-punctigera-and-how-diet-protein-carbohydrate-content-affects-insect-susceptibility-to-bt-toxins
#7
Ashley E Tessnow, Spencer T Behmer, Tom K Walsh, Gregory A Sword
Many animals, including insects, demonstrate a remarkable ability to regulate their intake of key macronutrients (e.g., soluble protein and digestible carbohydrates), which allows them to optimize fitness and performance. Additionally, regulating the intake of these two macronutrients enhances an animal's ability to defend itself against pathogens, mitigate the effects of secondary plant metabolites, and decrease susceptibility to toxins. In this study, we first compared how Bt-resistant and -susceptible lines of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera regulate their intake of protein (p) and digestible carbohydrates (c)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731216/indigenous-food-ingredients-for-complementary-food-formulations-to-combat-infant-malnutrition-in-benin-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Flora J Chadare, Yann E Madode, Nadia Fanou-Fogny, Janvier M Kindossi, Juvencio O Ayosso, Hermann S Honfo, Polycarpe Kayode, Anita R Linnemann, Joseph D Hounhouigan
This paper reviews indigenous Beninese food resources as potential ingredients for complementary infant foods with the aim to develop affordable formulations for low-income households in each agro-ecological zone of the country. Potential ingredients were selected on their documented nutritional value. The selected foods encompass 347 food resources, namely 297 plant products from home gardens or collected from natural vegetation and 50 animals, either domesticated or from the wild. The compiled data reveal that the distribution of the available food resources was unbalanced between agro-ecological zones...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729394/body-fat-of-rats-of-different-age-groups-and-nutritional-states-assessment-by-micro-ct-and-skinfold-thickness
#9
Eva Tekus, Alexandra Miko, Nora Furedi, Ildiko Rostas, Judit Tenk, Tamas Kiss, István Szitter, Marta Balasko, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Marta Wilhelm, Erika Petervari
Obesity presents a growing public health problem. Therefore, the analysis of body composition is important in clinical practice as well as in animal research models of obesity, hence precise methods for the assessment of body fat would be essential. We aimed to evaluate in vivo abdominal micro-computed tomography scan restricted to the L1-L3 region (micro-CT(L1-L3)), a skinfold thickness-based method (STM) and post mortem body composition analysis (PMA) with regard to whole-body micro-CT scan in rats. Male Wistar rats of different age-groups (from 3 to 24 months) and nutritional states (normally fed, high-fat diet-induced obese, calorie-restricted) were used...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728396/characterization-and-functional-inferences-of-a-genome-wide-dna-methylation-profile-in-the-loin-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-of-swine
#10
Woonsu Kim, Hyesun Park, Kang-Seok Seo, Seongwon Seo
Objective: DNA methylation plays a major role in regulating the expression of genes related to traits of economic interest (e.g., weight gain) in livestock animals. This study characterized and investigated the functional inferences of genome-wide DNA methylome in the loin (longissimus dorsi) muscle (LDM) of swine. Methods: A total of 8.99 Gb methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequence data were obtained from LDM samples of eight Duroc pigs (four pairs of littermates)...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728375/dynamics-of-shearing-force-and-its-correlations-with-chemical-compositions-and-in-vitro-dry-matter-digestibility-of-stylo-stylosanthes-guianensis-stem
#11
Xuejuan Zi, Mao Li, Hanlin Zhou, Jun Tang, Yimin Cai
Objective: The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stylo. Methods: The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. Results: The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP) content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727105/analysis-of-the-gut-bacterial-communities-in-beef-cattle-and-their-association-with-feed-intake-growth-and-efficiency
#12
P R Myer, H C Freetly, J E Wells, T P L Smith, L A Kuehn
The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727048/nutrient-composition-digestible-and-metabolizable-energy-content-and-prediction-of-energy-for-animal-protein-byproducts-in-finishing-pig-diets
#13
B J Kerr, R Jha, P E Urriola, G C Shurson
An industry survey and animal experiment were conducted to evaluate compositional variability and DE and ME content of animal protein byproducts and to generate equations to predict DE and ME content based on chemical analysis. For the 220 samples collected, the greatest concentration of CP was observed in blood meal (BM) and the least in meat and bone meal (MBM) and the greatest concentration of ether extract was in meat meal and the least in BM, with ash content greatest in MBM and least in BM, with Ca and P levels being 36...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727015/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-molecular-mechanisms-related-to-bovine-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-the-longissimus-muscle
#14
M Baik, H J Kang, S J Park, S W Na, M Piao, S Y Kim, D M Fassah, Y S Moon
The intramuscular fat (IMF) content of the LM, also known as marbling, is particularly important in determining the price of beef in Korea, Japan, and the United States. Deposition of IMF is influenced by both genetic (e.g., breed, gender, and genotype) and nongenetic factors (e.g., castration, nutrition, stressors, animal weight, and age). Castration of bulls markedly increases deposition of IMF, resulting in improved beef quality. Here, we present a comparative gene expression approach between bulls and steers...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727003/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-ruminants-and-pigs-a-transcriptomics-perspective
#15
B P Dalrymple, B Guo
The genomics era has led to an explosion in the study of gene expression in production animals. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content (both high and low) and composition are major quality attributes of meat, and more than 90 transcriptomic studies of IMF deposition have been undertaken in the ruminants and pigs since 2001, with the majority since 2008. The studies have implicated many genes involved in the control of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and deposition of IMF, but there is relatively little consistency between the different studies...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726744/future-protein-supply-and-demand-strategies-and-factors-influencing-a-sustainable-equilibrium
#16
REVIEW
Maeve Henchion, Maria Hayes, Anne Maria Mullen, Mark Fenelon, Brijesh Tiwari
A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world's resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this "perfect storm" will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption...
July 20, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#17
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722707/nutrition-inflammation-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Laurence Zitvogel, Federico Pietrocola, Guido Kroemer
Quantitative and qualitative aspects of nutrition have a profound effect on leukocytes and thereby affect proinflammatory carcinogenic effects or anticancer immune responses. As a result, nutrition affects the incidence, natural progression and therapeutic response of malignant diseases, both in humans and in preclinical animal models. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms through which alimentary cues modulate metabolic, microbial and neuroendocrine circuitries and thus affect the probability of developing premalignant lesions that progress to clinically manifested disease and the response to therapeutic intervention...
July 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721834/the-interaction-between-nutrition-and-exercise-for-promoting-health-and-performance
#19
Oliver C Witard, Derek Ball
The theme of The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2017 was on the interaction between nutrition and exercise for promoting healthy ageing, maintaining cognitive function and improving the metabolic health of the population. The importance of this theme is highlighted by the public health issues surrounding obesity, diabetes and the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia). The opening symposium provided a historical perspective of both invasive and non-invasive methodologies for measuring exercise energetics and energy balance...
July 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721546/health-benefits-observed-after-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-ccm-7421-application-in-dogs
#20
REVIEW
Viola Strompfová, Ivana Kubašová, Andrea Lauková
The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders...
July 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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