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Barbara Jana, Karolina A Meller, Michał Bulc, Jarosław Całka
BACKGROUND: Intraovarian distribution and density of nerve fibres immunoreactive (IR) to protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and containing dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL) were determined. METHODS: From day 4 of the first oestrous cycle to day 20 of the second studied cycle, experimental gilts (n = 3) were injected with testosterone (T), while control gilts (n = 3) received corn oil. RESULTS: After T administration the numbers of fibres IR to PGP 9...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
M Münzner, N Tappenbeck, F Gembardt, R Rülke, J Furkert, M F Melzig, W-E Siems, G A Brockmann, T Walther
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Consumption of Green Tea has become increasingly popular, particularly because of claimed reduction in body weight. We recently reported that animals with pharmacological inhibition (by candoxatril) or genetic absence of the endopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) develop an obese phenotype. We now investigated the effect of Green Tea extract (in drinking water) on body weight and body composition and the mediating role of NEP. SUBJECTS/METHODS: To elucidate the role of NEP in mediating the beneficial effects of Green Tea extract, 'Berlin fat mice' or NEP-deficient mice and their age-and gender-matched wild-type controls received the extract in two different doses (300 or 600 mg/kg body weight/day) in the drinking water...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jiangtian Chen, Wencke Reiher, Christiane Hermann-Luibl, Azza Sellami, Paola Cognigni, Shu Kondo, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster, Jan A Veenstra, Christian Wegener
Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are mediated by AstA peptides with receptors homolog to galanin receptors subserving similar and apparently conserved functions in vertebrates...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Kiyoshi Misawa, Daiki Mochizuki, Shiori Endo, Masato Mima, Yuki Misawa, Atsushi Imai, Kazuya Shinmura, Takeharu Kanazawa, Thomas E Carey, Hiroyuki Mineta
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the promoter methylation status of galanin (GAL) and galanin receptor 1/2 (GALR1/2) by assessing their association with disease-free survival and known prognostic factors in head and neck cancer. METHODS: We generated methylation profiles of GAL and GALR1/2 in tumor samples obtained from 202 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); these included 43 hypopharynx, 42 larynx, 59 oral cavity, and 58 oropharynx tumor samples...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Abba J Kastin, Weihong Pan
Pertinent to pandemic obesity, the discovery of endogenous peptides that affect the ingestion of food has led to the question of how these ingestive peptides exert their actions in the brain. Whereas peripheral sources provide a ready reserve, the availability of ingestive peptides to their central nervous system targets can be regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Some of the peptides/polypeptides are transported by saturable mechanisms from blood to brain. Examples include leptin, insulin, mahogany, and pancreatic polypeptide...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Liu Shanshan, Zhang Cuizhen, Peng Gang
Vertebrate feeding behavior is regulated by neuropeptide Y (NPY), GALANIN and GMAP prepropeptide (GAL), agouti related neuropeptide (AGRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. However, there are few studies on the relationship between these neuropeptides and feeding in zebrafish larvae. In the present study, real-time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization were applied to examine the expression levels of npy, galanin, agrp and pomca in the hypothalamus of zebrafish larvae after starvation and re-feeding...
September 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Alexandra Mikó, Nóra Füredi, Judit Tenk, Ildikó Rostás, Szilvia Soós, Margit Solymár, Miklós Székely, Márta Balaskó, Susanne M Brunner, Barbara Kofler, Erika Pétervári
Hypothalamic neuropeptides influence the main components of energy balance: metabolic rate, food intake, body weight as well as body temperature, by exerting either an overall anabolic or catabolic effect. The contribution of alarin, the most recently discovered member of the galanin peptide family to the regulation of energy metabolism has been suggested. Our aim was to analyze the complex thermoregulatory and food intake-related effects of alarin in rats. Adult male Wistar rats received different doses of alarin (0...
September 5, 2016: Neuropeptides
Michel E Mickael, Ashish Rajput, Jannetta Steyn, Lyle Wiemerslage, Thomas Bürglin
The comparative genomics between different rhodopsin-like family groups (α, β, γ and δ) is not well studied. We used a combination of phylogenetic analysis and statistical genomic methods to compare rhodopsin-like family proteins in species likely symbolic of this family's evolutionary progression. For intra-cluster relationships, we applied mathematical optimisation to enhance the tree search produced by the neighbour joining method (NJ) and compared it with maximum likelihood (ML) method. To infer inter-clusters relationships, we used Needleman-Wunsch analysis (NW), HHsearch, ancestral sequence reconstruction and phylogenetic network analysis...
September 3, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Kristin Webling, Johan Runesson, Andreas Lang, Indrek Saar, Barbara Kofler, Ülo Langel
It is over 30years since the regulatory peptide galanin was discovered by Professor Mutt and co-workers. Galanin exerts its effects by binding to three galanin G-protein coupled receptors, namely GAL1R, GAL2R and GAL3R. Each galanin receptor has a different distribution in the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system as well as distinctive signaling pathways, which implicates that the receptors are involved in different biological- and pathological effects. The delineation of the galaninergic system is however difficult due to a lack of stable, specific galanin receptor ligands...
August 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
Manuel Gey, Renate Wanner, Corinna Schilling, Maria T Pedro, Daniela Sinske, Bernd Knöll
Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce 'effector' RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration. We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased...
August 2016: Open Biology
Héctor Fabio Sandoval-Alzate, Yessica Agudelo-Zapata, Angélica María González-Clavijo, Natalia E Poveda, Cristian Felipe Espinel-Pachón, Jorge Augusto Escamilla-Castro, Heidy Lorena Márquez-Julio, Hernando Alvarado-Quintero, Fabián Guillermo Rojas-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Arteaga-Díaz, Javier Hernando Eslava-Schmalbach, Maria Fernanda Garcés-Gutiérrez, Maria Vrontakis, Justo P Castaño, Raul M Luque, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Jorge E Caminos
Galanin (GAL) is a neuropeptide involved in the homeostasis of energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of GAL during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean and obese young men. This cross-sectional study included 30 obese non-diabetic young men (median 22 years; mean BMI 37 kg/m(2)) and 30 healthy lean men (median 23 years; mean BMI 22 kg/m(2)). Serum GAL was determined during OGTT. The results of this study include that serum GAL levels showed a reduction during OGTT compared with basal levels in the lean subjects group...
2016: Scientific Reports
Biao He, Penghua Fang, Lili Guo, Mingyi Shi, Yan Zhu, Bo Xu, Ping Bo, Zhenwen Zhang
Galanin is a versatile neuropeptide that is distinctly upregulated by exercise in exercise-related tissues. Although benefits from exercise-induced upregulation of this peptide have been identified, many issues require additional exploration. This Review summarizes the information currently available on the relationship between galanin and exercise-induced physical and psychological damage. On the one hand, body movement, exercise damage, and exercise-induced stress and pain significantly increase local and circulatory galanin levels...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Caroline K Hu, Bruce R Southey, Elena V Romanova, Karen P Maruska, Jonathan V Sweedler, Russell D Fernald
BACKGROUND: Cichlid fishes have evolved remarkably diverse reproductive, social, and feeding behaviors. Cell-to-cell signaling molecules, notably neuropeptides and peptide hormones, are known to regulate these behaviors across vertebrates. This class of signaling molecules derives from prohormone genes that have undergone multiple duplications and losses in fishes. Whether and how subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or losses of neuropeptides and peptide hormones have contributed to fish behavioral diversity is largely unknown...
2016: BMC Genomics
P Fang, M Yu, X Gu, M Shi, Y Zhu, Z Zhang, P Bo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is strongly linked to increased blood pressure, which increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. To our knowledge, little literature reported the information about galanin levels in obese individuals with hypertension. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of galanin in the pathogenesis of obese subjects with hypertension. METHODS: We measured body mass index and blood pressure of 38 obese patients with hypertension, 44 obese controls with normal blood pressure and 44 lean controls with normal blood pressure...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Berrin Oztas, Deniz Sahin, Hale Kir, Fatma Ceyla Eraldemir, Mert Musul, Sevinç Kuskay, Nurbay Ates
The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the endogenous ligands leptin, ghrelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) on seizure generation, the oxidant/antioxidant balance, and cytokine levels, which are a result of immune response in a convulsive seizure model. With this goal, Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups-Group 1: Saline, Group 2: Saline+PTZ (65mg/kg), Group 3: leptin (4mg/kg)+PTZ, Group 4: ghrelin (80μg/kg)+PTZ, and Group 5: NPY (60μg/kg)+PTZ. All injections were delivered intraperitoneally, and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) records were obtained...
August 6, 2016: Neuropeptides
A Gajewska, M Zielinska-Gorska, E Wasilewska-Dziubinska, M Baran, G Kotarba, K Gorski
The well-recognized sensitivity of the galanin gene in the anterior pituitary gland to estrogen suggests that estrogen receptor activity may influence the galaninergic system through modulation of galanin receptor (GALR) gene expression. Here, we evaluated the following: (i) the effects of estrogen on GALR mRNA expression; (ii) the estrogen receptor subtype that is specifically involved in this activity; and (iii) the effects of progesterone in the absence or presence of estrogen on galanin concentration in anterior pituitary gland...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
J S Morais, M M Souza, T M N Campanha, C J T Muller, A S Bittencourt, V C Bortoli, L C Schenberg, V Beijamini
About 40% of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neurons co-express serotonin (5-HT) and galanin. Serotonergic pathways from the DRN to the amygdala facilitate learned anxiety, while those from the DRN to the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter (DPAG) impair innate anxiety. Previously, we showed that galanin infusion in the DRN of rats induces anxiolytic effect by impairing inhibitory avoidance without changing escape behaviour in the elevated T-maze (ETM). Here, we evaluated: (1) which galanin receptors would be involved in the anxiolytic effect of galanin in the DRN of rats tested in the ETM; (2) the effects of galanin intra-DRN on panic-like behaviours evoked by electrical stimulation of the DPAG...
November 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Joanne C Damborsky, Kathleen G Smith, Patricia Jensen, Jerrel L Yakel
The basal forebrain (BF) is an important regulator of hippocampal and cortical activity. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a significant loss and dysfunction of cholinergic neurons within the BF, and also a hypertrophy of fibers containing the neuropeptide galanin. Understanding how galanin interacts with BF circuitry is critical in determining what role galanin overexpression plays in the progression of AD. Here, we examined the location and function of galanin in the medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DBB) region of the BF...
August 5, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Penghua Fang, Mei Yu, Xuewen Gu, Mingyi Shi, Yan Zhu, Zhenwen Zhang, Ping Bo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is strongly linked to metabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Experimental evidences indicate that galanin (GAL) and galanin-like peptide (GALP) are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy metabolism. We evaluated the possible relationships between both peptide concentrations and blood fat indexes in obese and normal subjects. METHODS: The study groups consisted of 41 obese subjects (age 35...
October 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Peng Wang, Hui Li, Swapnali Barde, Ming-Dong Zhang, Jing Sun, Tong Wang, Pan Zhang, Hanjiang Luo, Yongjun Wang, Yutao Yang, Chuanyue Wang, Per Svenningsson, Elvar Theodorsson, Tomas G M Hökfelt, Zhi-Qing David Xu
The neuropeptide galanin coexists in rat brain with serotonin in the dorsal raphe nucleus and with noradrenaline in the locus coeruleus (LC), and it has been suggested to be involved in depression. We studied rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS), a rodent model of depression. As expected, these rats showed several endophenotypes relevant to depression-like behavior compared with controls. All these endophenotypes were normalized after administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The transcripts for galanin and two of its receptors, galanin receptor 1 (GALR1) and GALR2, were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR using laser capture microdissection in the following brain regions: the hippocampal formation, LC, and ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG)...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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