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Galanin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288814/galanin-1-15-enhancement-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-fluoxetine-in-the-forced-swimming-test-gives-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-against-depression
#1
Antonio Flores-Burgess, Carmelo Millón, Belen Gago, Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Guadalupe Mengod, José Angel Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Luis Santín, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
The pharmacological treatment of major depression is mainly based on drugs elevating serotonergic (5-HT) activity. Specifically, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, including Fluoxetine (FLX), are the most commonly used for treatment of major depression. However, the understanding of the mechanism of action of FLX beyond its effect of elevating 5-HT is limited. The interaction between serotoninergic system and neuropeptides signalling could be a key aspect. We examined the ability of the neuropeptide Galanin(1-15) [GAL(1-15)] to modulate the behavioral effects of FLX in the forced swimming test (FST) and studied feasible molecular mechanisms...
March 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287437/the-influence-of-low-doses-of-zearalenone-and-t-2-toxin-on-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-ens-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#2
Krystyna Makowska, Kazimierz Obremski, Lukasz Zielonka, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS) can undergo adaptive and reparative changes in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. These manifest primarily as alterations in the levels of active substances expressed by the enteric neuron. While it is known that mycotoxins can affect the function of the central and peripheral nervous systems, knowledge about their influence on the ENS is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of low doses of zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin on calcitonin gene related peptide-like immunoreactive (CGRP-LI) neurons in the ENS of the porcine descending colon using a double immunofluorescence technique...
March 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274821/the-galanin-3-receptor-antagonist-snap-37889-suppresses-alcohol-drinking-and-morphine-self-administration-in-mice
#3
Karlene J Scheller, Spencer J Williams, Andrew J Lawrence, Elvan Djouma
The neuropeptide, galanin, is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is involved in a range of different functions including nociception, neurogenesis, hormone release, reproduction, cognitive function and appetite. Given the overlap between galanin expression and reward circuitry in the brain, galanin has been targeted for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid dependency. Furthermore, the galanin-3 receptor (GAL3) specifically regulates emotional states and plays a role in motivation, reward and drug-seeking behaviour...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223844/neuronal-plasticity-of-trigeminal-ganglia-in-mice-following-nerve-injury
#5
Randi Lynds, Chuang Lyu, Gong-Wei Lyu, Xie-Qi Shi, Annika Rosén, Kamal Mustafa, Tie-Jun Sten Shi
BACKGROUND: Nerve injury may induce neuropathic pain. In studying the mechanisms of orofacial neuropathic pain, attention has been paid to the plastic changes that occur in the trigeminal ganglia (TGs) and nucleus in response to an injury of the trigeminal nerve branches. Previous studies have explored the impact of sciatic nerve injury on dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and it has shown dramatic changes in the expression of multiple biomarkers. In large, the changes in biomarker expression in TGs after trigeminal nerve injury are similar to that in DRGs after sciatic nerve injury...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203483/galanin-protects-from-caspase-8-12-initiated-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-ischemic-mouse-brain-via-galr1
#6
Yun Li, Zhu Mei, Shuiqiao Liu, Tong Wang, Hui Li, Xiao-Xiao Li, Song Han, Yutao Yang, Junfa Li, Zhi-Qing David Xu
Galanin (GAL) plays key role in many pathophysiological processes, but its role in ischemic stroke remains unclear. Here, the models of 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/1-7 d reperfusion (R)-induced ischemic stroke and in vitro cell ischemia of 1 h oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/24 h reoxygenation in primary cultured cortical neurons were used to explore GAL's effects and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed significant increases of GAL protein levels in the peri-infarct region (P) and infarct core (I) within 48 h R of MCAO mice (p<0...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196718/the-neuropeptide-galanin-is-up-regulated-during-cholestasis-and-contributes-to-cholangiocyte-proliferation
#7
Matthew McMillin, Gabriel Frampton, Stephanie Grant, Sharon DeMorrow
During the course of cholestatic liver diseases, mitotically dormant cholangiocytes proliferate and subsequently acquire a neuroendocrine phenotype. Galanin is a neuroendocrine factor responsible for regulation of physiological responses, such as feeding behavior and mood, and has been implicated in the development of fatty liver disease, although its role in biliary hyperplasia is unknown. Biliary hyperplasia was induced in rats via bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery, and galanin was increased in serum and liver homogenates from BDL rats...
February 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196617/the-neuropeptides-galanin-and-galanin-1-15-in-depression-like-behaviours
#8
REVIEW
Carmelo Millón, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Belén Gago, Luis Santín, Estela Castilla-Ortega, José Ángel Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
Galanin is a 29 amino acid neuropeptide widely distributed in neurons within the central nervous system. Galanin exerts its biological activities through three different G protein-receptors and participates in a number of functions, including mood regulation. Not only Galanin but also Galanin N-terminal fragments like Galanin(1-15) are active at the central level. In this work, we review the latest findings in studies on Galanin and Galanin(1-15) in depression-related behaviours. Our focus is on animal models for depression, and we pay some attention to research data obtained in human studies...
January 31, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178884/improved-post-thaw-function-and-epigenetic-changes-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cryopreserved-using-multicomponent-osmolyte-solutions
#9
Kathryn Pollock, Rebekah M Samsonraj, Amel Dudakovic, Roman Thaler, Aron Stumbras, David H McKenna, Peter I Dosa, Andre J van Wijnen, Allison Hubel
Current methods for freezing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) result in poor post-thaw function, which limits the clinical utility of these cells. This investigation develops a novel approach to preserve MSCs using combinations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and small-molecule additives. MSCs frozen using these solutions exhibit improved post-thaw attachment and a more normal alignment of the actin cytoskeleton compared to cells exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation assays show that cells retain their mesenchymal lineage properties...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177906/myocardial-protection-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-exogenous-galanin-fragment
#10
Andrei Timotin, Oleg Pisarenko, Maria Sidorova, Irina Studneva, Valentin Shulzhenko, Marina Palkeeva, Larisa Serebryakova, Aleksander Molokoedov, Oksana Veselova, Mathieu Cinato, Helene Tronchere, Frederic Boal, Oksana Kunduzova
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Galanin is a multifunctional neuropeptide with pleiotropic roles. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential effects of galanin (2-11) (G1) on functional and metabolic abnormalities in response to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Peptide G1 was synthesized by the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-based solid-phase method. The chemical structure was identified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry...
February 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168997/icv-galanin-like-peptide-stimulates-non-contact-erections-but-not-touch-based-erections-in-adult-sexually-experienced-male-rats
#11
Gregory S Fraley
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide transcribed only within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is thought to be a mediator between energetics and reproductive function. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of GALP is known to have effects on feeding, and to significantly increase gonadotropin releasing hormone- (GnRH-) mediated luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Furthermore, ICV GALP is known to stimulate fos production in the medial pre-optic area (mPOA) and to a lesser extent, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
January 23, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127496/galanin-s-implications-for-post-stroke-improvement
#12
REVIEW
Juhyun Song, Oh Yoen Kim
Stroke leads to a variety of pathophysiological conditions such as ischemic infarct, cerebral inflammation, neuronal damage, cognitive decline, and depression. Many endeavors have been tried to find the therapeutic solutions to attenuate severe neuropathogenesis after stroke. Several studies have reported that a decrease in the neuropeptide regulator 'galanin' is associated with neuronal loss, learning and memory dysfunctions, and depression following a stroke. The present review summarized recent evidences on the function and the therapeutic potential of galanin in post-ischemic stroke to provide a further understanding of galanin's role...
December 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098336/preclinical-evaluation-of-intravenous-nax-810-2-a-novel-galr2-preferring-analog-for-anticonvulsant-efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics
#13
Cameron S Metcalf, Brian D Klein, Daniel R McDougle, Liuyin Zhang, Dan Kaufmann, Grzegorz Bulaj, H Steve White
OBJECTIVE: Potential clinical utility of galanin or peptidic analogs has been hindered by poor metabolic stability, lack of brain penetration, and hyperglycemia due to galanin receptor subtype 1 (GalR1) activation. NAX 810-2, a galanin receptor subtype 2 (GalR2)-preferring galanin analog, possesses 15-fold greater affinity for GalR2 over GalR1 and protects against seizures in the mouse 6 Hz, corneal kindling, and Frings audiogenic seizure models. The purpose of these studies was to further evaluate the preclinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of NAX 810-2 in mice...
February 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#14
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
March 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062253/spinal-neuropeptide-expression-and-neuropathic-behavior-in-the-acute-and-chronic-phases-after-spinal-cord-injury-effects-of-progesterone-administration
#15
María F Coronel, Marcelo J Villar, Pablo R Brumovsky, Susana L González
Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) develop chronic pain that severely compromises their quality of life. We have previously reported that progesterone (PG), a neuroprotective steroid, could offer a promising therapeutic strategy for neuropathic pain. In the present study, we explored temporal changes in the expression of the neuropeptides galanin and tyrosine (NPY) and their receptors (GalR1 and GalR2; Y1R and Y2R, respectively) in the injured spinal cord and evaluated the impact of PG administration on both neuropeptide systems and neuropathic behavior...
February 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043649/injections-of-galanin-like-peptide-directly-into-the-nucleus-of-the-tractus-solitarius-nts-reduces-food-intake-and-body-weight-but-increases-metabolic-rate-and-plasma-leptin
#16
Lindy Sergeant, Carla Rodriguez-Dimitrescu, Christopher C Barney, Gregory S Fraley
Galanin-Like Peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic neuromediator of metabolism and reproduction. GALP is known to stimulate reproduction and alter food intake and body weight in multiple species. The regulation of body weight involves control of both energy intake and energy expenditure. Since GALP is known to alter food intake - possibly via the autonomic nervous system - we first hypothesized that GALP would increase metabolic rate. First, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae and abdominal radiotelemetry temperature transmitters...
December 29, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035367/redistribution-of-adrenomedullary-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-and-the-effect-on-circulating-epinephrine-levels-in-a-murine-model-of-acute-asthma
#17
Xi Chen, Juntao Feng, Chengping Hu, Qingwu Qin, Yuanyuan Li, Ling Qin
The lack of circulating epinephrine (EPI) in the pathogenesis of asthma has long been attributed to the lack of adrenergic nerves in human airways. However, in this study we considered that EPI levels are regulated by EPI release in addition to synthesis. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been shown to control EPI release, and we hypothesized that redistribution of nAChR subunits modulates EPI release and circulating EPI levels. Using a mouse model of asthma, circulating EPI levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028605/neuropeptide-systems-and-new-treatments-for-nicotine-addiction
#18
REVIEW
Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
RATIONALE: The mildly euphoric and cognitive enhancing effects of nicotine play a role in the initiation of smoking, while dysphoria and anxiety associated with smoking cessation contribute to relapse. After the acute withdrawal phase, smoking cues, a few cigarettes (i.e., lapse), and stressors can cause relapse. Human and animal studies have shown that neuropeptides play a critical role in nicotine addiction. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper is to describe the role of neuropeptide systems in the initiation of nicotine intake, nicotine withdrawal, and the reinstatement of extinguished nicotine seeking...
December 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013000/galanin-contributes-to-monoaminergic-dysfunction-and-to-dependent-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy
#19
Jesus-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
Status epilepticus (SE) in rats, along with chronic epilepsy, leads to the development of behavioral impairments resembling depressive disorder and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thus reflecting respective comorbidities in epilepsy patients. Suppressed neurotransmitter tone in the raphe nucleus (RN)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) serotonergic pathway and in the locus coeruleus (LC)-PFC noradrenergic pathway underlies depressive- and impulsive-like behavioral deficits respectively. We examined possible mechanisms leading to the monoamine dysfunction in brainstem efferents, namely modulatory effects of the neuropeptide galanin on serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling...
March 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007761/functional-%C3%AE-opioid-galanin-receptor-heteromers-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#20
Estefanía Moreno, César Quiroz, William Rea, Ning-Sheng Cai, Josefa Mallol, Antoni Cortés, Carme Lluís, Enric I Canela, Vicent Casadó, Sergi Ferré
The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to interact with the opioid system. More specifically, galanin counteracts the behavioral effects of the systemic administration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists. Yet the mechanism responsible for this galanin-opioid interaction has remained elusive. Using biophysical techniques in mammalian transfected cells, we found evidence for selective heteromerization of MOR and the galanin receptor subtype Gal1 (Gal1R). Also in transfected cells, a synthetic peptide selectively disrupted MOR-Gal1R heteromerization as well as specific interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands: a negative cross talk, by which galanin counteracted MAPK activation induced by the endogenous MOR agonist endomorphin-1, and a cross-antagonism, by which a MOR antagonist counteracted MAPK activation induced by galanin...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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