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Tara G Bautista, Angelina Y Fong, Paul M Pilowsky, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Darko Spirovski, Hiroshi Onimaru
The inhibitory peptide galanin is expressed within the retrotrapezoidal nucleus (RTN) - a key central chemoreceptor site that also contains the active expiratory oscillator. It was previously reported that microinjection of galanin into pre-Bötzinger complex - containing the inspiratory oscillator - exerts inhibitory effects on inspiratory motor output and respiratory rhythm. In neonatal rats, the present study aimed to investigate: 1) expression of galanin within the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), which overlaps anatomically and functionally with the adult RTN, and; 2) effects of galanin on respiratory rhythm using the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparation...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience
Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Luis Santín, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Miguel A Barbancho, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, José Narváez, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
Anxiety is evoked by a threatening situation and display adaptive or defensive behaviors, found similarly in animals and humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) and Galanin (GAL) receptor 2 (GALR2) interact in several regions of the limbic system, including the amygdala. In a previous study, GALR2 enhanced NPYY1R mediated anxiolytic actions on spatiotemporal parameters in the open field and elevated plus maze, involving the formation of GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the amygdala. Moreover, the inclusion of complementary ethological parameters provides a more comprehensive profile on the anxiolytic effects of a treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Larisa Serebryakova, Marina Pal'keeva, Irina Studneva, Alexander Molokoedov, Oksana Veselova, Michael Ovchinnikov, Radik Gataulin, Maria Sidorova, Oleg Pisarenko
Agonists and antagonists for galanin receptor subtypes GalR1-3 can be used as putative therapeutics targets for the treatment of various human diseases. However, effects of galanin and its N-terminal fragments on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury remain unclear. This study was designed to assess the ability of the full-length galanin (GWTLNSAGYLLGPHAIDNHRSFSDKHGLT-NH2, G1), the natural fragments WTLNSAGYLL-NH2 (G2) and WTLNSAGYLLGPHA (G3), and their modified analogs WTLNAAGYLL (G4) and WTLNSAGYLLGPβAH (G5) to limit acute myocardial infarction in rats in vivo...
May 3, 2018: Peptides
M Zalecki, Z Pidsudko, A Franke-Radowiecka, J Wojtkiewicz, J Kaleczyc
BACKGROUND: Well-developed galaninergic gastric intramural nerve system is known to regulate multiple stomach functions in physiological and pathological conditions. Stomach ulcer, a disorder commonly occurring in humans and animals, is accompanied by inflammatory reaction. Inflammation can cause intramural neurons to change their neurochemical profile. Galanin and its receptors are involved in inflammation of many organs, however, their direct participation in stomach reaction to ulcer is not known...
May 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Mark D Ericson, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
Many physiological pathways are involved in appetite, food intake, and the maintenance of energy homeostasis. In particular, neuropeptides within the central nervous system have been demonstrated to be critical signaling molecules for modulating appetite. Both anorexigenic (appetite-decreasing) and orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) neuropeptides have been described. The biological effects of these neuropeptides can be observed following central administration in animal models. This review will focus on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six orexigenic neuropeptides: agouti-related protein (AGRP), galanin, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), orexin A, and orexin B...
May 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Elsie Tachie Mensah, Ayelen Melisa Blanco, Andrew Donini, Suraj Unniappan
Galanin (GAL) is a 29 amino acid peptide, first identified from the porcine intestine and widely distributed within the brain and peripheral tissues. Among GAL biological functions, its role as a potent appetite-stimulating peptide is probably the most studied. With galanin's established role in the modulation of food intake in fish, this study aims to evaluate the effects of GAL on the intestinal motility of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using an organ bath system. Our results found that application of GAL to the organ bath causes a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of goldfish gut...
April 24, 2018: Neuropeptides
Eva K Fischer, Lauren A O'Connell
Parental care is a key evolutionary innovation that influences the fitness of parents and offspring. How the brain coordinates such a complex behavior remains poorly understood. Kohl and colleagues recently uncovered the organizational principles of hypothalamic galanin neurons and their connections in mice. Their findings revealed a striking picture in which discrete neuronal pools control distinct aspects of parental behavior.
April 20, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Kiyoshi Misawa, Masato Mima, Atsushi Imai, Daiki Mochizuki, Yuki Misawa, Shiori Endo, Ryuji Ishikawa, Takeharu Kanazawa, Hiroyuki Mineta
Background: Staging and pathological grading systems are convenient but imperfect predictors of recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Identifying biomarkers for HNSCC that will progress and cause death is a critical research area, particularly if the biomarker can be linked to selection of patients. Therefore, to identify potential alternative prognostic markers, we investigated the methylation status of five neuropeptide gene promoters. The promoter methylation status was determined by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in 230 cases of HNSCC; 58 hypopharynx, 45 larynx, 56 oropharynx, and 71 oral cavity tumor samples were studied...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
John Ferrin, Jeffrey L Ebersole, Sreenatha Kirakodu, David Jensen, Ahmad Al-Attar, Rebecca Peyyala, M John Novak, Dolph Dawson, Mohanad Al-Sabbagh, Arnold J Stromberg, Luis Orraca, Janis Gonzalez-Martinez, Armando Burgos, Octavio A Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides (NPs) are innate pivotal regulators of the immunoinflammatory response. Nevertheless, their role in the pathogenesis of the periodontal disease remains unknown. We determined changes in gene expression of 10 NPs and 16 NP receptors (NPRs) coincident with the initiation, progression and resolution of periodontitis. METHODS: The ligature-induced periodontitis model was used in rhesus monkeys (n = 18). Gingival tissue samples were taken at baseline pre-ligature, 2 weeks and 1 month (Initiation), and 3 months (Progression) post-ligation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Johannes Kohl, Benedicte M Babayan, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Anita E Autry, Brenda Marin-Rodriguez, Vikrant Kapoor, Kazunari Miyamishi, Larry S Zweifel, Liqun Luo, Naoshige Uchida, Catherine Dulac
Parenting is essential for the survival and wellbeing of mammalian offspring. However, we lack a circuit-level understanding of how distinct components of this behaviour are coordinated. Here we investigate how galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOAGal ) of the hypothalamus coordinate motor, motivational, hormonal and social aspects of parenting in mice. These neurons integrate inputs from a large number of brain areas and the activation of these inputs depends on the animal's sex and reproductive state...
April 11, 2018: Nature
Smriti Patodia, Alyma Somani, Megan O'Hare, Ranjana Venkateswaran, Joan Liu, Zuzanna Michalak, Matthew Ellis, Ingrid E Scheffer, Beate Diehl, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of premature death in patients with epilepsy. One hypothesis proposes that sudden death is mediated by post-ictal central respiratory depression, which could relate to underlying pathology in key respiratory nuclei and/or their neuromodulators. Our aim was to investigate neuronal populations in the ventrolateral medulla (which includes the putative human pre-Bötzinger complex) and the medullary raphe. Forty brainstems were studied comprising four groups: 14 SUDEP, six epilepsy controls, seven Dravet syndrome cases and 13 non-epilepsy controls...
March 28, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Anna Idelevich, Kazusa Sato, Kenichi Nagano, Glenn Rowe, Francesca Gori, Roland Baron
In the brain, the ventral hypothalamus (VHT) regulates energy and bone metabolism. Whether this regulation uses the same or different neuronal circuits is unknown. Alteration of AP1 signaling in the VHT increases energy expenditure, glucose utilization, and bone density, yet the specific neurons responsible for each or all of these phenotypes are not identified. Using neuron-specific genetically targeted AP1 alterations as a tool in adult mice, we found that AgRP- or POMC- expressing neurons, predominantly present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) within the VHT, stimulate whole body energy expenditure, glucose utilization and bone formation and density, although their effects on bone resorption differed...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Kamila Szymanska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound from the phenolic group commonly used for the production of plastics. The use of BPA in food and drinking water containers carries a significant risk to human health since BPA can be washed out and enter consumables. BPA entering the human body with food shows a multi-directional effect and causes disorders in the functioning of many systems and organs. There is no current knowledge about the effects of BPA on the enteric nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to verify the influence of BPA on tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose (0...
March 22, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Michael Allen Thoene, Liliana Rytel, Ewa Dzika, Ignacy Gonkowski, Andrzej Włodarczyk, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The neurochemistry of hepatic nerve fibers was investigated in large animal models after dietary exposure to the endocrine disrupting compound known as bisphenol A. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antibodies against neuronal peptides were used to study changes in hepatic nerve fibers after exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) at varying concentrations using standard immunofluorescence techniques. The neuropeptides investigated were substance P (SP), galanin (GAL), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), calcitonin gene regulated peptide (CGRP) and cocaine & amphetamine regulated transcript (CART)...
March 23, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Kamila Szymanska, Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emmanuel Weyne, Johanna L Hannan, Thomas Gevaert, Mohammad Ayodhia Soebadi, Hotaka Matsui, Fabio Castiglione, Koenraad van Renterghem, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Maarten Albersen
BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that the neuropeptide galanin was strongly upregulated soon after bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) and that galanin and its receptors were expressed in nitrergic erectile innervation. Galanin has been observed to exert neuroregenerative effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons, but evidence for these effects in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) after BCNI is lacking. AIM: To evaluate the neurotropic effects of galanin receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro in nitrergic neurons and MPG and in vivo in rats after BCNI...
April 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Xenia Gonda, Gabor Hullam, Peter Antal, Nora Eszlari, Peter Petschner, Tomas Gm Hökfelt, Ian Muir Anderson, John Francis William Deakin, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
Depression is a polygenic and multifactorial disorder where environmental effects exert a significant impact, yet most genetic studies do not consider the effect of stressors which may be one reason for the lack of replicable results in candidate gene studies, GWAS and between human studies and animal models. Relevance of functional polymorphisms in seven candidate genes previously implicated in animal and human studies on a depression-related phenotype given various recent stress exposure levels was assessed with Bayesian relevance analysis in 1682 subjects...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
V R Funck, M P Fracalossi, A P P Vidigal, V Beijamini
Galanin, a peptide expressed in mammalian brain regions, has been implicated in anxiety and depression. Galanin signalling occurs through three G protein-linked receptors (GAL1 , GAL2 and GAL3 ). Galanin regulates the release of neurotransmitters in some brain regions related to anxiety, including the hippocampus. GAL2 is the most abundant galanin receptor in the dorsal hippocampus. In this study, we evaluated whether galanin administered in the dorsal hippocampus affected anxiety-like behaviours of rats. We also investigated if GAL2 receptors are involved in the anxiogenic-like effect of galanin using a GAL2 antagonist, M871...
May 15, 2018: Brain Research
George Thom, Matthew Burrell, Arsalan S Haqqani, Alvaro Yogi, Etienne Lessard, Eric Brunette, Christie Delaney, Ewa Baumann, Deborah Callaghan, Natalia Rodrigo, Carl I Webster, Danica B Stanimirovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a formidable obstacle for brain delivery of therapeutic antibodies. However, antibodies against the transferrin receptor (TfR), enriched in brain endothelial cells, have been developed as delivery carriers of therapeutic cargoes into the brain via a receptor-mediated transcytosis pathway. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that either a low-affinity or monovalent binding of these antibodies to the TfR improves their release on the abluminal side of the BBB and target engagement in brain parenchyma...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Kai-Siang Chen, Min Xu, Zhe Zhang, Wei-Cheng Chang, Thomas Gaj, David V Schaffer, Yang Dan
Rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep are controlled by specific neuronal circuits. Here we show that galanin-expressing GABAergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) comprise separate subpopulations with opposing effects on REM versus NREM sleep. Microendoscopic calcium imaging revealed diverse sleep-wake activity of DMH GABAergic neurons, but the galanin-expressing subset falls into two distinct groups, either selectively activated (REM-on) or suppressed (REM-off) during REM sleep. Retrogradely labeled, preoptic area (POA)-projecting galaninergic neurons are REM-off, whereas the raphe pallidus (RPA)-projecting neurons are primarily REM-on...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
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