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Galanin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127424/involvement-of-galanin-and-galanin-receptor-1-in-nociceptive-modulation-in-the-central-nucleus-of-amygdala-in-normal-and-neuropathic-rats
#1
Shi-Yang Li, Mei-Ling Huo, Xu-Yang Wu, Yu-Qing Huang, Lei Wang, Xin Zhang, Yan-Mei Jiang, Meng-Lin Zhang, Lin-Lin Wang, Long-Chuan Yu
The present study was performed to explore the role of galanin and galanin receptor 1 (GalR 1) in nociceptive modulation in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) in normal rats and rats with neuropathy, and the involvement of GalR 1 and PKC was also investigated. The hindpaw withdrawal latencies (HWLs) to thermal and mechanical stimulations were increased in a dose-dependent manner after intra-CeA injection of galanin in both normal rats and rats with neuropathy. The increased HWLs were significantly attenuated by intra-CeA injection of galanin receptor antagonist M40, indicating an involvement of galanin receptor in nociceptive modulation in CeA...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123986/expression-of-a-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-during-tumor-growth-leads-to-angiogenesis-via-galanin-activation-in-tumor-bearing-mice
#2
Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Rina Okada, Rika Tanaka, Keiko Unno, Kazuaki Iguchi
Small-cell lung carcinoma releases progalanin. The released progalanin is activated via a nonclassical processing pathway, being processed into an active form of galanin (1-20) by plasmin in extracellular components. Plasmin is produced from plasminogen activators. To clarify the regulation of progalanin via plasminogen activation by urokinase and tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA), we investigated the regulation mechanism for urokinase and t-PA expression and their effect on galanin activation. Additionally, we studied the effect of activated galanin on angiogenesis...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113945/changes-in-the-expression-and-localization-of-signaling-molecules-in-mouse-facial-motor-neurons-during-regeneration-of-facial-nerves
#3
Jeongtae Kim, Shiori Kobayashi, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Akihito Okabe, Changjong Moon, Taekyun Shin, Chitoshi Takayama
After injury, peripheral axons usually re-extend toward their target, and neuronal functions recover. Previous studies have reported that expression of various molecules are transiently altered in motor neurons after nerve injury, but the time course of these changes and their relationship with functional recovery have not been clearly demonstrated. We used the mouse facial nerve transection and suturing model, and examined the changes in expression of five molecules, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), galanin, calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), gephyrin, and potassium chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) in the facial motor neurons after surgery until recovery...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066557/neuromedin-b-expression-defines-the-mouse-retrotrapezoid-nucleus
#4
Yingtang Shi, Ruth L Stornetta, Daniel S Stornetta, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Emily A Farber, Stephen D Turner, Patrice G Guyenet, Douglas A Bayliss
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) consists, by definition, of Phox2b-expressing, glutamatergic, non-catecholaminergic, non-cholinergic neurons located in the parafacial region of the medulla oblongata. An unknown proportion of RTN neurons are central respiratory chemoreceptors and there is mounting evidence for biochemical diversity among these cells. Here, we used multiplexed in situ hybridization and single-cell RNA-Seq in male and female mice to provide a more comprehensive view of the phenotypic diversity of RTN neurons...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987550/implication-of-galanin-gene-rs948854-polymorphism-in-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents
#5
Fernanda da Conceição Machado, Livia Victorino de Souza, Marina Rangel, Zaira Palomino Jara, Maria do Carmo Franco
Genetic, social, and environmental conditions contribute to the development of depression, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. Data accumulated in recent years provide significant evidence for a direct role of galanin (GAL). This study aimed to investigate the relation between SNPs in the galaninergic system and depressive symptoms in adolescents. A total of112 adolescents aged 10-18years participated in this study. The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms...
October 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972567/the-influence-of-resiniferatoxin-rtx-and-tetrodotoxin-ttx-on-the-distribution-relative-frequency-and-chemical-coding-of-noradrenergic-and-cholinergic-nerve-fibers-supplying-the-porcine-urinary-bladder-wall
#6
Ewa Lepiarczyk, Agnieszka Bossowska, Jerzy Kaleczyc, Agnieszka Skowrońska, Marta Majewska, Michal Majewski, Mariusz Majewski
The present study investigated the influence of intravesically instilled resiniferatoxin (RTX) or tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the distribution, number, and chemical coding of noradrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers (NF) supplying the urinary bladder in female pigs. Samples from the bladder wall were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence with antibodies against cholinergic and noradrenergic markers and some other neurotransmitter substances. Both RTX and TTX caused a significant decrease in the number of cholinergic NF in the urinary bladder wall (in the muscle coat, submucosa, and beneath the urothelium)...
October 3, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970724/changes-in-expression-of-inhibitory-substances-in-the-intramural-neurons-of-the-stomach-following-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-the-pig
#7
Michał Bulc, Katarzyna Palus, Łukasz Zielonka, Magdalena Gajęcka, Jarosław Całka
AIM: Influence of chronic hyperglycemia on chemical coding of enteric neurons in stomach using pig as a model for human diabetic complications. METHODS: Ten pigs were divided into two groups: diabetic (D group, n = 5) and control (C group, n = 5). Pigs constituting the experimental group were given streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). Animals were euthanized six weeks after the induction of diabetes. The samples of stomach were collected from animals of both groups. The cryostat sections were processed for double immunofluorescence staining using primary antisera directed towards pan-neuronal marker (Hu C/D) proteins and/or neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and galanin (GAL)...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901800/changes-in-expression-of-neuropeptides-and-their-receptors-in-the-hypothalamus-and-gastrointestinal-tract-of-calorie-restricted-hens
#8
Ádám Simon, János Oláh, István Komlósi, András Jávor, József Németh, Zoltán Szilvássy, Dóra Reglődi, Andrea Tamás, Levente Czeglédi
The list of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides, those are known to alter feed intake, is continuously growing. However, most of them are studied in mammalian species. We aimed to investigate plasma level and mRNA expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), gene expression of its receptor (PAC1), furthermore the gene expression of galanin (GAL), neuromedin U (NMU), and its two receptors (NMUR1 and NMUR2) in the hypothalamus, proventriculus, and jejunum of hens exposed to 40% calorie restriction...
September 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860091/a-quantitative-study-of-neurochemically-defined-populations-of-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-superficial-dorsal-horn-of-the-mouse-spinal-cord
#9
Kieran A Boyle, Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Erika Polgár, Nicole Mooney, Emily O'Connor, Takahiro Furuta, Masahiko Watanabe, Andrew J Todd
Around a quarter of neurons in laminae I-II of the dorsal horn are inhibitory interneurons. These play an important role in modulating somatosensory information, including that perceived as pain or itch. Previous studies in rat identified four largely non-overlapping neurochemical populations among these cells, defined by expression of galanin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) or parvalbumin. The galanin cells were subsequently shown to coexpress dynorphin. Several recent studies have used genetically modified mice to investigate the function of different interneuron populations, and it is therefore important to determine whether the same pattern applies in mouse, and to estimate the relative sizes of these populations...
November 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852050/neurotransmitters-and-neuropeptides-in-gonadal-steroid-receptor-expressing-cells-in-medial-preoptic-area-subregions-of-the-male-mouse
#10
Yousuke Tsuneoka, Sachine Yoshida, Kenkichi Takase, Satoko Oda, Masaru Kuroda, Hiromasa Funato
Testosterone is involved in male sexual, parental and aggressive behaviors through the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) α expressed in the brain. Although several studies have demonstrated that ERα and AR in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) are required for exhibiting sexual and aggressive behaviors of male mice, the molecular characteristics of ERα- and AR-expressing cells in the mouse MPOA are largely unknown. Here, we performed in situ hybridization for neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, combined with immunohistochemistry for ERα and AR to quantitate and characterize gonadal steroid receptor-expressing cells in the MPOA subregions of male mice...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844939/lack-of-galanin-receptor-3-alleviates-psoriasis-by-altering-vascularization-immune-cell-infiltration-and-cytokine-expression
#11
Felix Locker, Silvia Vidali, Barbara S Holub, Julia Stockinger, Susanne M Brunner, Sabine Ebner, Andreas Koller, Andrea Trost, Herbert A Reitsamer, David Schwarzenbacher, Roland Lang, Barbara Kofler
The neuropeptide galanin is distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in non-neuronal peripheral organs, including the skin. Galanin acts via three G protein-coupled receptors which, except galanin receptor 1, are expressed in various skin structures. The galanin system has been associated with inflammatory processes of the skin and of several other organs. Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease with increased neo-vascularization, keratinocyte hyperproliferation, a pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu, and immune cell infiltration...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811392/role-of-sympathetic-cotransmitter-galanin-on-autonomic-balance-in-heart-failure-an-active-player-or-a-bystander
#12
Demet Özkaramanlı Gür, Miray Sağbaş, Aydın Akyüz, Savaş Güzel, Şeref Alpsoy, Niyazi Güler
OBJECTIVE: Galanin, a cotransmitter similar to neuropeptide Y (NPY), aggravates autonomic imbalance in systolic heart failure (HF) by attenuating vagal tonus after burst sympathetic activity. In animal HF models, galanin antagonists have improved cardiac function. To determine whether galanin is a promising therapeutic target in HF, we studied its concentrations in HF patients and evaluated its correlation with NPY, markers of humoral activity such as pro-BNP and copeptin, and echocardiographic parameters of HF severity...
October 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805559/effect-of-stress-on-the-expression-of-galanin-receptors-in-rat-heart
#13
J Šípková, P Šída, N Kaspříková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
Neuropeptide galanin, galanin-like peptide and galanin receptors 1, 2 and 3 are a crucial part of the so-called galaninergic system. Our previous studies have shown the possible role of this system in mood modulation, especially regarding stress. So far, the galanin receptors have been found in different tissues including brain and heart. Our study deals with changes in expression of galanin receptor subtypes in the heart of Wistar rats exposed to three different types of stress. Galanin receptor subtypes were determined in fluorescently labelled samples using specific primary antibodies, and all sections were analysed in an immunofluorescent microscope and microphotographs...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796366/adrenomedullin-and-galanin-responses-to-orthostasis-in-older-persons
#14
James Broadbent, Johannes Reichmuth, Irhad Trozic, Markus Kneihsl, Andreas Rössler, David A Green, Joel Rodriguez, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Franz Fazekas, Nandu Goswami
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine responses to orthostasis may be critical in the maintenance of mean arterial pressure in healthy individuals. A greater reduction in orthostatic tolerance with age may relate to modulation of hormonal responses such as adrenomedullin and galanin. Thus, we investigated (i) whether adrenomedullin and galanin concentrations increase during orthostatic challenge in older subjects, (ii) whether adrenomedullin and galanin concentrations are higher in older females compared with older males when seated and during orthostatic challenge, and (iii) whether postural changes in plasma concentrations of galanin are correlated with levels of adrenomedullin in either older females or males...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780227/insights-into-the-immune-manipulation-mechanisms-of-pollen-allergens-by-protein-domain-profiling
#15
Seema Patel, Aruna Rani, Arun Goyal
Plant pollens are airborne allergens, as their inhalation causes immune activation, leading to rhinitis, conjunctivitis, sinusitis and oral allergy syndrome. A myriad of pollen proteins belonging to profilin, expansin, polygalacturonase, glucan endoglucosidase, pectin esterase, and lipid transfer protein class have been identified. In the present in silico study, the protein domains of fifteen pollen sequences were extracted from the UniProt database and submitted to the interactive web tool SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool), for finding the protein domain profiles...
July 29, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762133/origins-and-neurochemical-characteristics-of-porcine-intervertebral-disc-sympathetic-innervation-a-preliminary-report
#16
Monika Barczewska, Judyta Juranek, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
Intervertebral disc diseases (IVDDs) form a group of a vertebral column disorders affecting a large number of people worldwide. It is estimated that approximately 30% of individuals at the age of 35 and approximately 90% of individuals at the age of 60 and above will have some form of disc-affecting pathological changes leading to disc herniation, prolapse and degeneration as well as discogenic pain. Here, we aimed to establish the origins and neurochemical characteristics of porcine intervertebral disc sympathetic innervation involved in pain signalling in IVDD patients...
September 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730831/the-galanin-and-galanin-receptor-subtypes-its-regulatory-role-in-the-biological-and-pathological-functions
#17
J Šípková, I Kramáriková, S Hynie, V Klenerová
The multitalented neuropeptide galanin was first discovered 30 years ago but initially no biologic activity was found. Further research studies discovered the presence of galanin in the brain and some peripheral tissues, and galanin was identified as a modulator of neurotransmission in the central and peripheral nervous system. Over the last decade there were performed very intensive studies of the neuronal actions and also of nonneuronal actions of galanin. Other galanin family peptides have been described, namely galanin, galanin-like peptide, galanin-message associated peptide and alarin...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729853/role-of-melatonin-galanin-and-rfamide-neuropeptides-qrfp26-and-qrfp43-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#18
REVIEW
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Dana Banfi, Giacomo Gamba, Riccarda Granata
Glucose homeostasis is finely regulated by a number of hormones and peptides released mainly from the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and muscle, regulating pancreatic secretion through cellular receptors and their signal transduction cascades. The endocrine function of the pancreas is controlled by islets within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that release hormones like insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and ghrelin. Moreover, both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions are regulated by a variety of hormonal and neural mechanisms, such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, or the inhibitory peptide somatostatin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725181/impact-of-proestrus-on-gene-expression-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-mice
#19
Csaba Vastagh, Zsolt Liposits
The antero-ventral periventricular zone (AVPV) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) have been recognized as gonadal hormone receptive regions of the rodent brain that-via wiring to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons-contribute to orchestration of the preovulatory GnRH surge. We hypothesized that neural genes regulating the induction of GnRH surge show altered expression in proestrus. Therefore, we compared the expression of 48 genes obtained from intact proestrous and metestrous mice, respectively, by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720509/the-neuropeptide-galanin-promotes-an-anti-thrombotic-phenotype-on-endocardial-endothelial-cells-from-heart-failure-patients
#20
Christina Tyrrell, Amanda Toyooka, Faiza Khan, Kent L Thornburg, James O Mudd, Wohaib Hasan
Thromboembolic complications are a significant cause of mortality and re-hospitalization in heart failure (HF) patients. One source of thrombi is the ventricular endocardial surface that becomes increasingly pro-thrombotic as HF progresses. Anticoagulation comes with bleeding risks so identifying therapeutic agents for improving cardiac endothelial health are of critical clinical importance. Endocardial endothelial cells are closely apposed to cardiac sympathetic nerves. In HF, cardiac sympathetic nerves are dysregulated and promote disease progression...
September 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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