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Timothy Alexander Hore, Ferdinand von Meyenn, Mirunalini Ravichandran, Martin Bachman, Gabriella Ficz, David Oxley, Fátima Santos, Shankar Balasubramanian, Tomasz P Jurkowski, Wolf Reik
Epigenetic memory, in particular DNA methylation, is established during development in differentiating cells and must be erased to create naïve (induced) pluripotent stem cells. The ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes can catalyze the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and further oxidized derivatives, thereby actively removing this memory. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the TET enzymes are regulated, and the extent to which they can be manipulated, are poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hesbon Z Amenya, Chiharu Tohyama, Seiichiroh Ohsako
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a highly conserved nuclear receptor that plays an important role in the manifestation of toxicity induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. As a xenobiotic sensor, Ahr is involved in chemical biotransformation through activation of drug metabolizing enzymes. The activated Ahr cooperates with coactivator complexes to induce epigenetic modifications at target genes. Thus, it is conceivable that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent Ahr ligand, may elicit robust epigenetic changes in vivo at the Ahr target gene cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1)...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Björn Tampe, Ulrike Steinle, Désirée Tampe, Julienne L Carstens, Peter Korsten, Elisabeth M Zeisberg, Gerhard A Müller, Raghu Kalluri, Michael Zeisberg
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) are intrinsically tied syndromes. In this regard, the acutely injured kidney often does not achieve its full regenerative capacity and AKI directly transitions into progressive CKD associated with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Underlying mechanisms of such AKI-to-CKD progression are still incompletely understood and specific therapeutic interventions are still elusive. Because epigenetic modifications play a role in maintaining tissue fibrosis, we used a murine model of ischemia-reperfusion injury to determine whether aberrant promoter methylation of RASAL1 contributes causally to the switch between physiological regeneration and tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis, a hallmark of AKI-to-CKD progression...
September 27, 2016: Kidney International
Jie Zhao, Xin-Long Ma, Jian-Xiong Ma, Lei Sun, Bin Lu, Ying Wang, Guo-Sheng Xing, Yan Wang, Ben-Chao Dong, Li-Yan Xu, Ming-Jie Kuang, Lin Fu, Hao-Hao Bai, Yue Ma, Wei-Lin Jin
Steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) is one of the common complications of clinical glucocorticoid (GC) administration, with osteocyte apoptosis appearing as the primary histopathological lesion. However, the precise mechanism underlying SAON remains unknown. Epigenetic modification may be a major cause of SAON. Recently, cumulative research revealed that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins can catalyze the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and then alter the epigenetic state of DNA...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Elisabetta Valentini, Michele Zampieri, Marco Malavolta, Maria Giulia Bacalini, Roberta Calabrese, Tiziana Guastafierro, Anna Reale, Claudio Franceschi, Antti Hervonen, Bernhard Koller, Jürgen Bernhardt, P Eline Slagboom, Olivier Toussaint, Ewa Sikora, Efstathios S Gonos, Nicolle Breusing, Tilman Grune, Eugène Jansen, Martijn E T Dollé, María Moreno-Villanueva, Thilo Sindlinger, Alexander Bürkle, Fabio Ciccarone, Paola Caiafa
Gradual changes in the DNA methylation landscape occur throughout aging virtually in all human tissues. A widespread reduction of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), associated with highly reproducible site-specific hypermethylation, characterizes the genome in aging. Therefore, an equilibrium seems to exist between general and directional deregulating events concerning DNA methylation controllers, which may underpin the age-related epigenetic changes. In this context, 5mC-hydroxylases (TET enzymes) are new potential players...
August 29, 2016: Aging
Huihui Jiang, Xiaohui Lv, Xuepei Lei, Ying Yang, Xin Yang, Jianwei Jiao
MCPIP1 is a recently identified immune regulator that plays critical roles in preventing immune disorders, and is also present in the brain. Currently an unresolved question remains as to how MCPIP1 performs its non-immune functions in normal brain development. Here, we report that MCPIP1 is abundant in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and newborn neurons during the early stages of neurogenesis. The suppression of MCPIP1 expression impairs normal neuronal differentiation, cell-cycle exit, and concomitant NPC proliferation...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Shengjie Xue, Chang Liu, Xiujie Sun, Weiyun Li, Chi Zhang, Xin Zhou, Yao Lu, Jun Xiao, Chunyang Li, Xiaoyan Xu, Bing Sun, Guoliang Xu, Hongyan Wang
Type I interferons (IFNs) play both beneficial and harmful roles in antiviral responses. Precise regulation of host type I IFNs is thus needed to prevent immune dysregulation. Here, we find that the DNA demethylase TET3 is a negative regulator of IFN-β in response to poly(I:C) stimulation or viral infection. Deletion of TET3 enhances antiviral responses, with elevated expression of IFN-β and IFN-stimulated genes. The catalytic domain of TET3 was critical for the suppression of IFN-β production, but TET3 enzymatic activity was dispensable...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
Chao Yang, Zhuo Li, Wei Kang, Yu Tian, Yuzhu Yan, Wei Chen
It has been considered that epigenetic modulation can affect a diverse array of cellular activities, in which ten eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenase family members refer to a group of fundamental components involved in catalyzation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and modification of gene expression. Even though the function of TET proteins has been gradually revealed, their roles in immune regulation are still largely unknown. Recent studies provided clues that TET2 could regulate several innate immune-related inflammatory mediators in mammals...
October 10, 2016: Gene
Yinshan Bai, Meiying Feng, Shanshan Liu, Hengxi Wei, Li Li, Xianwei Zhang, Chao Shen, Shouquan Zhang, Ningfang Ma
Mouse spermatogonial stem cells (mSSCs) may be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells under in vitro culture conditions, due to epigenetic modifications, which are closely associated with the expression of transcription factors and epigenetic factors. Thus, this study was conducted to compare the gene expression of transcription factors and epigenetic factors in mSSCs and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Firstly, the freshly isolated mSSCs [mSSCs (f)] were enriched by magnetic-activated cell sorting with Thy1...
August 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Madhavi Pusalkar, Shreya Ghosh, Minal Jaggar, Basma Fatima Anwar Husain, Sanjeev Galande, Vidita A Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive seizure treatment is a fast-acting antidepressant therapy that evokes rapid transcriptional, neurogenic, and behavioral changes. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to altered gene regulation, which underlies the neurogenic and behavioral effects of electroconvulsive seizure. We hypothesized that electroconvulsive seizure may modulate the expression of epigenetic machinery, thus establishing potential alterations in the epigenetic landscape. METHODS: We examined the influence of acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizure on the gene expression of histone modifiers, namely histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and histone (lysine) demethylases as well as DNA modifying enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, DNA demethylases, and methyl-CpG-binding proteins in the hippocampi of adult male Wistar rats using quantitative real time-PCR analysis...
May 17, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Seodhna M Lynch, Karla M O'Neill, Michael M McKenna, Colum P Walsh, Declan J McKenna
BACKGROUND: In prostate cancer (PCa), abnormal expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs) has been previously reported. Increasing evidence shows that aberrant epigenetic regulation of miRNAs is a contributing factor to their altered expression in cancer. In this study, we investigate whether expression of miR-200c and miR-141 in PCa is related to the DNA methylation status of their promoter. METHODS: PCR analysis of miR-200c and miR-141, and CpG methylation analysis of their common promoter, was performed in PCa cell-lines and in archived prostate biopsy specimens...
September 2016: Prostate
Zhongxue Ye, Jie Li, Xi Han, Huilian Hou, He Chen, Xia Zheng, Jiaojiao Lu, Lijie Wang, Wei Chen, Xu Li, Le Zhao
BACKGROUND: Abnormal DNA methylation/demethylation is recognized as a hallmark of cancer. TET (ten-eleven translocation) family members are novel DNA demethylation related proteins that dysregulate in multiple malignances. However, their effects on ovarian cancer remain to be elucidated. METHODS: The changes of TET family members during TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SKOV3 and 3AO ovarian cancer cells were detected. TET3 was ectopically expressed in TGF-β1-treated ovarian cancer cells to examine its effect on TGF-β1-induced EMT phenotype...
2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Kai Ni, Temuujin Dansranjavin, Nina Rogenhofer, Nihan Oeztuerk, Johanna Deuker, Martin Bergmann, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Florian Wagenlehner, Wolfgang Weidner, Klaus Steger, Undraga Schagdarsurengin
STUDY QUESTION: Are ten-eleven-translocation (TET) 1-3 family enzymes involved in human spermatogenesis and do they impact male fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: TET1, TET2 and TET3 are successively expressed at different stages of human spermatogenesis, and their expression levels associate with male fertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Spermatogenesis is a complex cell differentiation process accompanied by a drastic epigenetic remodeling. TET1-3 dioxygenases are essential for active DNA demethylation in the paternal pronucleus and in embryonic stem cells...
July 2016: Human Reproduction
Jie Gao, Yue Ma, Hua-Lin Fu, Qian Luo, Zhen Wang, Yu-Huan Xiao, Hao Yang, Da-Xiang Cui, Wei-Lin Jin
The methylcytosine dioxygenases TET proteins (TET1, TET2, and TET3) play important regulatory roles in neural function. In this study, we investigated the role of TET proteins in neuronal differentiation using Neuro2a cells as a model. We observed that knockdown of TET1, TET2 or TET3 promoted neuronal differentiation of Neuro2a cells, and their overexpression inhibited VPA (valproic acid)-induced neuronal differentiation, suggesting all three TET proteins negatively regulate neuronal differentiation of Neuro2a cells...
May 2016: Protein & Cell
Shari Orlanski, Verena Labi, Yitzhak Reizel, Adam Spiro, Michal Lichtenstein, Rena Levin-Klein, Sergei B Koralov, Yael Skversky, Klaus Rajewsky, Howard Cedar, Yehudit Bergman
There is ample evidence that somatic cell differentiation during development is accompanied by extensive DNA demethylation of specific sites that vary between cell types. Although the mechanism of this process has not yet been elucidated, it is likely to involve the conversion of 5mC to 5hmC by Tet enzymes. We show that a Tet2/Tet3 conditional knockout at early stages of B-cell development largely prevents lineage-specific programmed demethylation events. This lack of demethylation affects the expression of nearby B-cell lineage genes by impairing enhancer activity, thus causing defects in B-cell differentiation and function...
May 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xuejiao Shi, Yue Yu, Mei Luo, Zhirong Zhang, Susheng Shi, Xiaoli Feng, Zhaoli Chen, Jie He
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine, which result in genomic DNA demethylation. It was reported that 5-hmC levels were decreased in a variety of cancers and could be regarded as an epigenetic hallmark of cancer. In the present study, 5-hmC levels were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 173 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and 91 corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues; DNA dot blot assays were used to detect the 5-hmC level in another 50 pairs of ESCC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues...
2016: PloS One
Yilin Tang, Sha Han, Tetsuya Asakawa, Yunhe Luo, Xiang Han, Baoguo Xiao, Qiang Dong, Liang Wang
The past decade has resulted in an increase in the knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying brain injury induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recent advances have provided a link between epigenetic modification and the regulation of gene expression. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) converted from 5-methylcytosine by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of proteins has emerged as a new epigenetic modification. While the dynamics of 5hmC during cerebral ischemia have recently been reported, whether 5hmC is involved in ICH remains unexplored...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ming Zhao, Jing Wang, Wei Liao, Duo Li, Mengying Li, Haijing Wu, Yiqun Zhang, M Eric Gershwin, Qianjin Lu
One of the major disappointments in autoimmunity has been the relative lack of informative data when genomewide associations (GWAS) have been applied to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Indeed, there is increasing evidence that SLE is characterized by widespread epigenetic changes. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is a newly discovered modified form of cytosine suspected to be an important epigenetic modification in embryonic development, cell differentiation and cancer. DNA methylation dynamics have already been implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE, while little is known about hydroxymethylation in this process...
May 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
Zhen-Dong Wang, Lian Duan, Zi-Hui Zhang, Si-Hang Song, Guang-Yu Bai, Na Zhang, Xing-Hui Shen, Jing-Ling Shen, Lei Lei
Methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBPs) connect DNA methylation and histone modification, which are the key changes of somatic cell reprogramming. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) was the first discovered MBP that has been extensively studied in the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome. However, a role for MeCP2 during cellular reprogramming associated with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has not been examined. In this study, we discovered that MeCP2 expression was significantly lower in embryos generated by SCNT compared with those generated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)...
April 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
Zhiqiang Pan, Ming Zhang, Tao Ma, Zhou-Ya Xue, Guo-Fang Li, Ling-Yun Hao, Li-Jiao Zhu, Yan-Qiang Li, Hai-Lei Ding, Jun-Li Cao
UNLABELLED: DNA 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC) catalyzed by ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) occurs abundantly in neurons of mammals. However, the in vivo causal link between TET dysregulation and nociceptive modulation has not been established. Here, we found that spinal TET1 and TET3 were significantly increased in the model of formalin-induced acute inflammatory pain, which was accompanied with the augment of genome-wide 5hmC content in spinal cord. Knockdown of spinal TET1 or TET3 alleviated the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior and overexpression of spinal TET1 or TET3 in naive mice produced pain-like behavior as evidenced by decreased thermal pain threshold...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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