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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779262/-salivary-exrna-biomarkers-to-detect-gingivitis-and-monitor-disease-regression
#1
Karolina Elżbieta Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Harsh M Trivedi, Patricia O Lima, Paulo M Camargo, William V Giannobile, Tristan R Grogan, Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Yair Whiteman, Feng Li, Hyo Jung Lee, Karan Dharia, Katri Aro, Carmen Martin Carerras-Presas, Saarah Amuthan, Manjiri Vartak, David Akin, Hiba Al-Adbullah, Kanika Bembey, Perry R Klokkevold, David Elashoff, Virginia Monsul Barnes, Rose Richter, William DeVizio, James G Masters, David Wong
AIM: This study tests the hypothesis that salivary extracellular RNA (exRNA) biomarkers can be developed for gingivitis detection and monitoring disease regression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Salivary exRNA biomarker candidates were developed from a total of 100 gingivitis and non-gingivitis individuals using Affymetrix's expression microarrays. The top ten differentially expressed exRNAs were tested in a clinical cohort to determine if the discovered salivary exRNA markers for gingivitis were associated with clinical gingivitis and disease regression...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768411/cytoskeleton-structure-and-total-methylation-of-mouse-cardiac-and-lung-tissue-during-space-flight
#2
Irina V Ogneva, Sergey S Loktev, Vladimir N Sychev
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression levels of multiple cytoskeletal proteins in the cardiac and lung tissue of mice that were euthanized onboard the United States Orbital Segment of the International Space Station 37 days after the start of the SpaceX-4 mission (September 2014, USA). The results showed no changes in the cytoskeletal protein content in the cardiac and lung tissue of the mice, but there were significant changes in the mRNA expression levels of the associated genes, which may be due to an increase in total genome methylation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732371/hippocampal-tet1-and-tet2-expression-and-dna-hydroxymethylation-are-affected-by-physical-exercise-in-aged-mice
#3
Peter Jessop, Maria Toledo-Rodriguez
The function of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is poorly understood. 5hmC is an epigenetic modification of DNA, resulting from the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by the Fe2+ , and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent, 10-11 translocation methylcytosine dioxygenases (TET1, TET2, and TET3). Recent evidence suggests that, in addition to being an intermediate in active demethylation, 5hmC may also have an epigenetic role. 5hmC is enriched in the adult brain, where it has been implicated in regulating neurogenesis. The rate of adult neurogenesis decreases with age, however physical exercise has been shown to counteract this deficit...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666467/ascorbic-acid-induces-global-epigenetic-reprogramming-to-promote-meiotic-maturation-and-developmental-competence-of-porcine-oocytes
#4
Xiao-Xia Yu, Yun-Hua Liu, Xiao-Man Liu, Pei-Chao Wang, Shuai Liu, Jia-Kun Miao, Zhi-Qiang Du, Cai-Xia Yang
L-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) can enhance the meiotic maturation and developmental competence of porcine oocytes, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here we show the role of ascorbic acid in regulating epigenetic status of both nucleic acids and chromatin to promote oocyte maturation and development in pigs. Supplementation of 250 μM L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium salt hydrate (AA2P) during in vitro maturation significantly enhanced the nuclear maturation (as indicated by higher rate of first polar body extrusion and increased Bmp15 mRNA level), reduced level of reactive oxygen species, and promoted developmental potency (higher cleavage and blastocyst rates of parthenotes, and decreased Bax and Caspase3 mRNA levels in blastocysts) of pig oocytes...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582271/reduced-hydroxymethylation-characterizes-medulloblastoma-while-tet-and-idh-genes-are-differentially-expressed-within-molecular-subgroups
#5
Karina Bezerra Salomão, Gustavo Alencastro Veiga Cruzeiro, Ricardo Bonfim-Silva, Lenisa Geron, Fernando Ramalho, Fabiano Pinto Saggioro, Luciano Neder Serafini, Daniel Antunes Moreno, Rosane Gomes de Paula Queiroz, Simone Dos Santos Aguiar, Izilda Cardinalli, José Andres Yunes, Silvia Regina Brandalise, Maria Sol Brassesco, Carlos Alberto Scrideli, Luiz Gonzaga Tone
INTRODUCTION: Medulloblastoma (MB) is an embryonal tumour that originates from genetic deregulation of cerebellar developmental pathways and is classified into 4 molecular subgroups: SHH, WNT, group 3, and group 4. Hydroxymethylation levels progressively increases during cerebellum development suggesting a possibility of deregulation in MB pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate global hydroxymethylation levels and changes in TET and IDH gene expression in MB samples compared to control cerebellum samples...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556496/tet-enzymes-variants-and-differential-effects-on-function
#6
REVIEW
Philippa Melamed, Yahav Yosefzon, Cfir David, Anna Tsukerman, Lilach Pnueli
Discovery of the ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenase family of enzymes, nearly 10 years ago, heralded a major breakthrough in understanding the epigenetic modifications of DNA. Initially described as catalyzing the oxidation of methyl cytosine (5mC) to hydroxymethyl cytosine (5hmC), it is now clear that these enzymes can also catalyze additional reactions leading to active DNA demethylation. The association of TET enzymes, as well as the 5hmC, with active regulatory regions of the genome has been studied extensively in embryonic stem cells, although these enzymes are expressed widely also in differentiated tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508854/transcriptional-activation-of-transposable-elements-in-mouse-zygotes-is-independent-of-tet3-mediated-5-methylcytosine-oxidation
#7
Azusa Inoue, Shogo Matoba, Yi Zhang
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/cr.2012.160.
February 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422991/preeclampsia-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-of-igf-1-promoter-mediated-by-dnmt1
#8
Min Ma, Qiong-Jie Zhou, Yu Xiong, Bin Li, Xiao-Tian Li
Previous studies have demonstrated a dynamic epigenetic regulation of genes expression in placenta trophoblasts and a dynamic imbalance of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. Reduced IGF-1 has been observed in preeclampsia. This study was to investigate the interactive roles between IGF-1 and the global DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation, and the status of DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation and associated enzymes such as DNMTs and TETs in peeeclamptic placentas and hypoxic trophoblasts. It was found that IGF-1 was decreased in preeclamptic placentas and hypoxic trophoblasts when compared to the control group using immunohistochemisty, western blot, qRT-PCR and ELISA...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374200/interplay-between-tets-and-micrornas-in-the-adult-brain-for-memory-formation
#9
Eloïse A Kremer, Niharika Gaur, Melissa A Lee, Olivia Engmann, Johannes Bohacek, Isabelle M Mansuy
5-hydroxymethylation (5-hmC) is an epigenetic modification on DNA that results from the conversion of 5-methylcytosine by Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins. 5-hmC is widely present in the brain and is subjected to dynamic regulation during development and upon neuronal activity. It was recently shown to be involved in memory processes but currently, little is known about how it is controlled in the brain during memory formation. Here, we show that Tet3 is selectively up-regulated by activity in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and after formation of fear memory in the hippocampus...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339137/oxygen-induced-alterations-in-the-expression-of-chromatin-modifying-enzymes-and-the-transcriptional-regulation-of-imprinted-genes
#10
William M Skiles, Avery Kester, Jane H Pryor, Mark E Westhusin, Michael C Golding, Charles R Long
Embryo culture and assisted reproductive technologies have been associated with a disproportionately high number of epigenetic abnormalities in the resulting offspring. However, the mechanisms by which these techniques influence the epigenome remain poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of oxygen concentration to influence the transcriptional control of a selection of key enzymes regulating chromatin structure. In mouse embryonic stem cells, oxygen concentrations modulated the transcriptional regulation of the TET family of enzymes, as well as the de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3a...
June 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296817/runx1-regulates-site-specificity-of-dna-demethylation-by-recruitment-of-dna-demethylation-machineries-in-hematopoietic-cells
#11
Takahiro Suzuki, Yuri Shimizu, Erina Furuhata, Shiori Maeda, Mami Kishima, Hajime Nishimura, Saaya Enomoto, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Harukazu Suzuki
RUNX1 is an essential master transcription factor in hematopoietic development and plays important roles in immune functions. Although the gene regulatory mechanism of RUNX1 has been characterized extensively, the epigenetic role of RUNX1 remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RUNX1 contributes DNA demethylation in a binding site-directed manner in human hematopoietic cells. Overexpression analysis of RUNX1 showed the RUNX1-binding site-directed DNA demethylation. The RUNX1-mediated DNA demethylation was also observed in DNA replication-arrested cells, suggesting an involvement of active demethylation mechanism...
September 12, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203910/tet-proteins-safeguard-bivalent-promoters-from-de-novo-methylation-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#12
Nipun Verma, Heng Pan, Louis C Doré, Abhijit Shukla, Qing V Li, Bobbie Pelham-Webb, Virginia Teijeiro, Federico González, Andrei Krivtsov, Chan-Jung Chang, Eirini P Papapetrou, Chuan He, Olivier Elemento, Danwei Huangfu
TET enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which can lead to DNA demethylation. However, direct connections between TET-mediated DNA demethylation and transcriptional output are difficult to establish owing to challenges in distinguishing global versus locus-specific effects. Here we show that TET1, TET2 and TET3 triple-knockout (TKO) human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) exhibit prominent bivalent promoter hypermethylation without an overall corresponding decrease in gene expression in the undifferentiated state...
January 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190698/profiles-of-a-broad-spectrum-of-epigenetic-dna-modifications-in-normal-and-malignant-human-cell-lines-proliferation-rate-is-not-the-major-factor-responsible-for-the-5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxycytidine-level-in-cultured-cancerous-cell-lines
#13
Marek Foksinski, Ewelina Zarakowska, Daniel Gackowski, Magdalena Skonieczna, Karolina Gajda, Dorota Hudy, Anna Szpila, Karol Bialkowski, Marta Starczak, Anna Labejszo, Jaroslaw Czyz, Joanna Rzeszowska-Wolny, Ryszard Olinski
Active demethylation of 5-methylcytosine moiety in DNA occurs by its sequential oxidation to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine, catalysed by enzymes of the Ten-Eleven Translocation family proteins (TETs 1, 2 and 3). Here we analyzed for the first time all the intermediate products of DNA demethylation pathway in the form of deoxynucleosides (5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine and 5-carboxy-2'-deoxycytidine as well as 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine) using automated isotope-dilution online two-dimensional ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186571/oxygen-gradients-can-determine-epigenetic-asymmetry-and-cellular-differentiation-via-differential-regulation-of-tet-activity-in-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Simon Burr, Anna Caldwell, Mei Chong, Matteo Beretta, Stephen Metcalf, Matthew Hancock, Matthew Arno, Sucharitha Balu, Valeria Leon Kropf, Rajesh K Mistry, Ajay M Shah, Giovanni E Mann, Alison C Brewer
Graded levels of molecular oxygen (O2) exist within developing mammalian embryos and can differentially regulate cellular specification pathways. During differentiation, cells acquire distinct epigenetic landscapes, which determine their function, however the mechanisms which regulate this are poorly understood. The demethylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is achieved via successive oxidation reactions catalysed by the Ten-Eleven-Translocation (Tet) enzymes, yielding the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) intermediate...
February 16, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158485/cytoplasmic-cleavage-of-dppa3-is-required-for-intracellular-trafficking-and-cleavage-stage-development-in-mice
#15
Seung-Wook Shin, Edgar John Vogt, Maria Jimenez-Movilla, Boris Baibakov, Jurrien Dean
Degradation of maternal proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) accompanies the maternal-to-zygotic transition. DPPA3/Stella/PGC7, encoded by a maternal effect gene, is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of zygotes and has been associated with protecting the female pronucleus from TET3-mediated demethylation. We now report that cytoplasmic DPPA3 is partially cleaved by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and an N-terminus fragment remains in the cytoplasm where it associates with early and re-cycling endosomes...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121184/barrel-cortical-neuron-integrates-triple-associated-signals-for-their-memory-through-receiving-epigenetic-mediated-new-synapse-innervations
#16
Jing Feng, Wei Lu, Dangui Wang, Ke Ma, Zhenhua Song, Na Chen, Yan Sun, Kaixin Du, Mengmeng Shen, Shan Cui, Jin-Hui Wang
Associative learning is common way for information acquisition. Associative memory is essential to logical reasoning and associative thinking. The storages of multiple associated signals in individual neurons facilitate their integration, expand memory volume, and strengthen cognition ability. Associative memory cells that encode multiple signals have been reported, however, the mechanisms underlying their recruitment and working principle remain to be addressed. We have examined the recruitment of associative memory cells that integrate and store triple sensory signals as well as the potential mechanism of their recruitment...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109788/decrease-in-lymphoid-specific-helicase-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-is-associated-with-metastasis-and-genome-instability
#17
Jiantao Jia, Ying Shi, Ling Chen, Weiwei Lai, Bin Yan, Yiqun Jiang, Desheng Xiao, Sichuan Xi, Ya Cao, Shuang Liu, Yan Cheng, Yongguang Tao
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification as a hallmark in cancer. Conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes plays an important biological role in embryonic stem cells, development, aging and disease. Lymphoid specific helicase (LSH), a chromatin remodeling factor, is regarded as a reader of 5-hmC. Recent reports show that the level of 5-hmC is altered in various types of cancers. However, the change in 5-hmC levels in cancer and associated metastasis is not well defined...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108636/dynamic-expression-of-tet1-tet2-and-tet3-dioxygenases-in-mouse-and-human-placentas-throughout-gestation
#18
Joanna Rakoczy, Nisha Padmanabhan, Ada M Krzak, Jens Kieckbusch, Tereza Cindrova-Davies, Erica D Watson
INTRODUCTION: Throughout pregnancy, the placenta dynamically changes as trophoblast progenitors differentiate into mature trophoblast cell subtypes. This process is in part controlled by epigenetic regulation of DNA methylation leading to the inactivation of 'progenitor cell' genes and the activation of 'differentiation' genes. TET methylcytosine dioxygenases convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) during DNA demethylation events. Here, we determine the spatiotemporal expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 in specific trophoblast cell populations of mouse and human placentas throughout gestation, and consider their role in trophoblast cell differentiation and function...
November 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106571/retrieval-induced-upregulation-of-tet3-in-pyramidal-neurons-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-mediates-cocaine-associated-memory-reconsolidation
#19
Cao Liu, Xue Sun, Zhilin Wang, Qiumin Le, Peipei Liu, Changyou Jiang, Feifei Wang, Lan Ma
Background: Memory retrieval refers to reexposure to information previously encoded and stored in the brain. Following retrieval, a once-consolidated memory destabilizes and undergoes reconsolidation, during which gene expression changes to restabilize memory. Investigating epigenetic regulation during reconsolidation could provide insights into normal memory formation and pathological memory associated with psychiatric disorders. Methods: We used cocaine-induced conditioned place preference to assess the cocaine-associated memory of mice and used chemogenetic methods to manipulate the activity of the pyramidal neurons in the dorsal hippocampus...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048538/improvement-of-foxp3-stability-through-cns2-demethylation-by-tet-enzyme-induction-and-activation
#20
Kazue Someya, Hiroko Nakatsukasa, Minako Ito, Taisuke Kondo, Kenn-Ichi Tateda, Takashi Akanuma, Ikuko Koya, Tsukasa Sanosaka, Jun Kohyama, Yu-Ichi Tsukada, Takeji Takamura-Enya, Akihiko Yoshimura
Since induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) can be produced in a large quantity in vitro, these cells are expected to be clinically useful to induce immunological tolerance in various immunological diseases. Foxp3 (Forkhead box P3) expression in iTregs is, however, unstable due to the lack of demethylation of the CpG island in the conserved non-coding sequence 2 (CNS2) of the Foxp3 locus. To facilitate the demethylation of CNS2, we over-expressed the catalytic domain (CD) of the ten-eleven translocation (TET) protein, which catalyzes the steps of the iterative demethylation of 5-methylcytosine...
August 1, 2017: International Immunology
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